Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
Canada is widely recognized as a global leader in human rights. Yet, when Indigenous peoples’ rights are included in its human rights record, Canada’s reputation loses some of its luster. It was only one of four countries in the world to vote against the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP) in 2007. Sensitive to Canada’s shameful underperformance in Indigenous rights, the Trudeau government set out to make a change, promising that Canada would commit itself to a new, nation-to-nation relationship with Indigenous peoples and that his government would immediately adopt and implement the UNDRIP. This chapter examines what implementation of the UNDRIP means for Canada and whether Canada’s position on Indigenous rights has actually changed under the Trudeau government. It argues that there is a troubling gap between Trudeau’s vision and rhetoric and the policy realities on the ground, creating an unnecessary risk to Canada’s human rights reputation and leadership in the international community. The chapter concludes by setting out the serious challenges presented by the implementation of Indigenous rights in Canada and offers some recommendations for implementation strategies.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
United Nations ( 2015).
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library ( 2008).
Continuing Legal Education Society of British Columbia ( 2008).
This section is drawn from Sheryl Lightfoot ( 2016). Global Indigenous Politics: A Subtle Revolution. Oxfordshire, Routledge. Reprinted by permission.
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues ( 2007).
United Nations General Assembly ( 2007).
Risse et al. ( 1999).
Tauli-Corpuz ( 2007).
Lightfoot ( 2010).
Macklin ( 2009).
Sharples ( 2010).
Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada ( 2010).
Obama ( 2010).
Portions of this section were previously published in Sheryl Lightfoot ( 2017). Reprinted by permission.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( 2015).
Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement ( 2006).
Even though the decision to begin closing the schools was made in 1969, the last school did not close until 1996.
The Canadian Press ( 2016).
Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( 2015, 6).
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples ( 1996).
Truth and Reconciliation Commission ( 2015, 319–337).
Fedio ( 2015).
Trudeau ( 2015b).
Liberal Party ( 2016).
Puxley ( 2015).
Ayers ( 2015).
Baum ( 2015).
Wilson ( 2015).
Trudeau ( 2015a).
Mas ( 2015).
Bennett ( 2016).
Wilson-Raybould ( 2016).
Office of the Prime Minister ( 2017).
APTN ( 2017).
National Post ( 2017).
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination ( 2017).
Trudeau ( 2017).
Toronto Star ( 2016).
United Nations General Assembly ( 2014).
Bill C-262, an Act to ensure that the laws of Canada are in harmony with the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, introduced 21 April 2016.
Akin, David. 2017. In a report card on Trudeau government’s first year, indigenous affairs work gets an ‘incomplete.’ National Post, January 23. http://nationalpost.com/news/politics/trudeau-aides-give-liberal-government-failing-grade-on-meeting-indigenous-affairs-objectives/wcm/615244f8-ed98-4801-a49a-a6e66283448e. Accessed 12 Apr 2017.
Anaya, James A. 2010. Statement by James Anaya, Special Rapporteur on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples on the obligations of states to implement the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Speech, United Nations, New York, October 18.
APTN. 2017. Canada releases 10 ‘principles’ on government’s relationship with Indigenous peoples. APTN National News, July 14. http://aptnnews.ca/2017/07/14/78213/. Accessed 31 July 2017.
Ayers, Tom. 2015. N.S. First Nations group suggests voting for anyone but Harper. Herald News, June 22. http://thechronicleherald.ca/novascotia/1300839-n.s.-first-nations-group-suggests-voting-for-anyone-but-harper. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
Baum, Kathryn Blaze. 2015. On-Reserve voters endure lines and ballot issues for historic election. Globe and Mail, October 20. http://www.theglobeandmail.com/news/politics/some-first-nations-polling-stations-run-out-of-ballots-amid-high-turnout/article26899907/. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
Bennett, Carolyn. 2016. Announcement of Canada’s support for the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Speech, United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York, May 10.
Canadian Press. 2016. Commission offers 94 ways to redress ‘cultural genocide.’ Maclean’s, June 2. http://www.macleans.ca/news/canada/trc-offers-94-ways-to-redress-cultural-genocide/. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 2017. Concluding observations on the combined twenty-first to twenty-third periodic reports of Canada. CERD/C/CAN/CO/21–23.
Continuing Legal Education Society of British Columbia. 2008. Aboriginal Law Conference 2008, Paper 2.1: United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Vancouver: Continuing Legal Education Society of British Columbia.
Fedio, Chloe. 2015. Truth and Reconciliation report brings calls for actions, not words. CBC News, June 2. http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/truth-and-reconciliation-report-brings-calls-for-action-not-words-1.3096863. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
Indian Residential Schools Settlement Agreement. 2006. Indian residential schools settlement agreement. Official court website, May 8. http://www.residentialschoolsettlement.ca/IRS%20Settlement%20Agreement-%20ENGLISH.pdf. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
Indigenous and Norther Affairs Canada. 2010. ARCHIVED – Canada’s statement of support of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Government of Canada, November 12. http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ai/mr/nr/s-d2010/23429-eng.asp. Accessed 10 Jan 2011.
Liberal Party of Canada. 2016. Truth and Reconciliation. Liberal Party of Canada. https://www.liberal.ca/realchange/truth-and-reconciliation-2/. Accessed 24 Nov 2016.
