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Über dieses Buch

A CMOS Self-Powered Front-End Architecture for Subcutaneous Event-Detector Devices presents the conception and prototype realization of a Self-Powered architecture for subcutaneous detector devices. The architecture is designed to work as a true/false (event detector) or threshold level alarm of some substances, ions, etc... that are detected through a three-electrodes amperometric BioSensor approach. The device is envisaged as a Low-Power subcutaneous implantable application powered by an inductive link, one emitter antenna at the external side of the skin and the receiver antenna under the skin.

The sensor is controlled with a Potentiostat circuit and then, a post-processing unit detects the desired levels and activates the transmission via a backscattering method by the inductive link. All the instrumentation, except the power module, is implemented in the so called BioChip. Following the idea of the powering link to harvest energy of the magnetic induced link at the implanted device, a Multi-Harvesting Power Chip (MHPC) has been also designed.



Chapter 1. Introduction

This chapter introduces the state-of-the-art in the main topics covered in the book: energy harvesting, with special interest in the body energy harvesting sources, biosensors, and finally the electronics for them. These are the main aspects to consider in the envisaged conception of the Self-Powered architecture for subcutaneous detector device.
Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Pere Lluís Miribel-Català

Chapter 2. Energy Harvesting (Multi Harvesting Power Chip)

There is a growing interest in renewable energy and their applications for both, high and low power systems. Specifically, Energy Harvesting consists in the use of free available energy from the environment, vibrations, heat, light, radio waves or human activities, to power small electronic systems with Low-Voltages and Low-Power consumption. The challenge is to avoid the use of any bulky battery with finite amount of energy and just work directly with the harvested energy and a rechargeable storage element. At that point, Energy Harvesting generators are a promising alternative to generate energy from environment sources and power some applications. Moreover, the use of these generators, with infinite amount of energy, allows the development of autonomous Self-Powered applications. This chapter discusses the development of a real power system based on the recollected energy from several ambient sources. A system able to collect and manage energy from four different power sources, solar light, vibrations, thermal and inductive waves is introduced. Furthermore, the conception is validated with a full-custom Integrated Circuit (IC). Later on, a comprehensive description of all circuits involved in the Multi harvesting system is done; emphasizing the design for Low-Voltage and Low-Power applications.
Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Pere Lluís Miribel-Català

Chapter 3. Biomedical Integrated Instrumentation

This Chapter is focused on the development of an integrated instrumentation to work with three electrodes amperometric Biosensor. First of all, it is introduced the conception of three electrodes configuration and how it works. Moreover, some typical electrochemical techniques like Voltammetry, EIS and amperometry, are introduced to the reader. The instrumentation electronics is based on a potentiostat architecture, which is explained in detail and experimentally validated. The obtained results with the full-custom approach are compared with the ones obtained using a commercial potentiostat. In that way, the correct operation of the designed circuits is fully validated. Furthermore, this chapter explains the conception of a Lock-In amplifier circuit used to detect the real and imaginary components of the complex impedance measured from the Biosensor. This circuit is theoretically explained and some simulated results are shown. Finally, the conception of Biotelemetry or how to transmit information from the subcutaneous device to the external reader is introduced. Then, the implemented protocol in this work is detailed. In summary, this chapter presents the developed BioChip IC that is able to drive the sensor, process the measured data and transmit the data to the external side through an inductive link.
Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Pere Lluís Miribel-Català

Chapter 4. CMOS Front-End Architecture for In-vivo Biomedical Subcutaneous Detection Devices

This chapter describes the design and conception of the Self-Powered CMOS Front-End Architecture for a Biomedical Subcutaneous Device. The entire architecture is presented in detail as well as the powering and communication through the inductive link. The power and communication antenna and the connections between the MHCP IC (Chapter 2), the BioChip IC (Chapter 3) and the sensor are also detailed afterwards. The results obtained with the final capsule prototype with a size less than 4.5 cm × 2.5 cm are shown and commented in depth. Problems regarding misalignments between the internal and external antennas are studied and the SOA (Safety Operation Area) region is introduced. Finally, the prototype has been validated as a detector.
Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Pere Lluís Miribel-Català

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Future Work

In this last Chapter the main electrical characteristics of the proposed CMOS architecture for the implantable, self-powered event detector device, are summarized. Future aspects in the development of a new prototype are envisaged by the authors.
Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Pere Lluís Miribel-Català


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