Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
Studies of political attitudes and ideologies have sought to explain their origin. They have been assumed to be a result of political values ingrained during the process of socialization until early adulthood, as well as personal political experience, party affiliation, social strata, etc. As a consequence of these environment-dominated explanations, most biology-based accounts of political preference have never been considered. However, in the light of evidence accumulated in recent years, the view that political attitudes are detached from any physical properties became unsustainable. In this paper, we investigate the origins of social justice attitudes, with special focus on economic egalitarianism and its potential genetic basis. We use Minnesota Twin Study data from 2008, collected from samples of monozygotic and dizygotic twin pairs (n = 573) in order to estimate the additive genetic, shared environmental, and unique environmental components of social justice attitudes. Our results show that the large portion of the variance in a four-item economic egalitarianism scale can be attributed to genetic factor. At the same time, shared environment, as a socializing factor, has no significant effect. The effect of environment seems to be fully reserved for unique personal experience. Our findings further problematize a long-standing view that social justice attitudes are dominantly determined by socialization.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Akaike, H. (1987). Factor analysis and AIC. Psychometrika, 52(3), 317–332. CrossRef
Alesina, A., & La Ferrara, E. (2005). Preferences for redistribution in the land of opportunities. Journal of public Economics, 89(5), 897–931. CrossRef
Alford, J. R., Funk, C. L., & Hibbing, J. R. (2005). Are political orientations genetically transmitted? American Political Science Review, 99(02), 153–167. CrossRef
Alford, J. R., & Hibbing, J. R. (2008). The new empirical biopolitics. Annual Review of Political Science, 11, 183–203. CrossRef
Andersen, R., & Yaish, M. (2012). Public opinion on income inequality in 20 democracies: The enduring impact of social class and economic inequality (Vol. 48). Gini Discussion Paper.
Baldi, S. (2001). What democracy means to ninth-graders US results from the international IEA civic education study. Washington: DIANE Publishing.
Beckwith, J., & Morris, C. A. (2008). Twin studies of political behavior: Untenable assumptions? Perspectives on Politics, 6(04), 785–791. CrossRef
Berelson, B. (1954). Voting: A study of opinion formation in a presidential campaign. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Beutel, A. M., & Marini, M. M. (1995). Gender and values. American Sociological Review, 1, 436–448. CrossRef
Blekesaune, M., & Quadagno, J. (2003). Public attitudes toward welfare state policies: A comparative analysis of 24 nations. European Sociological Review, 19, 415–427. CrossRef
Boardman, J. D. (2011). Is gene-environment interplay relevant to the study of political behaviors and attitudes. Man is by nature a political animal. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Boker, S. M., Neale, M. C., Maes, H. H., Wilde, M. J., Spiegel, M., Brick, T. R., et al. (2012). OpenMx 1.2 user guide. Charlottesville, VA: The OpenMx Project.
Bollen, K. A. (1989). A new incremental fit index for general structural equation models. Sociological Methods & Research, 17(3), 303–316. CrossRef
Bouchard, T. J., Segal, N. L., Tellegen, A., McGue, M., Keyes, M., & Krueger, R. (2003). Evidence for the construct validity and heritability of the Wilson–Patterson conservatism scale: A reared-apart twins study of social attitudes. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(6), 959–969. CrossRef
Broido, E. M., & Reason, R. D. (2005). The development of social justice attitudes and actions: An overview of current understandings. New Directions for Student Services, 2005(110), 17–28. CrossRef
Campbell, A. (1980). The american voter. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Charney, E. (2008). Genes and ideologies. Perspectives on Politics, 6(02), 299–319.
Converse, P. E. (1962). The nature of belief systems in mass publics (pp. 206–261). Ann Arbor: Survey Research Center, University of Michigan.
Downs, A. (1957). An economic theory of political action in a democracy. Journal of Political Economy, 65(2), 135–150. CrossRef
Druckman, J. N., & Lupia, A. (2000). Preference formation. Annual Review of Political Science, 3(1), 1–24. CrossRef
Eagly, A. H. (1987). Sex differences in social behavior: A social-role interpretation. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrance Erlbaum Associates.
Eaves, L. J., Eysenck, H. J., & Martin, N. G. (1989). Genes, culture and personality: An empirical approach. Cambridge: Academic Press.
Esping-Andersen, G. (1990). The three worlds of welfare capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Falconer, D. S. (1960). Quantitative Genetics. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
Falconer, D. S., Mackay, T. F., & Frankham, R. (1996). Introduction to quantitative genetics (4th edn). Trends in Genetics, 12(7), 280.
