In countries with the Anglo-Saxon tradition, public participation is synonymous with participatory democracy. People there associate the very concept of democracy with the activity of participating in government decision making. Although many do little more than vote, the term embraces much more. In some European countries, namely Germany, the Netherlands, and the Scandinavian countries, public participation practices evolved largely from the labor movement, in particular with regard to co-determination of corporate management. It is only recently that participation has spread to governmental activities (Guild 1979). Participation in Germany, for example, is largely realized through the institution of political parties. To be involved, even at a local level, one must first join one of the local political parties. In recent years, however, Germany as well as the several other European countries has experienced the emergence of many social movements which demand more direct democracy, in particular in decisions related to environmental quality and technological choices (Brand 1987: 31).
Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
- A Brief Primer on Participation: Philosophy and Practice
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 2