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Whereas two-dimensional semiconductor process simulation has achieved a certain degree of maturity, three-dimensional process simulation is a newly emerging field in which most efforts are dedicated to necessary basic developments. Research in this area is promoted by the growing demand to obtain reliable information on device geometries and dopant distributions needed for three-dimensional device simulation, and challenged by the great algorithmic problems caused by moving interfaces and by the requirement to limit computation times and memory requirements. A workshop (Erlangen, September 5, 1995) provided a forum to discuss the industrial needs, technical problems, and solutions being developed in the field of three-dimensional semiconductor process simulation. Invited presentations from leading semiconductor companies and research Centers of Excellence from Japan, the USA, and Europe outlined novel numerical algorithms, physical models, and applications in this rapidly emerging field.



Three-Dimensional Topography Simulator: 3D-MULSS and Its Applications

This paper introduces a three-dimensional topography simulator:3D-MULSS and its applications. We focus on the description of the material surface and the surface advancement, and then we present a 3D-MULSS model, with consideration to the probe size of observation, and based on the integration formula of the balance equation. Next, we show the simulation results of the 3D-MULSS: isotropic deposition, Aluminum-sputter deposition, isotropic etching, anisotropic etching, BPSG flow and sequential process steps. These results make the accuracy of the 3D-MULSS clear, and also show that it is possible to stably simulate the sequential process steps.
Masato Fujinaga, Norihiko Kotani

A Three-Dimensional Process Simulation using Advanced SMART-P program

We developed a first version of three dimensional process simulator: SMART-P in 1987. This simulator has been used to develop the DRAM cells, CMOS processes and CCD devices. We advanced this program through these applications in some technical points, which are a TCAD system, physical models, numerical approaches and estimation techniques. In this paper, an advanced SMART-P program is described using three-dimensional simulation results of oxidation and BPSG flow.
H. Umimoto, S. Odanaka, A. Gohda

3-D Topography Simulation Using Surface Representation and Central Utilities

There are major opportunities for new algorithms and system integration concepts in TCAD systems which can be met by developing centralized utilities. Suitable purpose-built high performance algorithms for surface representation based simulation developed in connection with SAMPLE-3D are described. An exploratory centralized services system called the Berkeley Topography Utilities has been developed for studying the continuum of flexible choices between reusing these purpose-built algorithms and robust general-purpose solid modeling operations. This system links code from SAMPLE-3D, SIMPL, the IBM Geometry Engine serving as -a solid modeler, and a 2-D shock tracker. The BTU organization into hierarchial views, the use of surface direction monotonicity for speed enhancement, and a geometry tagging method for process trace-back are described.
A. R. Neureuther, R. H. Wang, J. J Helmsen, J. F. Sefler, E. W. Scheckler, R. Gunturi, Rex Winterbottom

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Thermal Processes

Three-dimensional simulation of thermal processes is performed using the Florida Object Oriented Process Simulator (FLOOPS). Algorithms for three-dimensional grid update, moving boundaries, and solution of equations are described. The major challenge in building a 3D simulator is addressing the grid requirements, and the approach used in FLOOPS will be described. As process simulators move to three-dimensions, new parts of the simulator become CPU limiting. Some of these problems will be discussed and addressed. Since this is an area of on-going work, our current research directions will also he discussed.
Mark E. Law, Stephen Cea

3D Process Simulation at IEMN/ISEN

This paper addresses the current fields of interest at IEMN/ISSN concerning 3D process simulation. The emphasis is on the diffusion and oxidation steps and the associated issue of 3D mesh generation. For each step, the achievements are presented with special attention to the numerical aspects. In particular, the principles underlying local remeshing are discussed.
B. Baccus, S. Bozek, V. Senez, Z. Z. Wang

3D Simulation of Topography and Doping Processes at FhG

This paper outlines activities carried out at FhG-IIS-B and FhG-ISiT on the development of algorithms and physical models required for the accurate three-dimensional simulation of topography and doping steps in semiconductor technology. The three-dimensional process simulation modules are being developed as parts of the SOLID and the PROMPT process simulation systems.
J. Lorenz, E. Bär, A. Burenkov, W. Henke, K. Tietzel, M. Weiß

3D TCAD at TU Vienna

This paper gives an overview about our research on three-dimensional process simulation. Today’s activities are worldwide still suffering from a lack of appropriate geometric modeling, robust gridding, accurate and verifiable physical models as well as computationally efficient numerical algorithms. Possible solutions to some of these problems are demonstrated on the basis of our three-dimensional process simulation tools.
E. Leitner, W. Bohmayr, P. Fleischmann, E. Strasser, S. Selberherr

Multi-Dimensional TCAD: The PROMPT/DESSIS Approach

Designing new semiconductor devices for very large scale integrated circuits (VLSI) requires intensive use of process and device simulation tools to reduce development costs. However, valid device simulation results can only be achieved when a high geometrical modeling precision has been reached during the process simulation phase. Accurate finite element simulators embedded in a multi-dimensional process simulation environment help to fulfill this quality requirement. Since general-purpose three-dimensional (3D) process simulators are not yet available, a modern design environment combines solid modeling techniques with one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) finite element simulators. In this article we present a consistent and integrated process simulation environment that eases the characterization and optimization of semiconductor devices. The straightforward modeling in all three dimensions of an EEPROM cell illustrates the presented approach.
M. Westermann, T. Feudel, N. Strecker, S. Gappisch, A. Höfler, W. Fichtner

3D Process Simulation Requirements And Tradeoffs From Industrial Perspective

This paper discusses the requirements, challenges, tradeoffs, obstacles, economic constraints, and managerial options for three-dimensional process simulation in the context of present and anticipated technology needs.
Marius Orlowski


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