Fazekas, Z., & Littvay, L. (2012). Choosing sides: The genetics of why we go with the loudest. Journal of Theoretical Politics, 24(3), 389–408. CrossRef
Fazekas, Z., & Littvay, L. (2015). The importance of context in the genetic transmission of US party identification. Political Psychology, 36(4), 361–377. CrossRef
Fazio, R. H., & Zanna, M. P. (1981). Direct experience and attitude-behavior consistency. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 14, 161–202. CrossRef
Feagin, J. R. (1975). Subordinating the poor. Upper Saddle River: Prentice-Hall.
Feldman, S. (1982). Economic self-interest and political behavior. American Journal of Political Science, 26, 446–466. CrossRef
Feldman, S. (1983). Economic individualism and American public opinion. American Politics Quarterly, 11(1), 3–29. CrossRef
Feldman, S., & Steenbergen, M. R. (2001). The humanitarian foundation of public support for social welfare. American Journal of Political Science, 1, 658–677. CrossRef
Feldman, S., & Zaller, J. (1992). The political culture of ambivalence: Ideological responses to the welfare state. American Journal of Political Science, 1, 268–307. CrossRef
Fowler, J. H., Baker, L. A., & Dawes, C. T. (2008). Genetic variation in political participation. American Political Science Review, 102(02), 233–248. CrossRef
Fowler, J. H., & Dawes, C. T. (2008). Two genes predict voter turnout. The Journal of Politics, 70(3), 579–594. CrossRef
Fraser, N. (1999). Social justice in the age of identity politics: Redistribution, recognition, and participation. Culture and economy after the cultural turn, 1, 25–52. CrossRef
Funk, C. L., Smith, K. B., Alford, J. R., Hibbing, M. V., Eaton, N. R., Krueger, R. F., et al. (2013). Genetic and environmental transmission of political orientations. Political Psychology, 34(6), 805–819. CrossRef
Furniss, N., & Tilton, T. A. (1977). The case for the welfare state: From social security to social equality (Vol. 230). Offaly: Midland Books.
Gelissen, J. (2000). Popular support for institutionalised solidarity: A comparison between European welfare states. International Journal of Social Welfare, 9(4), 285–300. CrossRef
Grayman, J. K., & Godfrey, E. B. (2013). Social justice attitudes and their demographic correlates among a nationally representative sample of US adolescents. Social Justice Research, 26(4), 422–444. CrossRef
Groskind, F. (1994). Ideological influences on public support for assistance to poor families. Social Work, 39(1), 81–89.
Hasenfeld, Y., & Rafferty, J. A. (1989). The determinants of public attitudes toward the welfare state. Social Forces, 67(4), 1027–1048. CrossRef
Hatemi, P. K., Alford, J. R., Hibbing, J. R., Martin, N. G., & Eaves, L. J. (2009a). Is there a “party” in your genes? Political Research Quarterly, 62(3), 584-600. CrossRef
Hatemi, P. K., Funk, C. L., Medland, S. E., Maes, H. M., Silberg, J. L., Martin, N. G., et al. (2009b). Genetic and environmental transmission of political attitudes over a life time. The Journal of Politics, 71(3), 1141–1156. CrossRef
Hatemi, P. K., Hibbing, J. R., Medland, S. E., Keller, M. C., Alford, J. R., Smith, K. B., et al. (2010). Not by twins alone: Using the extended family design to investigate genetic influence on political beliefs. American Journal of Political Science, 54(3), 798–814. CrossRef
Hatemi, P. K., & McDermott, R. (Eds.). (2011). Man is by nature a political animal: Evolution, biology, and politics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hatemi, P. K., & McDermott, R. (2016). Give me attitudes. Annual Review of Political Science, 19, 331–350. CrossRef
Hatemi, Peter K., Medland, Sarah E., & Eaves, Lindon J. (2009c). Do genes contribute to the “gender gap”? The Journal of Politics, 71(1), 262–276. CrossRef
Hatemi, P. K., Medland, S. E., Klemmensen, R., Oskarsson, S., Littvay, L., Dawes, C. T., et al. (2014). Genetic influences on political ideologies: Twin analyses of 19 measures of political ideologies from five democracies and genome-wide findings from three populations. Behavior Genetics, 44(3), 282–294. CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral
Jacobs, L. R., & Skocpol, T. (Eds.). (2005). Inequality and American democracy: What we know and what we need to learn. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Jacoby, W. G. (1994). Public attitudes toward government spending. American Journal of Political Science, 38, 336–361. CrossRef
Jennings, M. K., & Niemi, R. G. (1968). The transmission of political values from parent to child. American Political Science Review, 62(01), 169–184. CrossRef
Katz, E., & Lazarsfeld, P. F. (1966). Personal influence, the part played by people in the flow of mass communications. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.
