Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Cellulose 9/2020

09.04.2020 | Original Research

A reproducible method to characterize the bulk morphology of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers by transmission electron microscopy

verfasst von: Cristina Campano, Ana Balea, Ángeles Blanco, Carlos Negro

Erschienen in: Cellulose | Ausgabe 9/2020

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

With the increased use of nanocelluloses as additives in many industrial applications, better characterization methods are needed to ensure their effectiveness. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is an appropriate image acquisition system to enable their morphological characterization. The use of TEM has typically been focused on determining the diameter and length of individual cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) or nanofibers (CNFs), so different dispersion practices, such as sonication or the use of dispersants, are commonly applied to separate the particles. However, this study aims to improve the characterization of the bulk morphology of CNCs and CNFs by TEM, taking steps towards the determination of the aggregation/dispersion degree as well as the fibrillation degree of CNFs. TEM has been investigated with two types of grids (holey and Formvar/carbon), three different fixing methods (Poly-l-Lysine, glow discharge and UV radiation) and the use of negative staining. Fractal dimension and lacunarity were used to quantify the reproducibility of the improved method. With the use of Poly-l-Lysine, the attachment of CNCs and CNFs particles on the TEM grids was ensured, due to the electrostatic interactions between negatively charged nanocelluloses and positively charged and hydrophilic Poly-l-Lysine surfaces. The low value of lacunarity, close to 0.3, shows a very high reproducibility of the methodology proposed. With this new approach, the state that the nanocelluloses have in suspension can be directly characterized by TEM.

Graphic abstract

Anhänge
Nur mit Berechtigung zugänglich
Literatur
Zurück zum Zitat Abitbol T, Kloser E, Gray DG (2013) Estimation of the surface sulfur content of cellulose nanocrystals prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 20:785–794 CrossRef Abitbol T, Kloser E, Gray DG (2013) Estimation of the surface sulfur content of cellulose nanocrystals prepared by sulfuric acid hydrolysis. Cellulose 20:785–794 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Balea A, Merayo N, Fuente E, Delgado-Aguilar M, Mutje P, Blanco A, Negro C (2016a) Valorization of corn stalk by the production of cellulose nanofibers to improve recycled paper properties. BioResources 11:3416–3431 Balea A, Merayo N, Fuente E, Delgado-Aguilar M, Mutje P, Blanco A, Negro C (2016a) Valorization of corn stalk by the production of cellulose nanofibers to improve recycled paper properties. BioResources 11:3416–3431
Zurück zum Zitat Brito BS, Pereira FV, Putaux J-L, Jean B (2012) Preparation, morphology and structure of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo fibers. Cellulose 19:1527–1536 CrossRef Brito BS, Pereira FV, Putaux J-L, Jean B (2012) Preparation, morphology and structure of cellulose nanocrystals from bamboo fibers. Cellulose 19:1527–1536 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Chapman SK (1986) Maintaining and monitoring the transmission electron microscope, vol 8. Oxford University Press, Oxford Chapman SK (1986) Maintaining and monitoring the transmission electron microscope, vol 8. Oxford University Press, Oxford
Zurück zum Zitat Dufresne A (2012) Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals. Nanocellulose: from nature to high performance tailored materials. Walter de Gruyter, Germany, pp 117–175 CrossRef Dufresne A (2012) Preparation of cellulose nanocrystals. Nanocellulose: from nature to high performance tailored materials. Walter de Gruyter, Germany, pp 117–175 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Hirota M, Tamura N, Saito T, Isogai A (2010) Water dispersion of cellulose II nanocrystals prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of mercerized cellulose at pH 48. Cellulose 17:279–288 CrossRef Hirota M, Tamura N, Saito T, Isogai A (2010) Water dispersion of cellulose II nanocrystals prepared by TEMPO-mediated oxidation of mercerized cellulose at pH 48. Cellulose 17:279–288 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Kaushik M, Fraschini C, Chauve G, Putaux J-L, Moores A (2015b) Transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of cellulose nanocrystals. In: Maaz K (ed) The transmission electron microscope. Theory and applications. InTech, Croatia, pp 129–164 Kaushik M, Fraschini C, Chauve G, Putaux J-L, Moores A (2015b) Transmission electron microscopy for the characterization of cellulose nanocrystals. In: Maaz K (ed) The transmission electron microscope. Theory and applications. InTech, Croatia, pp 129–164
Zurück zum Zitat Ogawa Y, Putaux J-L (2019) Transmission electron microscopy of cellulose. Part 2: technical and practical aspects. Cellulose 26:17–34 CrossRef Ogawa Y, Putaux J-L (2019) Transmission electron microscopy of cellulose. Part 2: technical and practical aspects. Cellulose 26:17–34 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Riddick TM (1968) Control of colloid stability through zeta potential. Livingston Wynnewood, USA Riddick TM (1968) Control of colloid stability through zeta potential. Livingston Wynnewood, USA
Zurück zum Zitat Saidane D, Perrin E, Cherhal F, Guellec F, Capron I (2016) Some modification of cellulose nanocrystals for functional Pickering emulsions. Philos Trans R Soc A 374(2072):20150139 CrossRef Saidane D, Perrin E, Cherhal F, Guellec F, Capron I (2016) Some modification of cellulose nanocrystals for functional Pickering emulsions. Philos Trans R Soc A 374(2072):20150139 CrossRef
Zurück zum Zitat Umehara S, Pourmand N, Webb CD, Davis RW, Yasuda K, Karhanek M (2006) Current rectification with poly-l-lysine-coated quartz nanopipettes. Nano Lett 6:2486–2492 CrossRef Umehara S, Pourmand N, Webb CD, Davis RW, Yasuda K, Karhanek M (2006) Current rectification with poly-l-lysine-coated quartz nanopipettes. Nano Lett 6:2486–2492 CrossRef
Metadaten
Titel
A reproducible method to characterize the bulk morphology of cellulose nanocrystals and nanofibers by transmission electron microscopy
verfasst von
Cristina Campano
Ana Balea
Ángeles Blanco
Carlos Negro
Publikationsdatum
09.04.2020
Verlag
Springer Netherlands
Erschienen in
Cellulose / Ausgabe 9/2020
Print ISSN: 0969-0239
Elektronische ISSN: 1572-882X
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10570-020-03138-1

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 9/2020

Cellulose 9/2020 Zur Ausgabe