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This book reflects the author’s views on NGO development in China and includes recent papers, reviews, and policy suggestions he has written. This collection introduces the current state of research on NGOs and their development in China to an English-speaking audience, allowing them to understand China’s social reforms, which center on NGOs. ​

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Analysis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. An Analysis of “New Social Policies” and the Realization Path

Abstract
Since the Reform and Opening Up, each “third plenary session” of the CPC has been an important meeting at which a new central leadership releases signals for reform, demonstrates administrative policies and work priorities.
Ming Wang, Lan Yuxin

Chapter 2. An Exposition of China’s New System—A Modern NGO System

Abstract
Establishing a modern NGO system is a significant national strategy proposed by the 18th National Congress of the CPC. In a modern NGO system, the essence of separation of government administration and NGO management is reform, the essence of well-defined rights and responsibilities is transformation, and the essence of self-governance by law is social reconstruction. A modern NGO system shall include five aspects: monitoring system, supporting system, cooperating system, governing system and operating system.
Ming Wang

Chapter 3. Practical Exploration and Institutional Innovation in Co-governance by Multiple Subjects

Abstract
Co-governance by multiple subjects on the basis of rule of law is recapitulative experience from practical explorations in China’s social governance, and also a new requirement raised in the practice. As an institutional innovation in social governance, multi-subject co-governance exhibit four characteristics: multiple subjects, an open and complex co-governing system, a co-governing mechanism based on dialogue, competition, compromise, cooperation and collective action and a final output oriented towards common interests. Multi-subject co-governance is not an exit of the government, nor “a small government or weak government”, but a co-governance mode of “a small government, a strong government and a big society”.
Ming Wang, Chunting Wang

Chapter 4. Incremental Co-governance: Investigation of Hangzhou Experience of Driving Reform Through Innovation

Abstract
Social co-governance is an inevitable tendency for the reform of China’s social governance mode. Under the contemporary institutions, it will meet fewer obstacles to realize co-governance through incremental reform, which is relatively feasible. The practices of social management innovation in Hangzhou are obviously characterized by incremental co-governance. The practices in Hangzhou include: (1) developing new governing fields (adding fields); (2) cultivating new-styled governing subjects (adding subjects); (3) constructing new governing aggregations (adding structures). These practices have built a new zone of social governance beyond the traditional social management institutions. There are three main mechanisms which help to realize effective co-governance: (1) forming universal values and concepts (co-value); (2) releasing more public governance space (co-space); (3) building cross-sector evaluation standards (co-evaluation). Incremental co-governance succeeded in Hangzhou because of its market economy, social capital as well as historical and cultural traditions. With the boosting of China’s comprehensive reform of social institutions, it can be forecasted that the incremental co-governance will also be applied in many areas where the market economy is developed, the societies are active, and the citizens highly trusted the governments.
Ming Wang, Liu Guohan

Chapter 5. Transfer of Governing Power: Wenzhou Experience in Approach to Realizing Multi-subject Co-governance

Abstract
Realizing multiple-subject co-governance by innovating social co-governance has become a general trend for government and social reform. In the practical explorations for the approach to realizing multi-subject co-governance, the practice of “transfer of governing powers” in Wenzhou stood itself out. This paper will, first, from the perspective of theoretical research, present the difference in multi-subject co-governance and the approaches for realizing such co-governance in both China and Western countries, analyze the background of multi-subject co-governance in Wenzhou and generalize the mode for practical innovations in Wenzhou; then sum up the approach to realizing multi-subject co-governance in Wenzhou, and finally dig up the deep-root causes for the selection of the approach. Moreover, this paper will make a systematic analysis of the co-governance-oriented reform in Wenzhou and point out the salutary lessons that can be drawn from Wenzhou experience.
Ming Wang

Commentaries

Frontmatter

Chapter 6. On “Social Management Innovations”

Abstract
Since 2011, “social management innovations” have become one of the most awesome concepts in China’s political life. From the central to the local level, consensus has been reached on the concept of “civil society”. Besides, a series of practices in reform and innovation have been carried out vigorously, Party and government reform in particular. A powerful current of reform has been formed from the bottom to the top to boost social construction. At the same time, the emergence of such new network media as microblog and public accountability by online citizens and other social forces have increasingly become important factors influencing public processes, bringing about a wave of bottom-up social construction forces or a civil society. These two steams of massive energy, which are surging across China, are being fermented and drawn nearer and nearer. Thus, it is worthwhile to show some concern for and make some in-depth research on this aspect.
Ming Wang

Chapter 7. Modernization of the State: Let NGOs Become Real Subjects of Social Governance

Abstract
What is the difference between social governance and social management? The biggest difference lies in that social management is the business of the government, while, social governance, instead of merely the business of the government, also involves cooperation between the government and the society. In a sense, the society has to play a dominant role. This is what is meant by social governance. In nowadays, China’s modernization is confronted with the central proposition of social governance. The core issue with social co-governance is how to reconstruct the society. When it comes to social reconstruction, we are faced with three major institutional reforms.
Ming Wang

Chapter 8. On Mechanisms for Promoting Social Structural Reform

Abstract
As far as social structural reform is concerned, the 18th National Congress of the CPC has expressly put forward the strategic task of “accelerating social structural reform”. Actually, in today’s meeting, the key breakthrough point for promoting social structural system reform is stepping up efforts to promote reform of NGO management system so as to form as soon as possible a modern NGO system characterized by separation of government administration and NGO management, well-defined rights and responsibilities and self-governance according to law. But this does not represent all the connotations of the entire social structural reform. One important contribution of the 18th National Congress of the CPC is that it takes social construction as an integral part of the five modernization construction (i.e. industrial modernization, agricultural modernization, national defense modernization, modernization of science and technology, and modernization of national governance systems and national governance capacity).
Ming Wang

Chapter 9. Separation of Government Administration and NGO Management: Key to Deepening Innovations in Social Governance

Abstract
At current stage, the key for China’s social governance innovation lies in promoting transformation of government functions, implementing the principle of separation of government administration and NGO management, endeavoring to delegate powers to the society and release more public space, and trying to establish a new cooperation mechanism between the government and NGOs, in a bid to cultivate a healthy and open virtuous ecology for NGOs and invigorate the NGO system.
Ming Wang

Chapter 10. Comprehensively Deepening Reform and Stepping up Efforts to Form a Modern NGO System

Abstract
The 18th National Congress of CPC first expressly proposed to speed up efforts to promote social structural reform. So far, the overall framework for social structural reform has basically taken shape. Social structural reform is the core strategy for the second stage of China’s deepening reform in all aspects; the core strategy for the first stage is economic structural reform, including reform in other fields.
M. Wang

Chapter 11. On Government Purchasing Services

Abstract
In September 2013, the State Council held an executive meeting to deliberate the specific issue of purchasing services. At the meeting, it made clear that part of the public service function will be transferred to NGOs, and put forward in detail five requirements, including working out a guidance directory for purchasing services. It is learned that the State Council is stepping up efforts to roll out guiding opinions on the government purchasing services from NGOs. This is another major move by the central government in pushing on with transformation of government functions and speeding up social structural reform since the National People’s Congress passed plans on institutional reform in this March.
Ming Wang

Chapter 12. On Hangzhou: “We” Is a Kind of Ideological Emancipation and Social Reconstruction

Abstract
I’m much honored to attend this forum again. This is the third time for me to attend such a forum themed social construction and “we”. I really appreciate Hangzhou municipal Party committee and government for their continuous concern for social construction, and for their renewed efforts to elevate ideological and theoretical discussions on social construction to such a height. I myself have been conducting in research into NGOs, and have turned my attention to social management innovations only in recent two years. I believe that the ongoing 18th National Congress of the CPC will also include social management innovations as a crucial topic.
Ming Wang

Chapter 13. On NGOs in Wenzhou and Social Innovation

Abstract
In May 2013, when the special research group of the Social and Legal Commission of the National Committee of the Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) conducted a field visit to NGOs in Wenzhou, I joined as one of its member in the relevant discussions and visited several typical organizations and communities. I could feel the innovative vigor and wisdom from this pioneer city in reform. Upon the conclusion of the National Committee of NPPCC, NGO Research Center of Tsinghua University and Philanthropy and NGO Support Center lost no time in setting up the Wenzhou Research Group. Then in middle June, I, together with four doctors, once again went to Wenzhou for a week-long investigation.
Ming Wang

Suggestions and Recommendations

Frontmatter

Chapter 14. Recommendations on Enactment of Basic Laws Concerning NGOs

Abstract
Since reform and opening up, NGOs in China have made great progresses, becoming more and more important and playing an increasingly important role in social construction and social governance. The development of NGOs not only needs arouse the high attention of the Party and government, motivate independent social forces to get wider involvement, but also needs corresponding institutional construction. Under the background of running the country in accordance with the law and building a rule-of-law China, legal construction has an important significance for the development of NGOs. Legal systems have crucial functions in demarcating the boundary between the government and the society, creating a liberal environment for the development of NGOs and promoting the development of NGOs in conformity with relevant standards.
Ming Wang

Chapter 15. Policy Recommendations on Construction of Professional Careers for NGO-Related Talents

Abstract
It is expressly stated in China’s Medium- and Long-Term Talent Development Plan that development of NGO-related talents should be included in the talent development plans of governments at all levels. The construction of a professional talent team is an important work for NGO capacity building, and also an essential guarantee for stimulating the vitality of NGOs. Accelerating the construction of reasonably-structured NGO-related professional talent team with sufficient high-quality members holds great strategic significance not only to the development of NGOs themselves, but also to the social construction, social governance as a whole and even to the drive of comprehensively deepening reform. In view of the problems and characteristics of NGO-related professional talent teams in China, and in accordance with relevant policies, it is suggested in this proposal to step up efforts to establish a complete series of NGO-related professional careers, so as to improve the ability of NGOs to provide professional services and better leverage the role of NGOs in social governance and social construction.
Ming Wang

Chapter 16. Policy Recommendations on Construction of NGO Talent Cultivation System

Abstract
Strengthening talent construction is one of the momentous moves to implement the Scientific Outlook on Development and better implement the strategy of reinvigorating the country through talents. NGO-related talents are an essential part of China’s talent teams. It is stated in China’s Medium- and Long-Term Talent Development Plan that “policies will be implemented to encourage the development of non-public ownership economic organizations and new NGO-related talents” and “the development of non-public ownership economic organizations and new NGO talents will be included into the talent development plans of governments at all levels. Opinions will be formulated to strengthen non-public ownership economic organizations and new NGO talent teams”. In view of the status quo of and major problems in China’s NGO-related talent cultivation at the current stage, and with reference to the core ideas and key points of the Plans on Talent Development, the author puts forward several policy recommendations in this proposal, with the aim of establishing a sound NGO-related talent cultivation system.
Ming Wang

Chapter 17. Policy Recommendations on Promotion of NGOs’ Participation in Global Governance

Abstract
With the in-depth development of globalization, public issues with global significance have become increasingly salient. China’s rise has raised higher requirements for its international strategy to participate in global governance. Therefore, we can include NGO’s international strategy into the nation’s overall foreign strategy and enable NGOs to have a bigger say in global civil society development and global governance and thus become an important part of China’s “soft power”. These measures cannot only ensure that NGOs’ international appeal to expanding themselves are coordinated with the country’s foreign strategy, but also will add a touch of “Chinese color” to the new global governance by injecting Chinese characteristics into the new type of international consensus.
Ming Wang

Chapter 18. NGO Reform: Recommendations on Deepening Reform of Social Welfare Enterprises

Abstract
According to projections, China currently has a total of 85.02 million of disabled persons, approximately accounting for 6.4% of the whole population. The guarantee of life, employment and other rights of the disabled persons has become a major social issue. Since the founding of the People’s Republic of China, especially after reform and opening up, China’s laws and regulations and policy system concerning disabled persons have continued to get improved, relevant functional departments and service systems have become increasingly sound, and there are more and more diversified organizational forms that are aimed to promote the development of the cause for the disabled.
Ming Wang

Chapter 19. NGO Innovations: Conceptions and Recommendations on Bank of Public Interests

Abstract
The Third Plenary Session of the 18th National Congress of the CPC expressly put forward to encourage financial innovations and develop non-governmental banks. Over a long time, foundations in China have neither got any explicit recognition, nor regulation for their financial activities. Therefore, their modes for risk control and earnings are restricted within the bounds of relaxation and restriction. For a long time, there are many problems with social welfare enterprises, such as unclear definitions of the nature of financial institutions, obscure rules for foundations that engage in financial activities and incomplete ecological chain in public fields.
Ming Wang

Chapter 20. Policy Recommendations on Encouraging Development of Social Enterprises

Abstract
Over the recent years, to better solve social problems, trends for social innovations have emerged in some developed and even developing countries. Social enterprises are just a miracle in social innovations in different countries. They are born for the following two reasons: first, driving force of public welfare innovation from non-profit organizations. Influenced by such factors as rising cost, dwindling government appropriations or donations and aggravated competition, many non-profit organizations are in dire need of finding a way out for public welfare innovations; second, driving force of social innovation from private sectors.
Ming Wang

Chapter 21. Recommendations on Deepening Cooperation Between Mainland China, Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan to Establish “Special Zones for Social Governance”

Abstract
The Third Plenary Session of 18th National Congress of the CPC first put forward to promote modernization of national governance system and governance capacity and also set it as the general objective for the drive of comprehensively deepening reform. The modernization of national and social governance includes two major aspects: one is the modernization of national governance; the other is the modernization of social governance. The two differentiate from and complement each other. In the sense of comprehensively deepening reform, reform of national governance system is the prerequisite for effectively promoting social governance.
Ming Wang

Backmatter

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