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Über dieses Buch

The proceedings of the 2nd International Congress on Energy Efficiency and Energy Related Materials include 73 peer-reviewed technical papers, submitted by leading academic and research institutions from over 20 countries and representing some of the most cutting-edge research available. The 73 papers are grouped into the following sections:

- General Issues

- Wind Energy

- Solar Energy

- Nuclear Energy

- Biofuels and Bioenergy

- Fossil Energy

- Hydropower

- Energy Storage, Conservation and Efficiency

- Environmental Issues

- Carbon Capture and Storage

- Bio-Assessment and Toxicology

- Air Pollution from Mobile and Stationary Sources

- Transport of Air Pollutants

- Environmentally Friendly Construction and Development

- Energy Management Systems

- Materials for Sustainable Energy

- Materials for Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion

- Fuel Cells

- Hydrogen Storage

- Photovoltaics and Solar Cells

- Hydrogen Production and Fuel Generation from Renewables (Catalysis)

- Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Conversion

- Energy-Saving Materials

- Thermoelectrics

- Saving Energy in Buildings

- Modeling and Theoretical Aspects in Energy-Related Materials

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Erratum to: Tensile and Torsional Loads Stress Distribution Along the Drill String for Deep Wells

Lallia Belkacem, Noureddine Abdelbaki, Mohamed Gaceb, Elahmoun Bouali, Hedjaj Ahmed, Mourad Bettayeb

General Issues

Frontmatter

Reliability Importance Measures of Components for Stand-Alone Hybrid Renewable Energy Microgrid

This paper presents the results of a new approach on the reliability analyses of standalone hybrid microgrid based on components importance measures. The microgrid presented consists of wind, photovoltaic, diesel generator and energy storage systems for supplying an isolated load. Reliability models of the customers connected to the Microgrid with the mentioned components have been model using a new approach based on reliability block diagram algebra. Different microgrid design structures and component measures on the reliability of load points were examined on a standard low voltage benchmark microgrid. Finally, other novel approaches on how to rank components that make up standalone microgrid were investigated for reliability. The results show the possibility of modeling and reliability analyses of standalone microgrid using the proposed technique. Additionally, this paper presents results of the contribution of components to the system reliability based on the structure of microgrid. The work could be used in identifying direction, priority, upgrading and suggest the most efficient way to operate and maintain a microgrid.

Abubakar Abdulkarim, Sobhy M. Abdelkader, D. John Morrow

Statistical Analyses of Wind and Solar Energy Resources for the Development of Hybrid Microgrid

In this paper, a procedure for the statistical analyses of wind and solar energy resources are investigated in order to determine the accurate frequency distribution for the development of hybrid microgrid. The frequency distributions used for wind speed data analysis include Weibull, Rayleigh and Gamma distribution functions. On the other hand the frequency distributions used for the analysis of solar radiation data include Weibull, Logistics, lognormal, Beta and Gamma functions. The performance of the probability distributions used in the wind speed analyses are based on the error evaluations between the predicted and the theoretical wind power densities of the site. Similarly, the performance of the probability distribution functions used in the solar radiation data were judged based on Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Anderson-Darling and Chi-Square tests. The goodness of fit tests (GOF) results of the wind speed analyses show that Weibull distribution performed better compared to Rayleigh and Gamma distributions. On the other hand Beta distribution fitted the solar radiation data better than all other distributions models.

Abubakar Abdulkarim, Sobhy M. Abdelkader, D. John Morrow

Entering the Bio Based Economy—Verification of Demand on Education in the Field of Green Economy

So far worldwide economy was oil-based. Oil and other examples of fossil energy were used for fuel, for heating, for the production of a wide range of products like plastics, medicines, food additives, etc. This oil-based economy has many consequences—global warming due to a growing production of carbon dioxide, limited quantities of oil, dependency on unstable countries and/or governments. These consequences have led to a search for alternatives for oil in many sectors:

renewable energy, like wind and solar energy,

bio-fuel, like bio-diesel and bio-gas,

production of raw materials for further processing, like fibres and dyes,

additives, alternatives for plastics, etc.

From this point of view, global climate changes, the greenhouse gas emissions and reduced sources of traditional fossil fuels are one of the most serious environmental problems of present time. This fact was the starting point for Directive 2009/28/EC, which defined two objectives in the area of RES, the mandatory 20 % share of RES in gross final energy consumption in the European Community and the mandatory 10 % share of RES in transport, which all Member States must achieve by 2020. In 2011 was the share of renewable energy sources in total energy production in the European Union 13 % (

http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/statistics/search_database

). The article presents general state in the Bio Based Economy (Green Economy or BBE) and a way how to increase the attractiveness and accessibility of vocational education and training for employees in green economy in the selected European countries.

Zuzana Palkova

Hybrid Power System Supply for Electric Vehicles

In this paper a hybrid power system for electric vehicles is proposed. The power system combines two complementary technologies: fuel cells and one storage element (supercapacitor). The objective of this paper is to maintain a high level of reliability with minimal cost through optimal design of a hybrid electric vehicle system. For this reason, it is presented the optimum design method of a hybrid power generation system. The primary objective of this study was to propose a strategy for the control of an electric vehicle powered by a source consisting of a fuel cell main source and the auxiliary power supercapacitor. The fuel cell supply is made by using the electrolysis of water. Modelling and control design of the hybrid system is validated by using the Matlab/Simulink software environment.

Marian Gaiceanu, Razvan Buhosu

Wind Energy

Frontmatter

Temporal Assessment of Wind Energy Resource in “Adrar” (South of Algeria); Calculation and Modeling of Wind Turbine Noise

The objective of this work is to evaluate the wind resource on the site of Adrar in southern Algeria. The hourly data used in this study span a period of 5 years. The considered parameters are the speed and direction of wind. For this purpose, the most energetic and frequent speed as well as the Weibull parameters to plot the wind rose were evaluated. Treatment focuses on coverage, the average monthly rate, annual average speed and average speeds by sector and their frequencies, to optimize site selection for future wind farm. The southern site “Adrar” is favorable for large ZWD (zone of wind development), why it was decided to investigate the possibility to set up a wind farm of 9 MW consisting of twelve wind turbines VERGNET GEV HP with nominal power of 800 KW. Next, the noise was calculated and modeled. The obtained results are k = 2.06 and C = 7.4 m/s for the Weibull parameters at ten meters above the ground with an average wind speed of 6.5 m/s. Our simulation of the noise propagation for the wind farm shows that noise level is estimated around 38 dB (A) at a distance of 220 m from the nearest turbine. We can conclude that these noise levels have no effect on health and comply with the Algerian standard.

M. Benmedjahed, N. Ghellai, Z. Bouzid, A. Chiali

Solar Energy

Frontmatter

Photo-Electro-Thermal Characteristics of Photovoltaic Panels

In the paper the measuring-set elaborated by the authors designed to characterize photovoltaic panels is presented. The mechanical construction and the electrical network of this set are shown and described. The simple method of calculating photo-electro-thermal characteristics of the photovoltaic panel with the use of SPICE software is proposed. Some results of measurements and calculations of characteristics of the selected photovoltaic panel are presented and discussed.

Krzysztof Górecki, Ewa Krac, Janusz Zarębski

MLP/Levenberg-Marquardt for Prediction Solar Radiation: A Case Study Bejaia City

In order to model the global solar radiation based on meteorological parameters for the Bejaia site, we established a database of more than 26,000 points obtained by recording every 8 min of illumination and meteorological parameters (sunshine hours, ambient temperature, air pressure, relative humidity and rainfall). Empirical models have been developed using several parameters and, recently, prognostic and prediction models based on artificial intelligence techniques such as neural networks. The daily averages were used to test NN models with 5 parameters and the relationship with the coefficient of the highest correlation was chosen. Two thirds were used to establish the model and one third for validation. We compared its performance with four models in the literature (Angstrom-Prescott, Bahel, Newland and Abdalla).

Z. Asradj, R. Alkama

Modeling of Solar Cell Efficiency Improvement Using Pyramid Grating in Single Junction Silicon Solar Cell

In order to manipulate light in more effective ways than conventional optical materials to convert extra and cheap electrical energy from the sunlight we focused on surface and backside of solar cells. At first this paper concentrate on solar cell performance enhancement by introducing pyramids at the top of the wafer based crystalline silicon solar cells. The optimization of used pyramids as well as their height and width were performed. The efficiency of 24.45 % has been obtained for a cell (thickness of 50 µm) with surface pyramids, while efficiency of 19.53 % has been obtained for flat surface cell. Simulation results show improvement of performance when pyramids are used. Then we will focus on thickness reduction by manipulating the backside of the cell. Reducing the overall cost per watt is thus one of the major goals of this paper. As the thickness of the absorbing region is reduced, however, the absorption significantly decreases at energies close to the electronic bandgap of the semiconductor. This is particularly a problem for thin-film silicon cells. Devices based on crystalline silicon have poor absorption near the bandgap. Light trapping schemes are thus needed to enhance light absorption. In this paper light trapping is achieved using a micron-sized pyramidal surface texture and backside filters that causes scattering of light into the solar cell over a large angular range, thereby enhance the effective light path length. So this paper investigated the use of antireflection coating and back reflectors to improve thin film solar cell performances. Finally, efficiency of upper than 24 % is obtained for 8 µm thin film silicon cell with rear side filter.

