When the first type of a living organism appeared in Nature, it possessed already the abilities to feed, to reproduce and to defend itself against the environment. But genetic progress soon created many more species and they soon had to develop instruments of defense against each other. On each day of Genesis that brought forth new forms of life, these were equipped with increasingly sophisticated systems of defense (Tab. 1.). Antibiotics were probably the first weapons produced, a capability which was lost in higher species. Certain species developed the art of producing poisons, which are generally regarded not as defensive but as offensive weapons. Hormonal peptides and neuropeptides were already present in bacteria, protozoa, and plants. Like certain amines, which began to serve intercellular communication at a much later stage of development, peptides were already present long before they obtained specific functions in endocrine, nervous or immune systems (32). with the development of vertebrates entirely new systems of defense were set into action: the immune system, the endocrine system and a wide variety of reactions regulated by the nervous system. While some earlier forms of defense were lost during the stages of development, they were replaced by others of a more complex and more efficient nature. Certain links between these systems appeared and were further refined. When Adam accepted the apple sometime rater on, he disregarded the Lord’s advice of intellectual defense, thereby opening his mind to sexual and social life.
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- A Network of Defense
- Springer New York
Systemische Notwendigkeit zur Weiterentwicklung von Hybridnetzen