Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
The shocking terrorist attacks that took place in New York (2001) and London (2005) have raised serious concerns about the safety of cities and the need for identifying potential threats and preparing preventive measures. There is a gap in the literature, where on the one hand, planning for terror is discussed at the federal level (large scope), and on the other hand, at a site-specific level (small scope). The fact is that there is very little planning research at the urban community level (medium scope). The research presented here aims to start to fill this gap by developing a Community Evacuation Planning Support System (CE-PSS) to aid urban communities identify likely community terror targets and shelters.The CE-PSS was developed using ArcGIS® 9.2 and two extensions – ESRI’s® Network Analyst and Placeways’™ CommunityViz®. By comparing the capacity and location of potential targets with that of potential shelters, shortcomings in a community’s readiness for terror attacks can be detected. With such knowledge, planners, citizens, and community leaders can address these issues in revising their comprehensive plans. As planners are charged with paying special attention to the long-term and interrelated implications of their decisions, preparing for possible terror attack is an essential consideration in today’s planning paradigm.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
American Planning Association (APA). (2004). Safe Growth America Checklist. Washington, DC: American Planning Association.
Amur, N.T. (2005). Homing in. The American City & County 120(5), 50–55.
Belhadj, J.S. (2008). Anticipating urban evacuations: a planning support system for impact reduction. University of Cincinnati, College of DAAP, School of Planning. http://www.ohiolink.edu/etd/view.cgi?acc_num=ucin1203967246.Accessed September 24, 2008.
Bronzini, M., Kicinger, R. (2006). Conceptual model of a self-organizing traffic management hazard response system. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers.
Chen, M., Chen, L., Miller-Hooks, E. (2007). Traffic signal timing for urban evacuation. Journal of Urban Planning & Development, 133(1), 30–42. CrossRef
Dudley, M. (2001). Sprawl as strategy: city planners face the bomb. Journal of Planning Education and Research, 21(1), 52–63. CrossRef
Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). (2003). Integrating manmade hazards into mitigation planning. Version 2.0. FEMA. http://www.fema.gov/library/viewRecord.do?id=1915. Accessed 20 July 2007.
Flint, A. (2005). Both safe and sorry? Planning, 71(6), 4–9.
Gall, M. (200). Where to go? strategic modeling of access to emergency shelters in Mozambique. Disasters, 28(1), 82–97. CrossRef
Geertman, S., Stillwell, J. (2004). Planning support systems: an inventory of current practice. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 28, 291–310. CrossRef
Goodno, J.B. (2005). Saying no to sabotage. Planning, 71(7), 10–15.
Gursky, E. (2004). Schools as shelters: anticipating 21st-century terrorist threats: how schools may be used to shelter and serve communities in times of need. HPAC Engineering, 49–53.
Han, L.D., Yuan, F., Urbanik II, T. (2007). What is an effective evacuation operation? Journal of Urban Planning & Development, 133(1), 3–8. CrossRef
Holzheimer, T. (2004). Planning in an era of heightened security: making communities safer places. Practicing Planner, 2(1), http://www.planning.org/practicingplanner/member/04spring/feature.htm. Accessed September 21, 2008.
Hopkins, L.D., Nikhil, K., Varkki, G.P. (2005). Representing urban development plans and regulations as data: a planning data model. Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design, 32, 597–615. CrossRef
Ke, M. (1994). Ancient wall in Xian. Beijing Review, 37(13), 26–27.
Klosterman, R. (2001). Planning support systems: a new perspective on computer-aided planning. In: R.K. Brail and R.E. Klosterman (Eds), P lanning support systems: integrating geographic information systems, models, and visualization tools. (pp. 1–25). Redlands, CA: ESRI Press.
Kongsomsaksakul, S., Yang, C., Chen, A. (2005). Shelter location-allocation model for flood evacuation planning. Journal of the Eastern Asia Society for Transportation Studies, 6, 4237–4252.
Krohe Jr., J. (2005). It's dangerous out there, Planning, 71(5), 24–29.
Laefer, D.F., Pradhan, A.R., Koss, A. (2006). GIS-based disaster management systems: a cogent data framework. Transportation Research Board 85th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers.
Light, J. (2004). Urban planning and defense planning, past and future. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70(4), 399–410. CrossRef
Lin, P., Lo, S.M., Huang, H.C., Yuen, K.K. (2008). On the use of multi-stage time-varying quickest time approach for optimization of evacuation planning. Fire Safety Journal, 43(4), 282–290. CrossRef
Liu, H.X., Ban, J.X., Ma, W., Mirchandani, P.B. (2007). Model reference adaptive control framework for real-time traffic management under emergency evacuation. Journal of Urban Planning & Development, 133(1), 43–50. CrossRef
Mól, A.C.A., Jorge, C.A.F., Couto, P.M. (2008). Using a game engine for vr simulations in evacuation planning. IEEE Computer Graphics & Applications, 28(3), 6–12. CrossRef
Patterson, S.A., Apostolakis, G.E. (2007). Identification of critical locations across multiple infrastructures for terrorist actions. Reliability Engineering and System Safety, 92, 1183–1203. CrossRef
Smith, S.D. (2006). Inter-agency collaboration and consequence management: an all-hazard approach to emergency incident response. Website: http://www.respondersafetyonline.com/500/Issue/Article/False/17938/Issue. Accessed 8 August, 2008.
Yazici, M.A., Ozbay, K. (2007). Impact of probabilistic road capacity constraints on the spatial distribution of hurricane evacuation shelter capacities. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, 2022, 55–62. CrossRef
Zepeda, C., Sol, D. (2007). Planning using answer set programming: an initial approach. Engineering Letters, 15(2), 240–249.
Zerger, A., Smith, D.I. (2003). Impediments to using GIS for real-time disaster decision support. Computers, Environment & Urban Systems, 27(2), 123–141. CrossRef
Ziliaskopoulos, A.K. (2000). A linear programming model for the single destination system optimum dynamic traffic assignment problem. Transportation Science, 34(1), 37–49. CrossRef
- A Planning Support System for Terror-Resistant Urban Communities
Joshua S. Belhadj
- Springer Netherlands
- Chapter 21
Neuer Inhalt/© ITandMEDIA, Product Lifecycle Management/© Eisenhans | vege | Fotolia