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Degradation of the host image by noise due to errors during data transmission is a major concern in telemedicine, especially with respect to reversible watermarking. This paper presents the effect of salt and pepper noise on prototypical prediction error expansion-based reversible watermarking and proposed prediction error expansion scheme using border embedding for gray scale medical images. In prototypical prediction error expansion, the accretion of the predicted error values is used for data insertion while in the proposed scheme, prediction error expansion using border embedding is used and aftermath of noise is demonstrated, respectively. A performance assessment based on peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR), total payload capacity, noise effect is conducted. Additional capacity and less mutilation of the host image in contrast to the pristine method in the presence of noise is obtained through the results.
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- A Novel Robust Reversible Watermarking Technique Based on Prediction Error Expansion for Medical Images
Jinal H. Mehta
- Springer Singapore