To determine the characteristics of single raindrops as a function of their size, the collodion film method was newly applied to the sampling of single raindrops. Sampling of single raindrops was performed at a height of 20 m above ground level of the Kyoto University building located in Uji, Japan during rain events from September to November 1999. It was possible to get successfully replicas of raindrop by collodion film method. And we tried to analyze the elemental components of the nuclei and pollutants that were incorporated into the developing raindrop. To the analysis of single raindrops, Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) was applied. Several elements including S in single raindrops were detected by PIXE. The concentrations of every element increased with decreasing drop diameter. Furthermore, to acquire more detailed information such as inner-structure and mixing state in single raindrops, micro-PIXE analysis was performed. The nucleation centers of single raindrops were successfully analyzed by micro-PIXE. Ca, S and Fe were apparently detected by scanning beam of 1 ~2 μm diameter and about 70 pA beam current.
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- A New Approach for Characterization of Single Raindrops
- Springer Netherlands