Lightfoot, Sheryl. 2010. Emerging international indigenous rights norms and ‘over-compliance’ in New Zealand and Canada. Political Science Sage 62 (1): 84–104. CrossRef
———. 2016. Global indigenous politics: A subtle revolution. Oxfordshire: Routledge.
———. 2017. Adopting and implementing the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples: Canada’s existential crisis. In Surviving Canada: Indigenous peoples celebrate 150 years of betrayal, ed. Kiera L. Ladner and Myra Tait, 440–459. Winnipeg: ARP.
Macklin, Jenny. 2009. Statement on the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Australian Government, April 3. http://parlinfo.aph.gov.au/parlInfo/download/media/pressrel/418T6/upload_binary/418t60.pdf;fileType=application%2Fpdf#search=%22media/pressrel/418T6%22. Accessed 4 Apr 2009.
Mas, Susana. 2015. Trudeau lays out plan for new relationship with Indigenous peoples. CBC News, December 8. http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/justin-trudeau-afn-indigenous-aboriginal-people-1.3354747. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
Obama, Barack. 2010. Remarks by the president at the White House Tribal Nations conference. Washington, DC: The White House, December 16.
Prime Minister’s Office. 2017. Prime Minister announces working group of ministers on the review of laws and policies related to Indigenous peoples. Prime Minister’s Office, February 22. http://pm.gc.ca/eng/news/2017/02/22/prime-minister-announces-working-group-ministers-review-laws-and-policies-related. Accessed 27 Feb 2017.
Puxley, Chinta. 2015. Anger at Stephen Harper, disenfranchisement fueled turnout of Aboriginal voters. Canadian Press, October 25. http://www.nationalobserver.com/2015/10/25/news/anger-stephen-harper-disenfranchisement-fuelled-turnout-aboriginal-voters. Accessed 24 Nov 2016.
Risse, Thomas, Stephen C. Ropp, and Kathryn Sikkink, eds. 1999. The power of human rights: International norms and domestic change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Royal Commission on Aboriginal Affairs. 1996. Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal peoples. Library and Archives Canada. http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/webarchives/20071115053257/http://www.ainc-inac.gc.ca/ch/rcap/sg/sgmm_e.html. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
Sharples, Pita. 2010. UNPFII opening ceremony New Zealand statement. Speech, United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, New York, April 19.
Tauli-Corpuz, Victoria. 2007. Message of Victoria Tauli-Corpuz, Chairperson of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, on the occasion of the adoption by the General Assembly of the Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Speech, United Nations, New York, September 13.
Toronto Star. 2016. For Indigenous reconciliation, words are not enough: Editorial. Toronto Star, November 25. https://www.thestar.com/opinion/editorials/2016/11/25/for-indigenous-reconciliation-words-are-not-enough-editorial.html. Accessed 27 Nov 2016.
Trudeau, Justin. 2015a. Minister of Indigenous and Northern Affairs mandate letter. Office of the Prime Minister, November 13. http://pm.gc.ca/eng/minister-indigenous-and-northern-affairs-mandate-letter. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
———. 2015b. Real change: Restoring fairness to Canada’s relationship with Aboriginal peoples: Justin Trudeau’s remarks at the Assembly of First Nations General Assembly. Liberal Party of Canada, July 7. https://www.liberal.ca/justin-trudeau-at-assembly-of-first-nations-36th-annual-general-assembly/. Accessed 24 Nov 2016.
———. 2017. Address to the United Nations General Assembly. Speech, United Nations, New York, September 21.
Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. 2015. Honouring the Truth, reconciling for the future: Summary of the final report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada. TRC. http://nctr.ca/assets/reports/Final%20Reports/Executive_Summary_English_Web.pdf. Accessed 1 Nov 2016.
United Nations. 2015. United Nations treaty collection. United Nations. https://treaties.un.org/Pages/Treaties.aspx?id=4&subid=A&lang=en. Accessed 15 July 2015.
United Nations General Assembly. 2007. General Assembly adopts Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. United Nations, September 13. https://www.un.org/press/en/2007/ga10612.doc.htm. Accessed 21 Aug 2017.
———. 2014. United Nations General Assembly resolution A/RES/69/2, outcome document of the high-level plenary meeting of the General Assembly known as the World Conference on Indigenous Peoples, 22 September 2014. United Nations General Assembly, September 25. http://www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/69/2. Accessed 25 Sept 2016.
United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues. 2007. Frequently asked questions – Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, August. http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unpfii/documents/FAQsindigenousdeclaration.pdf. Accessed 25 Sept 2009.
University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. 2008. Ratification of International Human Rights Treaties. University of Minnesota Human Rights Library. http://www1.umn.edu/humanrts/research/ratification-index.html. Accessed July 2015.
Wilson, Tiar. 2015. Hopeful Indigenous reaction to Justin Trudeau’s Cabinet picks. CBC News, November 4. http://www.cbc.ca/news/indigenous/aboriginal-leaders-react-cabinet-choices-1.3303972. Accessed 25 Nov 2016.
Wilson-Raybould, Jody. 2016. Address to Assembly of First Nations. Speech, Niagara Falls, July 12.
- A Promise Too Far? The Justin Trudeau Government and Indigenous Rights
- Chapter 9
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta