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To overcome issues emerging out of highly volatile international oil markets, depleting coal reserves, high carbon emissions, and increasing public resistance for hydropower projects, India proposes to develop nuclear and renewable energy sources like solar, wind energy as priority sector during the 12th Five Year Plan. The recent Indo–US nuclear deal has allowed India to import uranium for civilian use from nuclear suppliers’ group like France, Russia, and Kazakhstan under International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards to meet the target of 20,000 MWe by 2020. Presently, nuclear energy contributes to about 14 % of the world’s total electricity from 438 operable nuclear reactors, while in India, 20 reactors with gross capacity of 4780 MWe contribute 3.70 % of gross electricity generation. Based on current development pace and national plans, prediction of uranium needs has been made till 2020. It indicates that India’s dependence on uranium imports will increase significantly. However, India needs to overcome certain obstacles like safety measures, nuclear waste management, indigenous nuclear technology, and regular uranium supply for larger reactors. Recent protests in Jaitapur in Maharashtra and Koodankulam in Tamil Nadu have raised the question of acceptability of these projects among the locals mainly because of the Bhopal Gas tragedy (1984) and Fukushima incident (2011) in Japan.
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