Skip to main content
main-content

Über dieses Buch

This book explores the history of mechanical engineering since the Bronze Age. Focusing on machinery inventions and the development of mechanical technology, it also discusses the machinery industry and modern mechanical education. The evolution of machinery is divided into three stages: Ancient (before the European Renaissance), Modern (mainly including the two Industrial Revolutions) and Contemporary (since the Revolution in Physics, especially post Second World War). The book not only clarifies the development of mechanical engineering, but also reveals the driving forces behind it – e.g. the economy, national defense and human scientific research activities – to highlight the links between technology and society; mechanical engineering and the natural sciences; and mechanical engineering and related technological areas.

Though mainly intended as a textbook or supplemental reading for graduate students, the book also offers a unique resource for researchers and engineers in mechanical engineering who wish to broaden their horizons.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Machines are widely used in almost every aspect of human society, such as industry, defense and daily life. A middle school student can easily speak out a long list of machine names. College students in mechanical engineering around the world are in millions. People working on mechanical related jobs, including production, maintenance, research and education etc. are estimated in the scale of tens of millions. The number of people who have the opportunity to operate a machine is even larger. The automotive vehicles running around the world are estimated more than 1 billion. The industries relating with mechanical engineering contribute 9% of the nation’s total GDP in China.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 2. Ancient Machines

Abstract
The “ancient times” in this book, refers to a period of about 6000 years from the beginning of the Bronze Age until the European Renaissance in the 14th century. This section describes: (1) the three stages in using tools by ancient humans, and (2) the three main regions in ancient machine development.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 3. Social, Scientific and Technological Progresses of Europe Before Industrial Revolution

Abstract
After the long medieval darkness, the world entered the modern times, the era of birth and rapid growing of Capitalism. Europe experienced a series of great social changes. During the several centuries, a series of important events, including the birth of Capitalist mode of production, great geographical discoveries, the Renaissance, the Reformation, the Enlightenment and Bourgeois Revolutions, took place successively.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 4. First Industrial Revolution

Abstract
In the second half of the 18th century, a Technical Revolution, characterized with several ground-breaking technological inventions, such as steam power, happened in Britain. The Industrial Revolution happened the same time, which brought wide application of machines to the industry and dramatic changes to the society, transforming the agriculture-based society to an industry-based one. Since then, the world started fast development in all aspects.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 5. Second Industrial Revolution

Abstract
During the second half of the 19th century, the world entered an entirely new era. A series of unprecedented industrial achievements, such as electric power, steel, automobile and aircraft, brought tremendous changes to the industry structure, and also greatly improved the living standard of people.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 6. Progress of Mathematics and Mechanics During Industrial Revolutions

Abstract
In Chaps. 4 and 5, the two industrial revolutions were introduced, including inventions of many machines and birth and development of machine building industry, without involving the discipline of mechanical engineering, which will be introduced in Chap. 7. This chapter introduces the progress in the field of mathematics and mechanics after the establishment of Newtonian mechanics and calculus; and briefly summarizes the influence of the progress on mechanical engineering.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 7. Birth and Development of Modern Mechanical Engineering Discipline

Abstract
Inventions of machines and establishment of the machine industry were the backbone of the First Industrial Revolution. Electric power was the center of the Second Industrial Revolution; however, even more machines were invented in this period. Mechanical technology remained one of the cornerstones of this Industrial Revolution.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 8. Modern Higher Education in Mechanical Engineering

Abstract
Education has played a critical rule in the advance of mechanical technology and industry. It is the critical factor to train the talents and prepare the workforce, moving the profession and the industry forward.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 9. Third Technological Revolution

Abstract
After WWII, the Third Technological Revolution appeared in the horizon, which has been unprecedentedly influencing all aspects of human society. The First and Second Technological Revolutions are both centered around power, while the third one is developed around information. Mechanical engineering, being backbone in the past two revolutions, was shifted aside and gave place to information, although it is still a corner stone in the economy.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 10. Summary of Mechanical Engineering in New Era

Abstract
After WWII, a new Technological Revolution took place, and fundamentally influenced almost every aspect of human society. Meanwhile, the world was remained in peace overall, growing fast in economy. Globalization formed a world market. On the other hand, competition became tougher, forcing manufacturers to continuously improve product quality, and develop innovative products in order to keep their competitiveness.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 11. Mechanical Design in New Era

Abstract
Design is the first step in building a machine. The direct cost of design is insignificant in general; however, design is the most determinative factor to the overall cost of a machine. According to VDI-2225, a survey completed by the Association of German Engineers, about 75–80% of the total cost of a product is determined by design (Huang 1989). More importantly, the performance of a machine is determined to a large extent by design. Design has become a cornerstone in an industrialized society, being a main activity for innovation.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 12. Manufacturing Technology During New Era

Abstract
After WWII, the world was in peace again and the economy around the world resumed quickly. The desire for higher living standard drove up the demand for almost all products. Taking automobiles as an example, Table 12.2 shows statistics of the number of vehicles per 1000 inhabitants in several counties (ANON 2017). In the U.S. every 1000 people owned 797 motor vehicles in 2014; however, this number was only about 143 in 1924.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 13. Development of Theories in Mechanical Engineering of New Era

Abstract
The world entered into and kept peace in general for decades after the War. Education and science resumed development quickly in the peaceful time. Many universities in the world developed into centers of innovation and research.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Chapter 14. Development of Other Manufacturing Processes

Abstract
In the machine building industry, many other manufacturing processes produce the rough shapes of the parts which are generally made to the net shape through machining. These processes include casting, forging, welding, extrusion, spinning as well as power metallurgy. In order to improve the properties of mechanical parts, heat treatment operations are needed often.
Ce Zhang, Jianming Yang

Backmatter

Weitere Informationen

Premium Partner

    Marktübersichten

    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen. 

    Bildnachweise