Hamid Heidarzadeh, Mahboubeh Dolatyari, Ghassem Rostami, Ali Rostami

A Proposal for Intermediate Band Solar Cells with Optimized Transition Energy in Cr Doped 3C-SiC

The Intermediate Band Solar Cell (IBSC) is a new concept proposed to better match the solar spectrum by absorbing sub-bandgap energy photons. One approach to implement this idea is to form an intermediate band (IB) with creating metallic intermediate band inside the host semiconductor. Excellent electronic properties of 3C-SiC such as high electron mobility and saturated electron drift velocity and its suitable band gap makes it an important alternative material for light harvesting technologies instead of conventional semiconductors like silicon. In this paper, the electronic band structure along with density of states calculated by the density functional theory (DFT). Main goal of this paper is proposing a new materials in the field of photovoltaic with intermediate band in the appropriate position. However our theoretical analysis show Cr is appropriate doping for 3C-SiC. In the other hand we demonstrated that our material choice is more advantageous in order to approach to efficiency of near 60 %.

M. Esgandari, H. Heidarzadeh, A. Rostami, G. Rostami, M. Dolatyari

Comparison the Effect of Size and Inter-dot Spaces in Different Matrix Embedded Silicon Quantum Dots for Photovoltaic Applications

The quantum dot solar cell concept is proposed as a scheme to optimize the efficiency of standard solar cells. The two most significant power loss mechanisms in single band gap solar cells are the inability to absorb photons with energy less than the band gap (transparency loss), and thermalisation of photon energy exceeding the band gap (thermalisation loss). There are several approaches for tackling these losses for instance tandem cell with increasing the number of band gaps or intermediate band solar cell by creating energy level inside the forbidden band of host materials. Quantum confined nanostructures of silicon with barriers of SiO

2

or SiC can potentially fill these criteria and allow designing of tandem cell or intermediate band solar cell with increased absorption given by direct band gap of such quantum confined systems. In this work, the comparison of solar cell is done based on tunneling probability between QDs which depends on dot size, type of matrices (SiO

2

or SiC) and thickness of barrier layer. The simulation results indicate that the chosen of SiC as dielectric matrix for silicon quantum dots could improve the tunneling rates, which provides an efficiency improvement in silicon, based nanostructure solar cells.

Hamid Heidarzadeh, Ghassem Rostami, Mahboubeh Dolatyari, Ali Rostami

Sand Effect on Photovoltaic Array Efficiency in Algerian Desert

The Algerian energy strategy recommends an increase of renewable energies contribution. The objective is to reach a renewable energies contribution for electricity production of 5 % by year 2015 and 40 % by year 2030, through photovoltaic (PV), solar thermal and wind generators. In this sense, the insertion of a PV system has an impact on social development, economy and environment on desert regions. However, the southern Algerian regions are generally characterized by frequent sandstorms. This natural phenomenon causes the dust accumulation on PV panels. Consequently, this may reduce the efficiency of PV array. The objective of this research is to study the effects of the dirt accumulation on the performance of a PV array in a desert region of Algeria (for our case Ghardaia site, 32°29ʹN, 3°40ʹE, 450 m). The experiments have been conducted on the effect of the dust particle accumulation on the PV modules. The tests were performed with the PVPM2540C in natural conditions to determine the current/voltage characteristics and see the resulting efficiency. It was found in this study, that the dust accumulation on the PV array surface for a period of several months can significantly reduce the PV array efficiency with an average power loss of about 4.38 %.

S. Semaoui, A. Hadj Arab, S. Bacha, H. Zeraia, E. K. Boudjelthia

Solar Irradiation on Lawsonia Inermis Sensitized with Red Blood Cells: Effect on Osmotic Fragility

Lawsonia Inermis

, known as Henna, is a widely used product for cosmetic and medicinal purposes in many countries. It is native to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, southern Asia, and northern Australia. Although Henna is widely used; it has been shown to cause oxidative hemolysis, especially in people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency. The objective of this study was to determine whether henna is light sensitive or not and to examine the effect of henna seed extract and henna powder on osmotic fragility of blood cells. Henna seeds were extracted using a microwave-assisted extraction method. The effect of henna seed and powder was tested on red blood cells (RBCs) with three different NaCl concentrations. Henna seed extraction increased hemolysis rate, meanwhile, henna powder did not affect hemolysis even at high NaCl concentration. This suggests that henna powder is not sensitive to sunlight. Our results suggest that the seed extraction of

Lawsonia inermis

could be potentially used as a protective agent as well as a sunscreen substitute.

Rami Alkhatib, M-Ali Al-Akhras, Duaa J. Al-Khalili

Nuclear Energy

Frontmatter

Perspectives of Industrial Separation of Zirconium Isotopes by Laser Assisted Retardation of Condensation Method

Modern researches indicate many possible ways of isotopically enriched materials applications in different spheres of human activity. In particular, zirconium isotope enriched materials can be used in nuclear industry in order to save fuel. Therefore, the problem of finding cheaper ways of zirconium isotope separation arises. In this paper we focus on this issue by proposing optimal design of industrial facility for zirconium isotope separation by laser assisted retardation of condensation (SILARC) method. Optimal parameters for this facility were found from the optimization criterion based on the transport model for rarefied gas flow dynamics in external laser field specifically tuned for selective excitation of target isotopes, Eerkens (Laser Part Beams 23:225, 2005). Because product cut and enrichment factor corresponding to the optimal conditions are rather small, isotopes should be recovered iteratively. By developing appropriate model for gas flow separation we have found the optimal values of laser intensity, gas flow temperature, nozzle throat area, and number of nozzles.

K. A. Lyakhov, H. J. Lee

Biofuels and Bioenergy

Frontmatter

Promising Technologies of Biomass Use for Energy Production Purposes

The new technologies of biomass processing developed in the Joint Institute for High Temperature, Russian Academy of Sciences (JIHT RAS) are described in this paper. The first one connected with production energy gas with enhanced calorific value from biomass and another with improving consumer properties of biomass granulated fuel.

V. Zaichenko

Heterogeneous Cracking of Tars on Surface of Charcoal

One of the most urgent problems of biomass gasification is cleaning of the product gas from pyrolysis tars and carbon dioxide. Joint Institute for High Temperatures of the Russian Academy of Sciences suggests the gas cleaning technology based on the heterogeneous cracking of pyrolysis tars on surface of charcoal. For the practical implementation of this method it is important to know efficiency of the hot charcoal filter for pyrolysis liquid products cracking. There are two cracking processes take place: homogeneous cracking in volume and heterogeneous cracking on the surface of porous charcoal matrix. In this paper the results of experimental determination of the efficiency of heterogeneous of pyrolysis tar cracking depending of the hot charcoal filter parameters are presented.

Valentin Kosov, Vladimir Kosov, Victor Zaichenko

Fossil Energy

Frontmatter

Investigation of Two-Component Hydrocarbon Mixture Filtration in Porous Media

Natural-gas condensate is valuable raw for chemical and oil industries. In the process of gas-condensate reservoir exploitation, one has to deal with a product which changes its composition all the time. This is due to retrograde condensation phenomenon of reservoir hydrocarbon mixture during reservoir pressure decrease. With appearance of such condensate within reservoir porous space, fluid flowrate decreases and even ultimate extinction of filtration process takes place. A mathematical model is developed, which describes one-dimension filtration of two-component hydrocarbon mixture in porous media. Methane-n-butane mixture appears as model mixture for being a close approximation of real gas-condensate reservoir hydrocarbon mixture. Structurally, the model consists of two parts, namely, the hydrodynamic part, which describes the process of two-phase filtration in a porous medium in the Darcy law approximation, and the thermodynamic part, within which the equations of state for mixture are used to calculate the compressibility coefficients of the mixture and the parameters of phase equilibrium of the system in the vapor and liquid phases. The results of mathematical modeling are in good agreement with experimental research of filtration processes of methane-n-butane binary hydrocarbon mixture. Possibility of gas-condensate plug (each of dynamic and static) formation is shown. Wave impact on an active reservoir could be a way to increase production rate.

I. L. Maikov, D. A. Molchanov, V. M. Torchinsky

Hydropower

Frontmatter

Deformation Analysis and Monitoring for Extra High Hydropower of 305 m

The engineering scale and construction difficulty are beyond imagination. Many technical indicators have exceeded the current specification. Firstly, the denatured state of the dam in active service was analyzed and summarized based on 1:1 prototype test parameters. Secondly, load set and load effect set were combined and the influence factors were determined by deterministic function and physical inference method. The coefficient of each factor was calculated by the measured data. An extra high arch dam deformation monitoring statistic model was finally established. Load effect set can be defined under a group of load set. It can be used to determine the working condition of the structure and monitor buildings. Thirdly, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model was established and the incremental step difference algorithm was used by considering the weight of the dam and the outside water load. This will accurately simulate the state of the arch dam deformation. This article provides a meaningful reference for the exploration of similar projects in future.

