Romania is the beneficiary of an important complex of water resources. The underground waters are estimated to contain about 9.6 x 10
as a resource that can be exploited, such that supply is greater than demand. However, as various forms of water pollution are present in Romania, some sources of water have become unusable, giving the demand/supply ratio a more complex significance. Generally, fertilizers, livestock industry waste, and household effluents can be regarded as the main sources of groundwater pollution by nitrate. The Romanian environmental authorities have established provisional guidelines concerning the controls on discharge of three substances, including trichloroethene. The principles for the sustainable management of water resources, recommended at the Rio de Janeiro Conference (1992), also lie at the foundation of the concept of integrated water management in Romania, where the problems of water usage have to be balanced with the need to protect natural ecosystems.