Weitere Kapitel dieses Buchs durch Wischen aufrufen
For several decades, seismologists and engineers have struggled to perfect the shape of design spectra, analyzing recorded signals and speculating on probabilities. In this process, several solutions have been proposed, including considering more than one period to define a spectral shape, or proposing different spectral shapes as a function of the return period of the design ground motion.
However, the basic assumption of adopting essentially three fundamental criteria, i.e.: constant acceleration at low periods, constant displacement at long periods, constant velocity in an intermediate period range, has never been thoroughly questioned.
In this contribution, the grounds of a constant velocity assumption is discussed and shown to be disputable and not physically based. Spectral shapes based on different logics are shown to be consistent with the experimental evidence of several hundred recorded ground motions and to lead to significant differences in terms of displacement and acceleration demand.
The main parameters considered to define the seismic input are magnitude and epicenter distance. The possible influence of other parameters – such as focal depth and fault distance, duration and number of significant cycles, local amplification – will the subject of future studies.
Novel forms of ground motion prediction equations and of hazard maps may result from this approach.
Specific points of interest include the generation and adaptation of acceleration and displacement time histories for design, the possibility of including the effects of energy dissipation on the side of capacity rather than on that of demand, the consistent generation of floor spectra for design and assessment of non-structural elements.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Akkar S (2015) Revised probabilistic hazard map of Turkey and its implications on seismic design. EU workshop “elaboration of maps for climatic and seismic actions for structural design in the Balkan region”, Zagreb
Akkar S, Sandıkkaya MA, Şenyurt M, Azari Sisi A, Ay BÖ, Traversa P, Douglas J, Cotton F, Luzi L, Hernandez B, Godey S (2014) Reference database for seismic ground-motion in Europe (RESORCE). Bull Earthq Eng 12(1):311–339 CrossRef
Bommer JJ, Akkar S (2012) Consistent source-to-site distance metrics in ground-motion prediction equations and seismic source models for PSHA. Earthq Spectra 28(1):1–15 CrossRef
Booth E (2007) The estimation of peak ground-motion parameters from spectral ordinates. J Earthq Eng 11(1):13–32 CrossRef
Borcherdt RD (1994) Estimates of site-dependent response spectra for design (methodology and justification). Earthq Spectra 10(4):617–653 CrossRef
Bradley BA (2010) A generalized conditional intensity measure approach and holistic ground-motion selection. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 39:1321–1342
Calvi PM (2014) Relative displacement floor spectra for seismic design of non structural elements. J Earthq Eng 18(7):1037–1059 CrossRef
Calvi GM (2018) A re-visitation of design earthquake spectra (earthquakes and unicorns). Earthq Eng Struct Dyn, submitted for publication
Calvi PM, Sullivan TJ (2014) Estimating floor spectra in multiple degree of freedom structures. Earthq Struct 7(1):17–38 CrossRef
Calvi GM, Rodrigues D, Silva V (2018) Response and design spectra from Italian earthquakes 2012–2017. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn, submitted for publication
Chiou B, Youngs R (2008) An NGA model for the average horizontal component of peak ground motion and response spectra. Earthq Spectra 24(1):173–215 CrossRef
Chopra AK (2007) Elastic response spectrum; a historical note. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 36:3–12 CrossRef
Fajfar P, Fishinger M (1988) N2 – a method for nonlinear analysis of regular buildings. In: Proceedings of the 9th WCEE, vol V. Tokyo and Kyoto, pp 111–116
Freeman SA (1975) Evaluation of existing buildings for seismic risk: a case study of Puget sound naval shipyard, Bremerton, Washington. In: Proceedings of the 1st US national conference on earthquake engineering, EERI, Oakland, CA, pp 133–122
Housner GW (1941) Calculating response of an oscillator to arbitrary ground motion. Bull Seismol Soc Am 31:143–149
Irvine T. http://www.vibrationdata.com/elcentro.htm, Vibrationdata, Madison, AL
Jacobsen LS (1960) Damping in composite structures. In: Proceedings of the 2nd WCEE, vol II. Tokyo and Kyoto, pp 1029–1044
Luzi L, Pacor F, Puglia R, Lanzano G, Felicetta C, D’Amico M, Michelini A, Faenza L, Lauciani V, Iervolino I, Baltzopoulos G, Chioccarelli E (2017) The Central Italy seismic sequence between august and December 2016: analysis of strong-motion observations. Seismol Res Lett 88(5):1219–1231 CrossRef
Monelli D, Pagani M, Weatherill G, Danciu L, Garcia J (2014) Modeling distributed seismicity for probabilistic seismic-hazard analysis: implementation and insights with the OpenQuake-engine. Bull Seismol Soc Am 104:1636–1649 CrossRef
Mukherjee S, Gupta VK (2002) Wavelet-based generation of spectrum-compatible time-histories. Soil Dyn Earthq Eng 22(9–12):799–804 CrossRef
Newmark NM, Hall WJ (1982) Earthquake spectra and design. Engineering monographs, EERI, Oakland, CA
Novikova EI, Trifunac MD (1994) Duration of strong ground motion in terms of earthquake magnitude, epicentral distance, site conditions and site geometry. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 23:1023–1043 CrossRef
Pinho R, Marques M, Monteiro R, Casarotti C, Delgado R (2013) Evaluation of nonlinear static procedures in the assessment of building frames. Earthq Spectra 29(4):1459–1476 CrossRef
Pitilakis K, Riga E, Anastasiadis A (2012) Design spectra and amplification factors for Eurocode 8. Bull Earthq Eng 10(5):1377–1400 CrossRef
Priestley MJN (2003) Myths and fallacies in earthquake engineering. IUSS Press, Pavia
Priestley MJN, Calvi GM, Kowalsky MJ (2007) Displacement based seismic design of structures. IUSS Press, Pavia
Riddell R (2008) Inelastic response spectrum; early history. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 37:1175–1183 CrossRef
Shibata A, Sozen M (1976) Substitute structure method for seismic design in reinforced concrete. ASCE J Struct Eng 102(1):1–18
Silva V (2016) Critical issues in earthquake scenario loss modeling. J Earthq Eng 20(8):1322–1341 CrossRef
Silva V, Crowley H, Pinho R, Varum H, Sousa R (2014) Evaluation of analytical methodologies to derive vulnerability functions. Earthq Eng Struct Dyn 43(2):181–204 CrossRef
Stewart JP, Abrahansom NA, Atkinson GM, Baker JW, Boore DM, Bozorgnia Y, Campbell KW, Comartin CD, Idriss IM, Lew M, Mehrain M, Mohele JP, Naeim F, Sabol TA (2011) Representation of bidirectional ground motions for design spectra in building codes. Earthq Spectra 27(3):927–937 CrossRef
Stucchi M, Meletti C, Montaldo V, Crowley H, Calvi GM, Boschi E (2011) Seismic hazard assessment (2003–2009) for the Italian building code. Bull Seismol Soc Am 101(4):1885–1911 CrossRef
Suzuki A, Iervolino I (2017) Italian vs worldwide history of largest PGA and PGV. Ann Geophys 60(5):S0551 CrossRef
Tolis SV, Faccioli F (1999) Displacement design spectra. J Earthq Eng 3(1):107–125
- A Redefinition of Seismic Input for Design and Assessment
G. Michele Calvi
- Chapter 3