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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

The Scope and Methods of Market Research

Frontmatter

Introduction

Abstract
It is a useful first stage in a market research project to decide what it is that you are trying to do, so that at the end you can decide whether you have done it successfully. The same principle can be applied to writing a book, and this book will therefore start with three definitions, namely:
  • what is meant by market research;
  • what sort of reader the book is aimed at;
  • what the reader should be able to do in the field of market research, by reference to this book.
James M. Livingstone

The Scope and Methods of Market Research

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. The Raw Material of Market Research

Abstract
The raw material of a market research project comes from two sources, primary (that which is obtained by carrying out some sort of field work) and secondary (that which is obtained by examining information already available somewhere). The first is the more immediately relevant, the second the less expensive.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 2. Surveys and Samples

Abstract
Chapter 1 made the point that primary sources of market research findings are often derived from a field survey. The purpose of this relatively short chapter is to discuss some of the problems which arise in such field work. In some instances it will be practical to cover all possible customers by means of a survey, because there are so few of them; the obverse side of this condition, however, is that each possible respondent is virtually indispensable, the co-operation of all respondents is therefore particularly important and the amount of information to be extracted is considerable. In short, the survey loses much of its value if even a single respondent refuses to co-operate. In other instances the number of potential customers will be so great that either the amount of information sought will be very small, and the method of collection will be the cheapest possible with little or no attempt to follow up non-respondents, or only a proportion, possibly a very small proportion, will be interviewed — that is, a sample will have to be taken.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 3. An Introduction to Quantitative Methods for the Mathematically Unenthusiastic

Abstract
This chapter and the next are intended to illustrate some of the statistical techniques and methods of presentation which are commonly used in market research. They assume no knowledge of statistical method at the outset, are certainly not intended to be intellectually rigorous, and attempt to filter out from the normal elementary statistics course anything which is not readily applicable to a market research situation.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 4. An Introduction to the Theory of Sampling

Abstract
This chapter will barely scratch the surface of the theory of sampling. What it sets out to do is explain the general idea. At the end the reader should not only be able to perform the simplest of sampling techniques, but, more importantly, should also have an idea of what a more complicated method is all about.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 5. Behavioural Techniques in Market Research

Abstract
This chapter deals with some of the more advanced applications of market research techniques. These are rather a mixed bag but represent an area in which significant developments are taking place, namely the behavioural methods, linked in some cases with quantitative methods, which are normally only thought of in terms of hard information rather than opinions.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 6. The Concepts of Business Forecasting

Abstract
The principles of business forecasting might be described as attempting to project past results into future estimates. This is simultaneously the strength and weakness of any technique, namely that it starts from established and quantifiable information but, in moving into the unknown future, by means of an extension of past conditions, it assumes that what was valid in the past will remain valid in the future. No matter how elegant the methods used are, the problem remains the same as that encountered before with statistical techniques, namely that the results can be no better in quality than the input — and input which depends on the assumption that the future is not going to be significantly different from the past can be somewhat questionable.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 7. Market Research Abroad

Abstract
This chapter might be regarded as an aside, or as a footnote to the first part of this book, in the sense that it does not follow on logically from the preceding chapters, nor is it particularly apposite to what follows in Part II. Nevertheless the problems which arise in researching a foreign market, particularly one where the exporter has had no previous experience, are formidable.
James M. Livingstone

The Market Research Survey

Frontmatter

Chapter 8. Some Preliminary Considerations

Abstract
It might appear pedantic or Worse to enquire, at the beginning of a market research project, why it is being carried out. To ask such a question appears to imply that it may be either unnecessary or even misdirected. There are circumstances, however, when the question should be asked.
James M. Livingstone

Chapter 9. The Structure of the Market Research Survey

Abstract
The remainder of this part of the book is concerned with the nuts and bolts of carrying out a piece of market research, under formal conditions, as opposed to the informal information-gathering of simply asking advice from acquaintances, chambers of commerce, and so on. The methods outlined, the whole structure, may appear to be over-elaborate, as well as overstating the obvious. It is, however a good deal easier for the relatively inexperienced market researcher to go from step to step, considering in the process whether he can safely take a short cut, than to push ahead without any particular plan and lose both time and money by having to repeat work because a point has been overlooked.
James M. Livingstone

Conclusions

Abstract
The theme throughout this book is that it is possible for an executive to understand a good deal of what market research techniques are all about without having an in-depth training in statistical techniques or behavioural methods. It is even possible to carry out a measure of formal market research, admittedly of a rough and ready nature, if the problems and the condition of the company are such that these rough and ready methods will suffice.
James M. Livingstone

Backmatter

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