Huaizhi Su, Meng Yang

Hydropower Plant Regime Management According to the Market Conditions

The dimensions and significance of the modern systems prove the necessity to change principles of the systems management. In order to decrease carbon dioxide (CO

2

) emissions, fight climate change, not adhere to fuel resources and increase energy security while decreasing its dependences on foreign countries, many country governments took actions to exploit its domestic resources and raise the renewable energies in the electricity production, that is why renewable energy is a key issue in today’s world and may continue to play a globally essential role in the future. Turkey has a large renewable energy potential it is still on a development process and has relevant natural hydropower potential, which is about 1.1 % of the worldwide and 13.75 % of the European potential. The main purpose of this work is to develop optimal short-term planning models for price taker hydropower producer working in the existing regimes. Those models have to deal with the huge level of uncertainty which is the water power introduces into the power system. Hydropower stations (20 MW or less) operation effectiveness under the conditions of market relations is defined by means of income value that is determined during the calculation period. This income can be obtained in the regime providing as large as possible HPP electric energy production with particular water consumption within a considered period. The value of these incomes can be calculated in accordance with pre-set market prices for electric energy within the calculated period. This paper addresses optimization techniques, model applications, and operational issues. Our goal was devoted to the problem of small HPP control regimes optimization. The task of a small HPP operation regime is solved for the maximum income within the cases of the known variation of prices at the market. An optimization tool known as generalized reduced gradient method for nonlinear optimization tasks is used to plan hydropower production under uncertainties. The developed forecasting and optimization technics are established on optimization of the Cobanli HPP in Turkey considering hydropower production and flood control. Optimization of powerhouse regimes operation rules provides optimal solutions that have a larger hydropower potential compared to the present regulations. It’s concluded that real-time optimization in normal flow situations provide solutions that trades-off the immediate and the future value of hydropower production. We developed a model for hydropower plant scheduling under market and fixed electricity price and water inflow rates for to achieve greatest economic benefit.

Hasan H. Coban, Renata Varfolomejeva, Antans Sauhats, Inga Umbrasko

Energy Storage, Conservation and Efficiency

Frontmatter

Hydration Behavior of Mg-Ni Mixed Hydroxide Synthesized by Mechano-chemical Method for Chemical Heat Storage

The hydration behavior of Mg-Ni mixed hydroxides synthesized by mechano-chemical method was studied to develop a new material for chemical heat storage. It was demonstrated that the hydration conversion of Mg-Ni mixed hydroxides synthesized by mechano-chemical method were higher than that of samples synthesized by co-precipitation method as conventional method. It can be explained by the difference of particle size of samples.

Junichi Ryu, Yuki Hara, Yukitaka Kato

Regenerative AC Drive System Based on the Three Phase Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machine

The permanent magnet synchronous machine becomes an attractive solution in the transport area providing higher power density than the induction machine. Surface permanent synchronous machine is controlled by using the field oriented control. Therefore, the maximum torque is easily obtained by setting at zero value the longitudinal stator current component,

i

sd

*

. The frequently dynamic regimes of the permanent magnet synchronous machine (PMSM) decrease significantly the overall efficiency of the drive system. Taking into account that during braking or reversing period the actual drive system dissipates the energy by using a brake resistor in DC link side, the authors of this paper have proposed a regenerative drive system. In this way the energy during the dynamic regimes is recovered and delivered into the utility network. Moreover, the power quality is taken into consideration by including an adequate control in order to obtain unity power factor. The topology of the proposed power converter consists of a series AC-DC active power converter, DC link capacitor and the DC-AC power inverter. By introducing a feedforward reference of the transversal stator current (

i

sq

*

) the power balance control is achieved. As a result, the speed response of the control loops is increased, lowering the DC link capacitor value. The maximum 5 % total harmonic distortion (THD) value of the input current is attained by an appropriate design of the boost inductor. By using the DC link voltage control accompanied by an appropriate design of the DC link capacitor, the DC voltage ripple is decreased under the maximum limits. The regenerative PMSM drive is developed in the Matlab/Simulink environment software and the performances in motoring and regenerating operation modes are shown.

Marian Gaiceanu, Cristian Nichita

CFD Analysis of Supersonic Ejectors Operating with Mixture of Gases

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the performance of the ejector using two different streams of fluids. To investigate the ejector performance, different operating conditions were applied to ejector. The value of motive and suction pressure were considered to be constant while discharge pressure of ejector was changed continuously. Motive flow was considered to be saturated steam while Suction flow is composed of air and steam. In this mixture, the mass fraction of air and steam changed in the range of 0–1. Ejector performance curves are extracted for different mass fractions of air and steam. The resulted performance curves indicate that the variation of mass fraction of species that were present in the suction flow mixture had significant effect on the performance of ejector. Results showed that as the mass fraction of air in suction flow was increased, the ejector entertainment ratio was increased as well. Also can observed that the variation of mass fraction of suction flow don’t have significant effect on break point of ejector performance curves.

Maziar Shafaee, Mohsen Tavakol, Rouzbeh Riazi

Integrated Energy-Efficient Hydrogen Production from Low Rank Coal and Its Storage for Transportation

An integrated system for hydrogen production from low rank coal and its storage is developed based on exergy recovery and process integration technologies to achieve high total energy efficiency. The integrated system consists of drying, gasification, chemical looping, and hydrogenation. In term of energy analysis, exergy recovery technology basically recirculates the energy/heat involved in a single process minimizing the exergy destruction in the process. Unfortunately, not all of the energy/heat involved in a single process can be recirculated thoroughly. Hence, a combination with process integration is performed to enhance the minimization of exergy destruction in the overall integrated system. In this study, the energy efficiency is evaluated. The proposed integrated system shows a very high energy efficiency during conversion of low rank coal to hydrogen which is ready for transportation.

Muhammad Aziz, Takuya Oda, Takumi Kurokawa, Takao Kashiwagi

Ignition of Combustible Gases in Water

The possibilities of reducing the energy consumption in transformation of chemical energy into heat and mechanical ones due to fundamental change of technologies of fuel combustion are considered by using the methods of combustion of gases being under development.

Vyacheslav Teslenko, Alexey Drozhzhin, Ruslan Medvedev, Igor Batraev

Method of Assessing Energy Consumption in the Transport of Pallets in Logistics

The assessment of the energy consumption by the processes in logistic warehouse systems is discussed. The energy consumption problem occurs in many branches of economy. For example, the ODEX indicator has been developed for the power industry in the EU. However, there is no such an indicator for logistic warehouse systems. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in the latter field and the author’s own model of determining the energy consumption of servicing a pallet in a warehouse.

Paweł Zajac

Environmental Issues

Frontmatter

Adsorption of Methyl Red from Aqueous Solutions by Algerian Bentonite Clay

In order to removal methyl red from aqueous solutions using adsorption method, Algerian bentonite-type clay from Mostaganem region (MBC) has been first acid-activated then employed as adsorbent. The influence of several parameters (kinetics, contact time, sorbent amount and pH) on the adsorption capacity was evaluated and discussed. The results indicated that the adsorption was favourable at lower pH. The adsorption isotherm was well described by the Freundlich model and showed high MR adsorption with high correlation coefficient (R

2

= 0.985). The adsorption capacity of MBC found to be 2.0 mg g

−1

. It was seen that pseudo-second order equation describes the adsorption kinetics. The results indicated that this bentonite-type clay is favourable to be used as an economical adsorbent for the removal of methyl red dye.

Karima Boudouara, Madani Ghelamallah, Halima Nadia Khemliche

Is Hospitals Ready for Energy Management and Green Building? Health Managers Opinions in Turkey

Hospitals are of special interest for health promotion and the hospital sector is one of the biggest entrepreneurs in Turkey. Hospitals could be a strong partner for public health issues and also hospital sector has a heavy consumption of material and energy and a huge production of waste and carbon dioxide. This study summarizes research findings concerning knowledge, attitudes and behavior relevant to energy and environmental subjects of health managers. A survey was conducted with 47 decision-makers in nine leader private hospital in Turkey. Survey examines what the healthcare leaders are thinking about the energy management, green hospitals and what healthcare organizations are doing in response to rising energy costs, what factors are motivating efficiency improvements, how many organizations are planning to make investments, what payback they expect on energy efficiency investments, and what technologies and practices they have been implementing in their facilities. Energy performance monitoring is doing in 50 % of hospitals and in 40 % of hospitals there is a budget for energy. There are energy mangers in 45 % of hospitals. Only 18 % of healthcare leaders are defining the hospitals as environmentally friendly and just 2 % of hospitals have Leed certificate. Only the 2 % of hospitals are using just cogeneration systems and are not using the other renewable energy resources. According to 30 % of healthcare leaders the most importance of energy management using in hospitals is decreasing the costs and the second importance is the safety to global warming. Energy efficiency is getting more attention among healthcare facility leaders. They were very or fairly concerned about climate change, they are paying attention to energy management in hospitals and most of them are thinking that energy efficiency and the usage of renewable energy resources in hospitals are very important.

