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This book presents a holistic solution for Smart Grids that includes the electricity: producers, electricity storages, grids, market and customer plants. The authors have derived the architectural paradigm for Smart Grids LINK from the signature of their fractal structure. The presented LINK-based holistic architecture enables the large-scale integration of distributed energy resources by minimising the data to be exchanged, thus considering privacy and cyber security by design. The straightforwardness of LINK-Solution is related to its standardised structures, enabling the coupling of energy and non-energy sectors and Energy Communities. The Volt/var chain control as one of the most challenging operation processes of Smart Grids is covered in detail in this edition.

Chapter by chapter, the reader is smoothly introduced to this unique solution, facilitating its practical implementation. This book is a valuable resource for experts, consultants, engineers, scientists, and students in the Smart Grids area and actors of the electricity market and politicians.



Chapter 1. Introduction*

In the last 20 years, many papers and books developed to investigate and design Smart Grids have been written. Smart Grid concepts are introduced, and various models are developed that lead to highly ramified and complex schemas. Different studies have focused on specific parts of power systems regardless of Smart Grids ’ integrity, leaving all efforts at the level of prototypes or isolated model regions. Results diverge instead of converging towards a complete Smart Grid solution. In this chapter, the scope of smart grids is specified, followed by an analysis of the state of the art of the most popular smart grid concepts such as Virtual Power Plants, Microgrids, etc. A descriptive presentation of power systems and the philosophical principles underlying the book is also given.
Albana Ilo, Daniel-Leon Schultis

Chapter 2. Holistic Architecture*

The architecture purpose is to structure and organise the system in such a way that it is stable, usable, adapt to changes, and economical. When the architecture is sound, it helps to design better the system that is being described. The architecture of a system is a global model of it. It usually consists of a structure, properties of various elements involved, relationships between components, and their behaviour and dynamics. This chapter presents the first holistic architecture of smart grids comprising the high-, medium- and low voltage grids, customer plants and the market. It is designed based on the fractal feature of the grid. The derived LINK-paradigm and the corresponding technical and market holistic models are described in detail. The different architecture levels, operation modes, and new control chain net strategies are some of the topics treated in this chapter. Additionally, the keystones are given for the chains of smart grids operation such as monitoring, load/generation balance, Volt/var management, demand response, congestion management, and so on. It also lays out the fundamentals of smart grid operational chains such as monitoring, load/generation balancing, volt/var management, demand response, congestion management, etc. Finally, data privacy and cybersecurity, the LINK economics and implementation steps are discussed. It does not attempt to gear the holistic approach to the Smart Grid in a particular country. Instead, the basics concepts are highlighted, all of which can be easily implemented to suit each country's Smart Grids’ specific circumstances.
Albana Ilo, Daniel-Leon Schultis

Chapter 3. Energy Systems Integration*

Environment protection policies and overall climate commitments require the decarbonisation of all sectors of the economy. A clean planet for all a European strategic long-term vision for a prosperous, modern, competitive and climate neutral economy. The latter has evolved from individual sectors with little or no dependencies into an intertwined and complex structure. Therefore, the decarbonisation of the economy in all sectors is one of the most significant challenges of this century. The integration of Energy Systems of various economic sectors is considered the most suitable way to decarbonise them and reduce CO2 emissions. This chapter deals with the relationship of LINK-Solution to the Integration of Energy Systems, Sector Coupling, and Energy Communities.
Albana Ilo, Daniel-Leon Schultis

Chapter 4. Volt/var Chain Process*

The massive connection of renewable and distributed generation and the electrification of other sectors give rise to new challenges and opportunities that call for an adaption of the traditional Volt/var control schemes. Recently introduced cosφ(P)- and Q(U)-control of photovoltaic inverters and on-load tap changers in distribution substations to mitigate voltage limit violations provoke massive technical and social problems. This chapter conducts a comprehensive and systematic holistic study to analyse the Volt/var behaviour on the medium- and low voltage levels, focusing on high-medium and medium-low voltage grid boundaries. The recently emerged and newly introduced control strategies are considered. Their evaluation shows that the X(U)-control in radial structures combined with Q-Autarkic customer plants maintains voltage limits reliably, effectively, and efficiently, while preserving the interests of all involved stakeholders. It also clarifies that voltage limits do not remain constant throughout the day, introducing the concept of "boundary voltage limits" for the first time. Additional, practical modelling steps are suggested.
Daniel-Leon Schultis, Albana Ilo


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