Kinder, D. R., & Kiewiet, D. R. (1981). Sociotropic politics: The American case. British Journal of Political Science, 11(02), 129–161. CrossRef
Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1983). Affirmative action attitudes: Effects of self-interest, racial affect, and stratification beliefs on Whites’ views. Social Forces, 61, 797–824. CrossRef
Kluegel, J. R., & Smith, E. R. (1986). Beliefs about inequality: Americans’ views of what is and what ought to be. Piscataway: Transaction Publishers.
Ksiazkiewicz, A., & Krueger, R. F. (2017). The role of genes and environments in linking the need to evaluate with political ideology and political extremity. Social Justice Research. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-017-0292-3.
Kulin, J., & Svallfors, S. (2011). Class, values, and attitudes towards redistribution: A European comparison. European Sociological Review, 29(2), 155–167. CrossRef
Lane, R. E. (1959). Fathers and sons: Foundations of political belief. American Sociological Review, 24, 502–511. CrossRef
Larsen, C. A. (2008). The institutional logic of welfare attitudes: How welfare regimes influence public support. Comparative Political Studies, 41(2), 145–168. CrossRef
Lazarsfeld, P. F., Berelson, B., & Gaudet, H. (1948). The peoples choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. Columbia University Press.
Lipset, S. M. (1963). The value patterns of democracy: A case study in comparative analysis. American Sociological Review, 28, 515–531. CrossRef
Martin, N. G., Eaves, L. J., Heath, A. C., Jardine, R., Feingold, L. M., & Eysenck, H. J. (1986). Transmission of social attitudes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 83(12), 4364–4368. CrossRef
McCloskey, H., & Zaller, J. (1984). The American ethos. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. CrossRef
Medland, S. E., & Hatemi, P. K. (2009). Political science, biometric theory, and twin studies: A methodological introduction. Political Analysis, 17, 191–214. CrossRef
Merrill, S., & Grofman, B. (1999). A unified theory of voting. Directional and proximity spatial models. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CrossRef
Mondak, J. J., Hibbing, M. V., Canache, D., Seligson, M. A., & Anderson, M. R. (2010). Personality and civic engagement: An integrative framework for the study of trait effects on political behavior. American Political Science Review, 104(1), 85–110. CrossRef
Neale, M. C., & Cardon, L. L. (1992) . Methodology of genetic studies of twins and families. Kluwer Academic.
Nisbett, R., & Ross, L. (1980). Human inference: Strategies and shortcomings of social judgment. Englewood Cllffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Page, B. I., & Shapiro, R. Y. (1983). Effects of public opinion on policy. American Political Science Review, 77(01), 175–190. CrossRef
Robinson, R. V., & Bell, W. (1978). Equality, success, and social justice in England and the United States. American Sociological Review, 43, 125–143. CrossRef
Roller, E. (1995) The welfare state: The equality dimension. In O. Borre, & E. Scarbrough (Eds.), The Scope of Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Sabbagh, C., & Schmitt, M. (Eds.). (2016). Handbook of social justice theory and research. New York: Springer.
Sears, D. O., & Funk, C. L. (1991). The role of self-interest in social and political attitudes. Advances in experimental social psychology, 24, 1–91. CrossRef
Sniderman, P. M., & Brody, R. A. (1977). Coping: The ethic of self-reliance. American Journal of Political Science, 21, 501–521. CrossRef
Sturgis, P., Read, S., Hatemi, P. K., Zhu, G., Trull, T., Wright, M. J., et al. (2010). A genetic basis for social trust? Political Behavior, 32(2), 205–230. CrossRef
Svallfors, S. (1997). Worlds of welfare and attitudes to redistribution: A comparison of eight western nations. European Sociological Review, 13(3), 283–304. CrossRef
Verba, S., & Orren, G. R. (1985). Equality in America: The view from the top. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
- A Genetic Basis of Economic Egalitarianism
- Springer US
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, So bewältigen Sie Stress im Fernstudium/© granata68 | stock.adobe.com | AdobeStock