Meriç Yavuz Çolak, Levent Çolak

Design of High Sensitive Optical Sensor for Seawater Salinity

A novel optical sensor was designed for the measurement of salinity in seawater. The principle is to measure the refractive index variation of seawater that corresponds to the change in salinity. The sensor based on the two-dimensional photonic crystal (PhC) microcavity coupled to two waveguide. We have used the FDTD method to simulate the sensor in 2D PhC with triangular lattice of air holes. The influence of the geometrical parameter and refractive index on transmission are studied, and an enhancement in sensitivity in 2D PhC is achieved which proves the ability of the structure to produce salinity sensor using PhC.

Ahlam Harhouz, Abdesselam Hocini

A Fuzzy Inference System to Evaluate the Environmental Effects of Electricity Generation Technologies

Power plants activity can have positive and negative effects on the population, which must be taken into account. In many cases various kinds of power generation systems can have a significant adverse impact on the environment, increasing health risks and reducing the standard of living of local communities. In this paper a methodology based on fuzzy-sets is proposed to assess the impact on a local scale of the sustainability of the most important electricity power production technologies.

Fausto Cavallaro

Carbon Capture and Storage

Frontmatter

Molasses Based Activated Carbons as CO2 Sorbents

Research treats about creating new sorbents, which would be able to adsorb CO

2

, and then to perform photocatalytic reaction of obtaining organic compounds. Activated Carbons (ACs) were produced in KOH presence as activation agent, and with TiO

2

addition, from sugarcane molasses—low priced by-product of sugar industry. Properties were tested by liquid N

2

adsorption method, using BET equation, DFT method, and volumetric CO

2

adsorption method. Results suggested that using TiO

2

decreases the surface area of ACs but of small amounts can make it effective photocatalysts.

J. Młodzik, K. Glonek, U. Narkiewicz, A. W. Morawski, R. J. Wróbel, B. Michalkiewicz

Bio-Assessment and Toxicology

Frontmatter

Influence of the Staphylococcus Aureus Bacteria Cells on the Zeta Potential of Graphene Oxide Modified with Alumina Nanoparticles in Electrolyte and Drinking Water Environment

The aim of this study was to describe the different aspects of the modification of surface charge of graphene oxide by deposition of Al

2

O

3

nanoparticles on its surface. The novel reduced graphene oxide/Al

2

O

3

nanocomposites were evaluated as an adsorbent for

Staphylococcus aureus

bacteria cells in electrolyte and drinking water environment. The zeta potential of GO flakes, Al

2

O

3

nanoparticles and RGO/Al

2

O

3

nanocomposite was investigated alone and in the presence of bacteria cells with a special emphasis on the analysis of the zeta potential curves. Our obtained results indicate that the chemical composition of water environment have a significant influence on the electrostatic interactions between sorbent and bacteria. In most cases, the adsorption of bacteria onto adsorbent surface changed its surface charge to similar to adsorbed cells. However, by taking into consideration the sensitiveness and variability of living system such as bacteria cell, we observed that the phenomenon of adsorption (i.e. the physical interactions with sorbent surface) also changed the surface charge of bacteria cells themselves.

A. Jastrzebska, E. Karwowska, A. Olszyna

Air Pollution from Mobile and Stationary Sources

Frontmatter

The State of Art Technique of Pre-ozonation Processes for Intensification of Emission Control from Stationary Sources

This work demonstrates state of art technique in the field of environmental engineering research, i.e. utilization of ozone for waste gases treatment in power and chemical plants as well as refineries. The special focus is put on the mercury removal due to recently signed Minamata Convention.

Kinga Skalska

Transport of Air Pollutants

Frontmatter

The Energy Performance Model of Mechanical and Natural Ventilation

The paper deals with the energy efficiency of the ventilation systems (ventilation units) in different design alternatives (with heat recovery, without recovery, effective fans, etc.…). The alternatives of operation of the mechanical and natural ventilation system at intervals during the day are presented. The calculation of the airflow was executed in accordance with laws and standards valid in the EU and Slovakia (EN 15251, EN 13779, STN 730540, etc.). A large potential for energy savings in the Slovak building generally, due to the fact that majority of the buildings were constructed before 1989, before first important requirements for energy performance and savings of building.

Richard Nagy, Danica Košičanová, Jan Lojkovics

Environment-Friendly Construction and Development

Frontmatter

How to Refurbish ‘80s Brutalist Architecture, Turning It into NZEB: The Case Study of the High School “Enrico Fermi” in Muro Lucano (Potenza, Italy)

The brutalist

architecture

of the ‘70s and ‘80s has the responsibility to have promoted the creation of buildings that, to better adhere to the poetics of exposed concrete, have often overlooked any principle of environment-Friendly quality. Many buildings, as this case study, a school built after the 1980s earthquake in Basilicata, as USAID gift, in Paul Rudolph’s style, have the exterior walls made in exposed concrete, without any type of insulation and lacking of flashings, but of downpipe too, so as to resemble, now, a picturesque ruin; have roofing systems wrongly designed; windows partly insufficiently sized to ensure natural lighting, but partly without any protection against dazzling; internal walls not performing acoustic performances fixed by Standards, and all grater spaces (atrium and corridors, auditorium, sports hall) with reverberation time many times the standard value. The building envelope disperses 50 kWh/m

3

year, so to be placed in the worst performance classes of actual Italian thermal rules. Becoming the conditions of use and management increasingly heavy and almost unbearable, this study detected the strategies and solutions by means of which to resolve the design faults, transforming the building in a NZEB eco-Friend, which produces from renewable sources the energy required for its necessities, recovering its original appearance and formal configuration.

Francesco Paolo R. Marino, Filiberto Lembo

The Environment-Friendly Architecture Come Through Wooden Architecture

If you have a building well designed, with bioclimatic approach, NZEB, and you want to change step-by-step building design in way to achieve higher scores in an environmental appraisal system, qualitative type as BREEM or Italian ITACA, or quantitative type, as those based on LCA Method and with use of software GaBi or SimaPro, you invent that you can’t go further 4.3 on 5 or so on, also if the building is comfortable, good enlighten by the sun and built with reused and recyclable materials; and primary energy balance is ever negative. And that, also if the functional phase is about 87 % of GWP, 94 % of ODP and 71 % of EP. The only way to achieve a full score, 5 on 5, that is a positive primary energy balance at least of some of analysis factors, is to build with materials from renewable sources, which is in wood. In Basilicata, local woods are hardwoods: there are some 4 million cubic meters of

Quercus Cerris

timber tree, and they grow at the rate of 2,40,000 cubic meters per year. With appropriate hygro-thermal conditioning, according to a protocol drawn by Authors in the La.Te.C. Laboratory of Engineering School of Basilicata University at Potenza, this hardwood allows to realize glued laminated timber beams which can work with bending tension of 40.9 N/mm

2

, much more than normal elements in resinous glued laminated timber. This new material can be combined with new structural earthquake-resistant moment resistant timber frame with post tensioning and energy dissipating system, developed by Prof. F.C. Ponzo and other Researchers in SisLab Laboratory of Engineering School of Basilicata University and by Department of Civil and Natural Resources Engineering of University of Cambridge, Christchurch, New Zealand, and in this way is possible to realize high rise framed buildings, which can resist to more violent earthquakes, with a positive ecologic balance.

Filiberto Lembo, Francesco Paolo R. Marino

Energy Efficiency Engineering—Towards an Integrated Method Framework for Energy-Oriented Product and Production Development

Energy efficiency in all areas of the product lifecycle gets more and more important. Besides the use phase that is often addressed through technological solutions, the production phase is also in focus as it determines the environmental impacts of a company to a high degree. Established operational methods that consider energy efficiency reactively are often already exploited. This contribution therefore focuses on methods that are applied in early phases of the product and production development process. On the basis of a correlation matrix that correlates the interrelationships between the three dimensions product, material and production, promising areas in the product creation process are analysed. This framework provides a general basis for the development and application of integrated analysis and improvement methods.

Pascal Stoffels, Dirk Bähre, Georg Frey, Michael Vielhaber

Modeling the Air Channel Ventilation in Ansys CFX of a Romanesque Church

Moisture is a major source of damage in historic solid masonry. Rising damp is a well-known phenomenon around the world and occurs when groundwater flows into the base of a construction and is allowed to rise through the pore structure. From practical experience it is known that many factors may play a role regarding permeability problems in masonry. The amount of possible causes of moisture problems in historic masonry underlines the complexity of this phenomenon. Evaporation is an important factor in rising damp. The surface of an affected wall contains moisture that has risen from the ground and this moisture is then subject to evaporation. The factors controlling evaporation include: temperature, humidity, air movement and surface.

Anna Sedlakova, Ladislav Tazky

Energy Management Systems

Frontmatter

Many Kinds of Energy Source in Our Surroundings at Home

We are studying the Energy Harvesting in our surroundings at home. Our aim was to supply the energy to the sensor terminal that communicates to other terminals wirelessly (sensor network nodes). The average energy consumption for each terminal is estimated to be around 2.6 mW supposing to be used as Rich HEMS (Home Energy Management System) terminal. In order to get such energy from our surroundings, we have tried to use vibration energy caused by the human step on the floor, the hydroelectric power generation from the water pipe, the ventilation wind at kitchen. As the result we have succeeded in getting much power of 30 mW from the water pipe experiment. Moreover we have tried to use magnetic flux leakage energy from the light bulb driven with inverter. In this measurement we could get the average power of 4 mW. In this paper we will discuss the results for each power generation method.

