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Chapter 3 reviews changes in the trade relationship between New Zealand and Britain caused by Britain’s engagement with the European Economic Community (EEC). The formation of the EEC in 1955 gave Britain a dilemma; it could join only by reducing or abandoning the Imperial Preference arrangements with Commonwealth countries. The dilemma was first put to one side by Britain standing aloof from the developments in Continental Europe but eventually economic pressures forced Britain to investigate whether a compromise might be possible. It was into the 1970s before a compromise was found with special arrangements being agreed for New Zealand. There are multiple interpretations of the economic impact of those arrangements and those are reviewed concluding that the impact was emotional rather than economic.
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J. M. Livingstone, Britain in the World Economy (Harmondsworth: Penguin Books Ltd., 1971), 110.
Martin Dedman, The Origins and Development of the European Union: 1945−95 (Abingdon: Routledge, 2000), 57.
J. Young, ‘The Parting of the Ways’?: Britain, the Messina Conference and the Spaak Committee, June–December 1955, in M Dockrill and J Young (ed.), British Foreign Policy, 1945–56 (London: Macmillan Press Ltd., 1989), 197−224. Young shows how British foreign policy had become one of reacting on a day-by-day basis rather than looking ahead strategically, partly reflecting the failings of Eden as a Prime Minister.
Edward Heath, The Course of my Life: My Autobiography (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1999), 122.
Alan Bullock, Ernest Bevin: Foreign Secretary, 1945–1951 (London: William Heinemann Ltd., 1983), 782.
Barry Gustafson, Kiwi Keith: A Biography of Keith Holyoake (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2007), 291.
‘Financial Statement’, Appendices to the Journal of the House of Representatives (AJHR), 1961, Vol. I, B−6, 8/9, Wellington Central Library (WCL).
Harold Macmillan, At the End of the Day: 1961−1963 (London: Macmillan, 1973), 349.
Stuart Ward, Australia and the British Embrace: Demise of the Imperial Ideal (Victoria: Melbourne University Press, 2001), 46.
Notes of Meeting of Representatives of Producer Boards and Federated Farmers with the Minister of Finance, the Hon. A. H. Nordmeyer, 05/10/1960, T61/3/31 Commonwealth Economic Consultative Council − Finance Ministers Meeting London 1960, 2, Archives New Zealand (ANZ).
Gustafson, Holyoake, 119.
Gustafson, Holyoake, 4.
John Marshall, Memoirs Vol II; 1960–1988 (Auckland: William Collins Ltd., 1989), 61.
Peter Tait, In the Chair: the Public Life of Sir John Ormond (Waipukurau: CHB Print, 1989), 99.
Peter Mangold, The Almost Impossible Ally: Harold Macmillan and Charles de Gaulle (New York: I.B Taurus, 2006). Mangold shows how Macmillan and de Gaulle had worked together starting during World War II but Macmillan never managed to dispel the resentment by de Gaulle of the neglect shown to him (in his eyes) by the Americans and the British during that War. Into the 1960s the British and Americans worked together, for instance with Britain becoming dependent on the USA for nuclear missile delivery systems. De Gaulle again felt neglected in that relationship.
Ben Pimlott, Harold Wilson (London: HarperCollins, 1992), 432−439. Pimlott shows how Wilson, himself, was at first strongly in favour of Commonwealth relationships but was gradually persuaded that Britain should at least investigate whether conditions were now ripe for a new bid for membership of the EEC. Marshall, 93, reports the Wilson announcement to the British Parliament in which he mentioned specifically that a satisfactory agreement would have to be found for New Zealand. Marshall notes, also, that the assurance was given by Herbert Bowden, the British Minister who visited New Zealand at that time.
Merwyn Norrish, ‘Merwyn Norrish’ in Malcolm Templeton (ed.) An Eye, An Ear And A Voice: 50 years in New Zealand’s External Relations 1943−1993 (Wellington: Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade, 1993), 135.
Templeton (ed.), 136.
‘Comforting Words About NZ Position “Not Good Enough”’, Straight Furrow, 09/09/1970, 13, ATL.
Paul Robertson and John Singleton, ‘The Old Commonwealth and Britain’s First Application to Join the EEC’, Australian Economic History Review, 40, 2, 2000, 153. In 2014 the author put that question to some of the senior diplomats and politicians who were active in the second half of the twentieth century, all agreed with Robertson and Singleton’s judgement.
‘Mr Marshall Sees Start of New Era in NZ Trade’, Straight Furrow, 09/09/1970, 30, ATL.
McAloon, 142. McAloon reports how Marshall threatened to tell the British media that Britain was letting New Zealand down and, when Rippon doubted that Marshall would go that far, Marshall had responded ‘You try me’.
Marshall, 112. Both Marshall and Stewart were in the New Zealand Division that secured Trieste for Italy at the end of World War II by ‘encouraging’ the Yugoslavian occupiers to leave. Neither had used their war service to seek preferment and Stewart reported to the author that he was told, on being puzzled why Italy had negotiated hard on New Zealand’s behalf for New Zealand’s preferred dairy quota, ‘we did it for Trieste’ (in conversation with the author on 04/11/2014). Robert Muldoon, New Zealand finance minister at the time of the EEC settlement, was also involved in the Trieste campaign.
Gustafson, Holyoake, 308.
Rt. Hon. J.R. Marshall’s Opening the Debate in the House of Representatives on the Special Arrangements for New Zealand, 01/07/1971, EEC – The agreement−statements and papers, ABOT W2670 6787 Box 2, 16, ANZ.
Marshall, 112; Muldoon, 84.
Meeting with the Minister of Trade in the United Kingdom Government, 24/08/1971, Trade: United Kingdom: Dairy Produce 1971−1972, C 324 075 C1W2358 54 955/UK/1 Part 1, 2, ANZ.
Singleton and Robertson, Relations, 6.
Shane Brownie and Paul Dalziel, ‘Shift−share analyses of New Zealand exports, 1970–1984’, New Zealand Economic Papers, 27, 2, 1993, 233−249.
McAloon, 142 − 143.
Brian Easton, The Nationbuilders (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2001), 183.
Brian Easton, In Stormy Seas: The Post-War New Zealand Economy (Dunedin: University of Otago Press, 1997), 80.
Felicity Barnes, New Zealand’s London: A Colony and Its Metropolis (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2012), 157.
In 2014, the author asked a group of retired New Zealand farmers when they had stopped feeling ‘British’. After a long period of musing, they agreed that they have never stopped feeling British.
Newspaper clippings − Commonwealth and Common Market, June 1961 to February 1962 (European Economic Community − United Kingdom−European Economic Community Negotiations) AAFZ, 7174, W1318, Box 223, ANZ.
Easton, Nationbuilders, 183.
Philippa Mein Smith, A Concise History of New Zealand (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2011), 207.
Bill Ralston, New Zealand Listener, 12 March 2016, 94.
Barry Gustafson, His Way: A Biography of Robert Muldoon (Auckland: Auckland University Press, 2001), 164.
- A Brutal Snapping of the Anglo-New Zealand Nexus?
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