Takashi Yoshikawa

Optimizing Residential Energy Consumption in Romania

This paper proposes a modelling approach based on TIMES/VEDA systems, designed to optimize energy system model and connected aspects, like economic development and consumer behaviour, in order to decrease energy consumption in households. The economic and technological factors have been used to set-up the energy model. A case study of Romania’s residential energy consumption model is included.

Ion Smeureanu, Francesco Moresino, Marian Dardala, Adriana Reveiu, Felix Furtuna

Materials for Sustainable Energy

Frontmatter

Determination of Assessment Scale for Selected Indicators in Slovak Building Environmental Assessment System BEAS

By assessed different material compositions of building envelope which comply U-value of energy standard and nearly zero energy residential buildings it is possible to compare the impact of increasing insulation materials in structure compositions on embodied energy. The selection of building materials for building structures which has a significant share of total environmental performance of building and the potential of improvement is analyzed in this paper. By evaluating of large quantity of different material compositions of conventional and alternative environmental suitable structures of building envelope were determined criteria for environmental indicators such as embodied energy, CO

2eq

emissions and SO

2eq

emissions. The criteria for the evaluation of mentioned environmental indicators are determined on the base of alternative material compositions of structures which are assessed in order to identifying the most optimal solutions in terms of environmental sustainability by LCA within system boundary “cradle to gate”. The aim of this paper is to introduce the Slovak building environmental assessment system (BEAS) and to determine the criteria for environmental indicators such as embodied energy, CO

2eq

emissions and SO

2eq

emissions for the purpose of their implementation to BEAS. Worldwide used building environmental assessment systems and tools were the base of new system development for Slovak conditions. The fields and indicators were proposed on the bases of available information analysis from particular fields of building environmental assessment and also on the base of our experimental experiences.

Silvia Vilčeková, Eva Krídlová Burdová, Monika Čuláková

Effect of Ni Seed Layer for Electroplating 63Ni in Beta Voltaic Battery

Ni seed layers with a thickness of 200, 500, and 1000 Å were deposited by e-beam irradiation on a single trench P-N absorber in a beta voltaic battery. The optimum thickness of

63

Ni on the seed layer was determined to be about 2 μm regarding the minimum self-shielding effect of a beta-ray (β-ray). The electroplating was carried out using two-step processes such as preparation of ionic solution including

63

Ni, and coating processes on the seed layer. The electroplating of Ni on the seed layer was carried out at current density of 20 mA/cm

2

. Both the conductivity and uniformity of the seed layer are enhanced, as the thickness of deposit layer is increased. However, self-shielding of β-ray from measuring photo-voltaic (I-V curves) is significantly increase, as the thickness of the seed layer become thick. To fabricate the effective β-voltaic battery, the thickness of seed layer about 500 Å has been determined in view of both preventing self-shielding β-ray and increasing conductivity on the surface.

Y. R. Uhm, B. G. Choi, K. J. Son, D. H. Jeong

Structural Properties of Polystyrene (PS)/Ferroelectric Barium Stannate Titanate Ba (Ti0.9Sn0.1)O3 Ceramic (BST) Composite

Barium Stannate Titanate (BST) ceramics was studied early as a prototype of ferroelectrics with diffused phase transition. Nowadays, many studies on the phase transition, electrical and dielectric properties take place. BST is a binary solid solution system composed of ferroelectric barium titanate and non-ferroelectric barium stannate. A composite of polystyrene PS/Ferroelectric Barium Stannate Titanate BST with different BST concentration was prepared. Structural measurement of XRD, TGA, and SEM showed that they formed a good composite for all concentrations with the exception of the 10 % BST concentration; this behavior was explained by a non-additive law and critical mass of BST.

M-Ali Al-Akhras, Subhi Saq’an, Zeinab Ghadieh

Materials for Renewable Energy Storage and Conversion

Frontmatter

Waynergy Vehicles—An Innovative Pavement Energy Harvest System

This paper describes an innovative pavement energy harvest system, called Waynergy Vehicles, developed in Portugal by Waydip in partnership with the Pavement Mechanics Laboratory of the University of Coimbra. The Waynergy Vehicles was installed in a road pavement in the campus of the University of Beira Interior, which allowed us to test a prototype. During a peak hour, between 1 and 2 p.m., the Waynergy Vehicles system was able to generate 37,800 J or 10.5 W.h. The electrical energy generated by several modules of the Waynergy Vehicles located, for example, in speed humps and speed bumps, can be used not only to charge batteries for electric vehicles, but also for general consumption through injection into the electricity grid or direct use by electrical equipment, such as public lighting traffic lights, and outdoor advertising.

Francisco Duarte, Adelino Ferreira, João Champalimaud

Nanostructured TiO2 Film Deposition by Supersonic Plasma Jet Source for Energetic Application

Titanium dioxide (TiO

2

) materials are widely used in a variety of applications in the environmental and energy fields, such as self-cleaning surfaces, sensors, hydrogen generation by water photo-electrolysis, and photo-electrochemical conversion (e.g. DSSC and thin film solar cells) Paulose et al. (Nanotechnology 17:398,

2006

) and Burschka et al. (Nature 499:316–319,

2013

). In this work we use Plasma Assisted Supersonic Jet Deposition (PA-SJD) to realize TiO

2

thin film deposition Biganzoli et al. (J Mod Phys 3:1626, 2012). Vaporizable and stable monomer could be employed as the source of the oxides, the semiconductors or even the metals. In this work Titanium isopropoxide (Ti{OCH(CH

3

)

2

}

4

), commonly referred as TTIP, is used as organometallic precursor. We have studied TiO

2

thin film roughness and morphology, and we have compared it to results obtained from numerical simulation of deposition process. So it is possible to relate surface morphology to film structure properties.

E. C. Dell’Orto, S. Caldirola, H. E. Roman, C. Riccardi

A Method for Building a Simple and Applicable Power Inverter

In the last few years, people in the Gaza Strip started to rely on power inverters as part of a backup power system due to frequent failure of the mains utility. The simplest backup system consists of a battery, a battery charger, and an inverter. At least one house out of four in the Gaza Strip is equipped with such a system. The inverters’ market is shared by few local and plenty foreign manufactures. Although imported inverters are either cheaper than or functionally superior to locally made ones, the majority of people prefer to utilize the local inverters. This is due to not only encouragement reasons, but also the ease of maintenance. Foreign inverters use to be manufactured with high-tech and state-of-the-art components which do not fit with available resources and expertise. Moreover, due to current political situations, most import and export transactions are neither insured nor time predictable. In this work, design of a viable single phase inverter is addressed. It is low-cost and has an integrated battery charger making it a challenging competitor to present choices. The device functions are controlled by PIC16F877 microcontroller and the proposed design is experimentally demonstrated and evaluated for various loads.

Mohamed Abdelati, Georg Frey

Fuel Cells

Frontmatter

Evaluation of Electrocatalytic Activity of Pt-Co/Ti Towards Methanol Oxidation

The Pt-Co catalysts were deposited onto the titanium surface using simple and cost-effective chemical methods: electroless Co deposition followed by a spontaneous Pt displacement from the Pt(IV)-containing solution. The morphology, structure and composition of the prepared catalysts were examined by means of FESEM, EDX and ICP-OES. Electrocatalytic activity of Pt(Co)/Ti towards the oxidation of methanol was investigated by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. It has been determined that the Pt(Co)/Ti catalysts with low Pt loadings in the range from 19 up to 98 μg

Pt

cm

−2

exhibited an enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards methanol oxidation as compared to that of pure Pt and Co/Ti.

E. Norkus, Ž. Činčienė, A. Balčiūnaitė, A. Zabielaitė, I. Stankevičienė, J. Vaičiūnienė, A. Selskis, L. Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė

The Origin of Electrocatalytic Activity of Gold Nanoparticles Modified Pt-Based Surfaces Towards Formic Acid Oxidation

Recently, direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs) have received much attention in both industry and academia, due to their unique properties. Despite of their broad benefits, DFAFCs have two major drawbacks that limit its lifetime and efficiency; the poor electrocatalytic activity (due to CO and Halides poisoning) and stability of the Pt-based electrodes. Herein, the electrocatalytic activity, stability and tolerance against poisoning species (CO and Halides) of Pt-based electrode (Pt/GC) towards formic acid (FA) oxidation; essential anodic reaction of DFAFCs, are shown to increase via interrupting the Pt surface with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Electrochemical measurements show that gold nanopartciles (AuNPs) modified Pt/GC (Au/Pt/GC) electrode supports a significant enhancement on the direct FA oxidation to CO

2

(the dehydrogenation pathway). On the other hand, the oxidative treatment of GC (GC

ox

) in acidic medium results in 2 times increases on the catalytic activity of unmodified and AuNPs modified Pt electrodes towards direct FA oxidation to CO

2

compared to un-oxidized GC electrode. This significantly enhanced activity of AuNPs modified Pt/GC catalysts can be attributed to noncontiguous arrangement of Pt sites in the presence of the neighbored AuNPs, which promotes direct oxidation of FA to CO

2

and retards the adsorption of CO at Pt surface. Moreover, AuNPs modified Pt/GC catalyst has satisfactory stability and show high tolerance against halides poisoning.

Gumaa A. El-Nagar, Ahmad M. Mohammad, Mohamed S. El-Deab, Bahgat E. El-Anadouli

The Effect of Humidification Strategies on Efficiency and Durability of Hydrogen Fuel Cells in Automotive Application

In this paper the effect of different humidification strategies on performance of fuel cell systems (FCS) based on proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells was analyzed taking into account the specific requirements of an automotive application. The experiments were conducted on PEM fuel cell systems of different power, ranging from 2.4 to 14 kW. The results showed that the optimal humidification strategy was function of stack operation mode and energy management inside the overall system, and evidenced the benefits and limitations of the self-humidification strategy for an automotive application.

F. Migliardini, A. Unich, P. Corbo

Electrocatalytic Activity of NiOx Nanostructured Modified Electrodes Towards Oxidation of Small Organic Molecules

Nickel oxide nanostructured modified platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs) supported in glassy carbon electrode (NiOx/Pt/GC) was used as an effective anode for formic acid (FA), methanol (ME) and ethanol (ET) electrooxidation in 0.3 M NaOH solution. GC surface was fabricated with NiOx nanostructured and Pt nanoparticles electrochemically. The modified electrodes were characterized using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The catalytic improvement observed at NiOx/Pt/GC electrode for FAO, MEO, and ETO was not only confined in the large increase of the oxidation current but also in a negative shift in the onset potential of the oxidation reactions. The influence of temperature on the oxidation current was investigated and the apparent activation energy,

E

a

, for each fuel was calculated at a specific potential. Furthermore, NiOx/Pt/GC electrode showed a satisfactory stability for FAO, MEO, and ETO in 0.3 M NaOH solution.

Sayed M. El-Refaei, Gumaa A. El-Nagar, Ahmed M. Mohammad, Mohamed S. El-Deab, B. E. El-Anadouli

Hydrogen Storage

Frontmatter

Computational Design of Dual Cation Ammine Metal Borohydrides: LiTi(BH4)5(NH3)X

Global energy need is mostly fulfilled via fossil fuels. Usage of these sources causes harmful consequences to both environment and human beings. Besides, they have limited reserves and therefore alternative fuels must be discovered. Hydrogen is one of these alternatives due to its high energy content and environmentally friendly nature. However, there are many challenging problems waiting to be addressed for its widespread use. One of them is hydrogen storage which is especially very important for on-board applications. Even hydrogen can be stored as in the form of gas or liquid, these mediums are not practical in everyday use. As an alternative, hydrogen can also be stored in the solid form. For this purpose, both metal borohydrides and ammines are proposed due to their high gravimetric and volumetric densities. Metal borohydrides have some severe drawbacks e.g., requirement of a very high temperature for the hydrogen decomposition. Therefore, they can be mixed with ammines to produce new materials with a better thermodynamics. Dual-cation ammine metal borohydrides (AMBs) just suit well for this purpose. In this study, we computationally designed new AMBs in the form of LiTi(BH

4

)

5

(NH

3

)

x

x = 2, 3, 4 using a strategy which combines crystal structure prediction with density functional theory computations.

Yusuf Kışlak, Adem Tekin

Discovery of New Dual Cation Metal Ammine Borohydrides: A Computational Study

World’s growing energy need is mostly reliant upon fossil fuels. Fossil fuels are considered to be non-renewable energy sources because it needs million years to form and reserves are being depleted much more faster than new reserves are being made. Usage of fossil fuels comes with harmful consequences. It is responsible for 20 % of global warming pollution. To avoid these harmful effects, new energy sources must be discovered. As an alternative to fossil fuels, hydrogen can be used for energy needs and it has a lot of benefits over fossil fuels such as being environmentally friendly, carrying high energy content and being renewable. To use hydrogen as an energy source instead of fossil fuels, some challenging problems must be solved. One of them is hydrogen storage. Hydrogen can be stored as gas or liquid but these types of storage are not so efficient for widespread use. A more convenient way is to store hydrogen in the form of solid. For this purpose, metal borohydrides and ammines can be used due to their high gravimetric and volumetric densities. To decompose hydrogen, metal borohydrides requires very high temperatures and this situation can be moderated by mixing them with ammines. To achieve this goal, in this study we designed dual-cation ammine metal borohydrides (AMBs) in the form of LiSc(BH

4

)

4

(NH

3

)

x

(x = 2, 3) using an approach which combines crystal structure prediction with density functional theory computations.

Samet Demir, Adem Tekin

Photovoltaics and Solar Cells

Frontmatter

Properties of CdS Deposited by the SILAR Method Using Cd(II) Organic Salt as Precursor

In this study the thin CdS films were deposited onto the glass sheets by means of the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction method using cadmium 2,4-pentanedionate and sodium sulfide precursors. The morphology and composition of the as-prepared CdS thin films were characterized using Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy. The optical properties of the CdS thin films deposited onto glass sheets were investigated by means of UV/VIS spectrophotometric measurements. It was found that the thin CdS films deposited onto the glass sheets have a crystalline structure with CdS particles of ca. 20–80 nm in size. The thickness of obtained films is ca. 20–80 nm. The determined band gap energy decreases slightly from 2.35 to 2.2 eV with increase in number of deposition cycles from 40 to 100.

L. Tamašauskaitė-Tamašiūnaitė, B. Šimkūnaitė-Stanynienė, G. Grincienė, A. Žielienė, L. Naruškevičius, A. Selskis, V. Jasulaitienė, E. Norkus

Analysis of the Performance a PV System Based on Empirical Data in a Real World Context

The performance of solar energy production systems consisting of photovoltaic solar panels strongly depends on the location and orientation of the solar panels. Previously a computational model has been developed to predict this performance depending on location and orientation; this model allows for prior analysis of a PV system before it is actually built. In the current paper the performance of solar panels according to their location and orientation is analyzed based on empirical real world performance data, and compared to the data generated by the previously developed computational model. These empirical data have been collected from a number of solar panels at different locations and orientations day-by-day and panel-by-panel for a whole year. The data is analyzed and used to deepen the prior analysis, and to evaluate the computational model thereby generating suggestions for improvement of this model. These suggestions are a basis for an improved computational model in order to enhance the quality of prior analysis of a PV system before it is actually built. Such a pre-analysis is useful as a support for decision making by estimating how much loss different options for locations will have, before actually placing the solar panels.

Seyed Amin Tabatabaei, Jan Treur

Efficient Models of Partially Shaded PV Modules for Energy System Design

To simulate the power output of a photovoltaic module (PM) under partial shading conditions each cell has to be simulated individually. The following contribution will present a method how the simulation effort can be reduced with little or even no loss in simulation accuracy under typical shading conditions. This reduction is required if the PM is part of a heterogeneous distributed energy system which shall be efficiently analyzed on system level. The core idea is a

grouping model

approach which maps each strand of a PM on only three, two or one

grouping cell(s)

whose respective parameters are scaled by a factor. These parameters, as well as the irradiation values given to the individual grouping cells(s), are determined dynamically by a pure algebraic clustering algorithm during simulation runtime. The proposed method is implemented and demonstrated in Modelica/Dymola.

Lukas Exel, Felix Felgner, Georg Frey

Hydrogen Production and Fuel Generation from Renewables (Catalysis)

Frontmatter

Modelling and the Analysis of the Power Supply System for the Generator of Hydrogen

In the paper the manner of characterising properties of the generator of hydrogen and the form of the computer model of this generator are presented. The model was formulated in the form of a subcircuit for SPICE software. The structure of this model is described and the values of parameters of the model are presented. With the use of the proposed model some dc and frequency characteristics of the considered generator are calculated and compared to the measured characteristics. Some results of analyses of the considered generator operating in different supply conditions are presented and discussed.

Krzysztof Górecki, Janusz Zarębski, Paweł Górecki, Sławomir Halbryt

Conductometric Titration to Analyze Nafion® 117 Conductivity

Nafion

®

membrane presents good chemical, thermal and mechanical stability and excellent protonic conductivity when the material is previously well-hydrated. This type of perfluorosulphonic acid membrane is widely used in a great variety of devices, being mainly applied in the field of renewable energy, for fuel cell and electrolyzers of polymeric electrolytes. Focusing on electrolyzers, it is well known that nowadays, they represent the most promising method for the production of hydrogen, being a well-established, robust and easy to use technology. Using Nafion

®

membrane in alkaline water electrolyzers as a separator, the aim of this study is to analyze its behaviour under alkaline conditions. Samples of Nafion

®

117 membranes in their original state and samples submitted to a previous cleaning treatment and specific hydration treatment were used. This hydration treatment assured an amount of molecules of water per sulphonic acid group (λ = 17–20). The ionic exchange rate between the hydrogen ion of the sulphonic group of Nafion

®

membrane and the sodium and potassium cations present in the alkaline solution were studied. The chemical kinetics of the reaction was determined with the purpose of establishing the time to carry out conductometric titration of the membrane using sodium and potassium hydroxide as titrates. Results show that the exchange rate of the alkaline ions, in the solution, present a first order kinetics reaction, at the concentration of hydroxide ions in that solution.

María José Lavorante, Juan Isidro Franco

High Thermal Conductivity Structured Bimetallic Catalysts for Low Temperature Ethanol Steam Reforming

This study focuses on the development of bimetallic structured catalysts, supported on CeO

2

and CeO

2

–ZrO

2

, active in Ethanol Steam Reforming (ESR) reaction at low-temperature (300–600 °C) and characterized by improved heat transfer properties. ESR reaction was carried out on ceramic foams and on powders catalysts. In particular, catalytic test were performed on two reactor configurations (annular and tubular), evidencing that the better thermal management of the foams, tested in the tubular reactor, results in very higher conversions mainly due to the overcoming heat transfer limitations. Moreover, the effect of catalytic support on system performances was investigated.

Vincenzo Palma, Concetta Ruocco, Filomena Castaldo, Antonio Ricca

Experimental Investigations on Structured Catalysts in CH4 Steam Reforming Intensification

Highly thermal conductive honeycomb structures were proposed as catalyst supports to enhance the heat and material transfer properties of catalysts. This work focuses on the experimental testing of the methane steam reforming reaction performed on a Ni-loaded SiC monolith packaged into an externally heated tube. In particular, the two flow configurations of Flow Through and Wall Flow were investigated and compared, the impact of a washcoat deposition was evaluated. The experimental tests indicate that the Wall Flow configuration may overcome the fixed-bed reactor problems, yielding a more uniform temperature distribution and more effective mass transport.

V. Palma, A. Ricca, E. Meloni, M. Martino, M. Miccio, P. Ciambelli

Catalysts for the Intensification of the Water Gas Shift Process

Nowadays the Water Gas Shift process (WGS) is performed in two stages, a first step at high temperature (HTS), carried out at 623–873 K, and a low temperature step (LTS) at 423–573 K, to reach a favorable thermodynamic equilibrium condition. This kind of configuration is expensive and requires complex operative conditions, so to make preferable process intensification. This could be achieved through the development of new structured catalytic formulations, characterized by enhanced thermal transfer properties, able to improve the heat distribution along the catalytic bed. For this purpose the most promising catalytic systems are precious metal based supported on open cells metallic foam carriers. In this paper we report a preliminary study on the preparation and the evaluation of differently-supported Pt-based catalysts, as promising precursors in the preparation of structured catalysts for the process intensification of WGS reaction.

V. Palma, D. Pisano, M. Martino, A. Ricca, P. Ciambelli

Hydrogen Production by Steam Conversion of a Model Biogas Over the Co-based Supported Catalysts

In this work, the new multicomponent Co-based catalysts promoted by additives of the VIII Group metal and rare earth element and supported on alumina have been synthesized and tested in dry and steam conversion of a model biogas. The processes were carried out under conditions: atmospheric pressure, GHSV—1000 h

−1

, and varying temperature within 300–800 °C. The catalysts were characterised by using electron microscopy, BET, and X-Ray analysis. Adding steam in amount up to 40 vol% leads to increasing both the methane conversion and the hydrogen yield at lower temperatures. Almost complete methane conversion is occurred at T < 700 °C at steam reforming of biogas. Syngas is enriched with hydrogen, ratio of H

2

/CO > 1.5. The catalysts are high effective ones. The 5%Co-M

1

-M

5

/Al

2

O

3

catalyst has showed the stable activity during 80 h of its continuous test in the steam conversion of a model biogas.

S. S. Itkulova, G. D. Zakumbaeva, Y. Y. Nurmakanov, A. M. Abdullin, A. Ospanova

Nanostructured Co-B Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation

We have prepared nanostructured Co-B catalysts via electroless deposition on a porous polycarbonate membrane for use as a hydrogen evolution catalyst from a sodium borohydride solution. Amorphous Co-B alloy is deposited to form nanotubes, connected together by a thin film at both ends. We have varied the deposition time to form a range of Co-B nanostructures to maximise hydrogen release. We have found that Co-B nanostructures with low deposition times of 20 s have the largest hydrogen generation rate per unit mass of 11,000 ml min

−1

g

−1

. However, deposition times of 80 s have the largest rate per unit area of 18,000 ml min

−1

m

−2

. For larger deposition times the nanotube pore diameter decreases which results in a reduction in the hydrogen generation rate, due to a decrease in the catalytic surface area. The activation energy of the Co-B nanostructures is found to be between 40–50 kJ mol

−1

, indicating that they are suitable catalysts for hydrogen production.

David Richardson, Fernando M. F. Rhen

Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Conversion

Frontmatter

Carbon Dioxide Conversion of Biogas with Producing Syngas Over the Polymetallic Supported Catalysts

The polymetallic Co-based alumina supported catalysts with additives of VIII group metal and rare earth element were synthesized and tested in biogas conversion. As a feed a model mix corresponding to the biogas produced by anaerobic fermentation of horse manure and containing carbon monoxide and hydrogen as well as water vapour has been used. Some amount of carbon dioxide has been added to adjust the composition of biogas to a ratio of a CH

4

:CO

2

= 1:1. The biogas conversion was carried out in a flow laboratory reactor operated at atmospheric pressure. Gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) was 1000 h

−1

. The effects of the amount of rare earth metal and presence of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and steam in a feed on biogas conversion over the Co-M

1

-M

5

/Al

2

O

3

catalysts were studied at varied temperature. The catalysts perform the high activity in biogas conversion. At 740 °C, the CO

2

completely converted, while the CH

4

conversion is higher than 96 %. Syngas is a main reaction product. Under these conditions, the H

2

/CO ratio is 1.1–1.2. The catalysts are the high stable in the biogas conversion.

Y. Y. Nurmakanov, V. S. Yemelyanova, S. S. Itkulova, G. D. Zakumbaeva, N. N. Nurgaliyev

Materials for Energy Saving

Frontmatter

Effects of Cobalt on the Crystalline Structures of the Ni-Mn-In Giant Magnetocaloric Heusler Alloys

The giant inverse magnetocaloric effect driven by a merged magneto-structural transformations in Ni-Mn-In-Co Heusler alloys, makes them highly promising as solid state refrigerants near room temperature. Knowledge of the crystallographic behavior of these alloys at a broad temperature range is critical to the understanding of the giant magnetocaloric effect. In this study, three Ni-Mn-In-Co alloys were investigated by neutron and synchrotron diffraction techniques. The chemical compositions of the alloys, determined by the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry (RBS) technique, were Ni

41

Mn

39

In

12

Co

8,

Ni

48

Mn

34

In

12

Co

6

and Ni

52

Mn

25

In

16

Co

7

. The austenitic (A) phase of all three alloys was cubic L2

1

(Fm3̅m). Martensitic (M) phase of the Ni

41

Mn

39

In

12

Co

8

alloy was a mix of 8M and 6M modulated monoclinic structures, while the other two alloys had a M composed of a mix of 7M and 5M modulated monoclinic structures. All modulated structures belong to the P 1 2/m 1 space group. Site occupancy refinements of the A phases of all three alloys, revealed that almost all the Co atoms (~97%) occupy the regular Ni (8c) sites. In the studied temperature range (50–250 K) of the M phase of the Ni

41

Mn

39

In

12

Co

8

alloy has very low magnetization. Also, no antiferromagnetic ordring was observed in the neutron diffraction refinement of the M phase. Therefore by eliminating the possibilities of ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism, it is concluded that the M phase of the Ni

41

Mn

39

In

12

Co

8

alloy is spin glass.

Amila Madiligama, P. Ari-Gur, V. Shavrov, V. Koledov, Y. Ren, S. Calder, A. Kayani

Analysis of the External Magnetic Field Influences on the Measurements Realized with a Single Strip Tester (SST) Using Finite Element Modeling

In this article it was studied the magnetic influence of an electromagnetic coil on the measurements, realized with a single strip tester. One major difficulty in modeling of the magnetic materials is the magnetic hysteresis. As a consequence, it was used the Frohlich-Kennelly model for defining the hysteresis of the soft magnetic material, from which is manufactured the magnetic core of the electrotechnical devices. A numerical study, based on finite element analysis, is proposed in order to model a Single Strip Tester (SST). For this it was made a geometrical description based on technical data of a SST developed by Brockhaus Messtechnik, which measures magnetic properties of silicon iron strips with an area of 280 × 30 mm

2

.

Veronica Manescu (Paltanea), Gheorghe Paltanea, Dorina Popovici, Gabriel Jiga

Thermoelectrics

Frontmatter

Energy Harvesting from Open Fireplaces

This contribution presents a green barbecue or fireplace, which recovers electrical energy from the heat of the fire by the use of thermoelectric generators (TEGs). TEGs use a temperature difference to generate electrical energy based on the Seebeck effect. To generate a sufficient temperature difference, the fireplace was designed to ensure a good heat transfer to the hot TEG sides. Furthermore, CPU cooling elements using heat pipes were mounted on the cold TEG sides. As a side effect, the recirculation of the preheated air from these coolers into the fire can improve the burning process. The gained energy is used to load a mobile device via an USB plug and to supply 12 V DC via a vehicle plug. Possible applications of the system are of course barbecues where the DC power may be used to support mobile devices or entertainment systems. A more serious application is found in rural areas without electrification where the electricity generated during cooking may replace expensive batteries or environmentally unfriendly diesel generators. Moreover, a simulation model for the green barbecue is created. The contribution will describe the construction of the green fireplace and the developed simulation model. Finally the simulation results are compared with real test readings and an outlook on further developments to a controlled fireplace is given.

Marco Nesarajah, Georg Frey

Energy Saving in Buildings

Frontmatter

The Impact of Installing Variable Frequency Drives for Cooling Towers in Kuwait on Energy Consumption

The application of Variable Frequency Drive (VFD) as a water and energy efficient control scheme for the operation of cooling towers (CTs) was experimentally verified using summer and winter season field data. A major concern during CT operation is the large flow of air required for cooler water temperatures that help in improving the performance of air-conditioning systems. However, this improved performance increases fan power and water consumption in dry and hot countries, such as Kuwait, due to the self-cooling property of air that results in additional water evaporation. The technical viability of VFDs for the CTs as a water and energy efficient device and to quantify the potential savings of water and electricity were experimentally verified using summer and winter season field data. The CT fans in the selected site, originally fitted with dual speed motor, were retrofitted with VFDs. The site was adequately instrumented to assess energy and water consumption of the cooling production system while operating the CTs’ fans with constant air flow alternatively either at low or high speed through the building management system (BMS), and the VFD scheme keeping the CT leaving water temperature constant. The results were in favor of selecting CT with VFD as the best option to reduce electricity and water consumption.

Eitidal Al-Bassam

Solutions of Ground Floor for Energy Efficient Buildings—Economic Evaluation

Do you think that passive houses are inventions of recent years? It is not exactly true. Even if they use more advanced technology, some of the basic principles goes back hundreds years. History of passive houses have their roots in the 19th century, where the first building was not a building, but research ship of polar explorer Fridtjof Nansen called From in 1883. Walls and sandwich construction deck had thickness of 400 mm, which fulfill the function of thermal insulation layer of felt and linoleum fulfill the function of a vapour barrier. Glass treated windows were triple and worked there controlled ventilation with electric ventilators.

Anna Sedlakova, Pavol Majdlen, Ladislav Tazky

Analysis of Air Velocity, Moisture and Thermal Regime in a Double-Shell Roof

This work was based on the need to gain a better understanding of the air velocity using CFD simulation as a form of verification of the functionality of ventilated air gaps in real constructions. The moisture regime of roofs with open air layers is theoretically assessed as satisfactory in terms of operational reliability by a sufficient margin. We used different simulation software in order to reveal local imperfections, in order to realize moisture diffusion from residential spaces through ceilings without a vapour barrier which would ensure the free flow of unwanted condensation on cold surfaces of the envelope leading to defects in the roof.

Martin Kovac, Jaroslav Vojtus

Simulation of Energy Demand in a Shopping Centre—Case Study

The target of this contribution is the energy simulation of energy demand for the heating system in winter period and for the cooling system in summer period. The object of the energy simulation is the shopping centre situated in Kosice (Slovakia). It is solved the main passage of the centre that is basically the internal enclosed atrium connecting three stories. This space allows all customers to move in the centre and is also connected to the adjacent smaller shops. The passage has large glass surfaces on the exterior walls and on the roof. Mainly because of this state the interior is much overheated in summer period. There are proposed and analysed passive shading devices, there are solar window films. The energy simulation is elaborated in order to evaluate the yearlong operation of internal environment in term of energy demand.

Martin Kovac, Katarina Kovacova

Build-in Transparent Collector Construction

There are several ways to utilize renewable energy sources. Collectors are well known as one of the oldest build-in or post-mount construction at buildings. This paper presents idea of transparent sun collector based on insulation glass unit, with inner and outer liquid circulation. The heat absorbed from the sun in inner circuit liquid is transferred and transmitted by heat exchanger to the secondary circuit. Where energy can be stored or used in preheating devices in hot water delivery systems. This system can be applied in buildings with huge transparent or non-transparent glass based facades with suitable needs for hot water for example in administrative buildings, swimming pools, gyms etc. Research at current state deals with mechanical construction of window and prepares laboratory tests and build in measurements of construction itself.

Ján Lojkovics, Danica Košičanová, Richard Nagy, Marek Kušnír, Martin Štefanco

Modeling and Theoretical Aspects in Energy Related Materials

Frontmatter

Tensile and Torsional Loads Stress Distribution Along the Drill String for Deep Wells

Common knowledge and rule of thumb tell us that tensile failures will mostly occur in the pipe body, while torsion failures will occur in the tool joints. The total stresses on the drill string should be considered which are induced by combined bending, torsion and tensile stresses. The latter can usually be operating up until 80 % of the pipe body yield stress, a level which is considered as a safe working limit. Moreover, torque and drag are caused by the lateral forces and the friction between the borehole wall and the drill pipe. The lateral forces depend on the weight of the drill string. Torque and drag are sometimes overlooked when drilling simple wells. In deep well this is not acceptable. Proper decision made using correct torque and drag can make all the difference between TD drilling and suspended drilling. Therefore the over pull load plus the torque are the most important points to be considered in deep well drilling, since the resistance of the drill string body to the combined efforts will probably limit its tensional limit. By this I mean, exerting both a tension and torsion load on the drill string of this later will weaken its yield stress consequently applying a high tension effort combined with a significant torque lead to plastifying of the drill pipe body thus reducing its fatigue life. This problem is well observed in back-reaming operation. The results show that fatigue damage from rotation in dogleg during backreaming operation is a significant problem if the severity is greater than the critical value. So the position of drill pipe in the string will influence the amount of fatigue damage it sustains. Furthermore, back reaming can reduce the fatigue life of the drill pipe significantly because of the stress reversal of the drill string under tension in a dogleg.

Lallia Belkacem, Noureddine Abdelbaki, Mohamed Gaceb, Elahmoun Bouali, Hedjaj Ahmed, Mourad Bettayeb

Computational Screening of Dual Cation Metal Ammine Borohydrides

Hydrogen is one of the promising alternatives for the replacement of fossil-fuels. One of the major bottlenecks preventing its widespread commercialization for on-board applications is to find the most suitable storage medium. Metal borohydrides are one of the classes of solid materials studied intensively to store hydrogen due to their high theoretical hydrogen capacities. However, their high thermodynamic stability is one of the major problems limiting their usage. The requirement of high decomposition temperature can be lowered by the inclusion of ammonia. The resulting new complex containing both borohydrides and ammines is called as Ammine Metal Borohydrides (AMBs). However, some of the AMBs have insuppressible release of ammonia during the dehydrogenation. This can be solved by the inclusion of a second metal atom into AMBs leading to dual-cation AMBs with a general formula of M

1

M

2

(BH

4

)

y

(NH

3

)

x

. Experimental studies about one dual-cation AMBs (LiMg(BH

4

)

3

(NH

3

)

2

) indicate desired properties e.g., decomposition occurs below 200 °C and no release of ammonia. In this study, a computational screening using periodic density functional theory was performed to find promising dual-cation AMBs (M

1

M

2

(BH

4

)

y

(NH

3

)

x

with M

1

= Li, Na, K, M

2

= Mg, Ca, Sr, Zn, Mn, Ni, y = 3, x = 2, 3, 4, 5, 6). The screening has been accomplished using template crystal structures generated by Crystal Structure Prediction via Simulated Annealing (CASPESA) method. Formation, alloying and simple decomposition reactions were employed for the evaluation of the complexes.

Arash Emdadi, Yusuf Kışlak, Samet Demir, Adem Tekin

Analysis of Electricity Usage for Domestic Heating Based on an Air-to-Water Heat Pump in a Real World Context

In this paper a new computational model to estimate the performance of an air to water heat pump in relation to outdoor temperature is proposed and evaluated. This model is an extension and refinement of a model proposed in previous work. In the new model the following has been taken into account. Real empirical data for usage of a heat pump over a whole heating season have been used to obtain accurate parameter values. The energy which is used for heating sanitation water for the bathroom is taken into account in a separate submodel. According to some reports, around 15 % of domestic energy usage is for hot water. From the empirical data set, the fraction of energy which is consumed for this purpose is known, and it is used to model the usage for sanitation water heating as separate from the usage for heating. In this model the amount of energy which is used to keep the system working (active standby mode) is taken into account as well. The now available empirical data for the whole heating season have been used to estimate the parameter values for this model on the one hand and validation on the other hand.

Seyed Amin Tabatabaei, Jan Treur

The Method of Determining Certain Parameters of Energy Absorption in Materials Under Complex Dynamic Excitations

The paper presents the method to identify the dissipative properties of the materials with a clear hysteresis loop under the quasi-static loads. Because of the fact that for low values of velocity, the resisting forces related to the speed are minimal, it is not possible to determine these forces as the functions of velocity in the quasi-static deformations. It results in the need to develop such methods for identification, which use the responses of the tested system to the cyclic loading with a high frequency. This paper presents such a method. Its application may be useful in the area of constructing the effective and modern ballistic shields.

Miroslaw Bocian, Krzysztof Jamroziak, Maciej Kulisiewicz, Stanislaw Piesiak
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