Skip to main content
main-content

Tipp

Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen

Erschienen in: Fire Technology 4/2020

11.01.2020 | Invited Paper

A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles

verfasst von: Peiyi Sun, Roeland Bisschop, Huichang Niu, Xinyan Huang

Erschienen in: Fire Technology | Ausgabe 4/2020

Einloggen, um Zugang zu erhalten
share
TEILEN

Abstract

Over the last decade, the electric vehicle (EV) has significantly changed the car industry globally, driven by the fast development of Li-ion battery technology. However, the fire risk and hazard associated with this type of high-energy battery has become a major safety concern for EVs. This review focuses on the latest fire-safety issues of EVs related to thermal runaway and fire in Li-ion batteries. Thermal runaway or fire can occur as a result of extreme abuse conditions that may be the result of the faulty operation or traffic accidents. Failure of the battery may then be accompanied by the release of toxic gas, fire, jet flames, and explosion. This paper is devoted to reviewing the battery fire in battery EVs, hybrid EVs, and electric buses to provide a qualitative understanding of the fire risk and hazards associated with battery powered EVs. In addition, important battery fire characteristics involved in various EV fire scenarios, obtained through testing, are analysed. The tested peak heat release rate (PHHR in MW) varies with the energy capacity of LIBs (\(E_{B}\) in Wh) crossing different scales as \(PHRR = 2E_{B}^{0.6}\). For the full-scale EV fire test, limited data have revealed that the heat release and hazard of an EV fire are comparable to that of a fossil-fuelled vehicle fire. Once the onboard battery involved in fire, there is a greater difficulty in suppressing EV fires, because the burning battery pack inside is inaccessible to externally applied suppressant and can re-ignite without sufficient cooling. As a result, an excessive amount of suppression agent is needed to cool the battery, extinguish the fire, and prevent reignition. By addressing these concerns, this review aims to aid researchers and industries working with batteries, EVs and fire safety engineering, to encourage active research collaborations, and attract future research and development on improving the overall safety of future EVs. Only then will society achieve the same comfort level for EVs as they have for conventional vehicles.
Fußnoten
1
Other important parameters for fire hazard include toxicity, smoke production, risk of explosion, etc.
 
Literatur
2.
Zurück zum Zitat Anderson CD, Anderson J (2010) Electric and hybrid cars, 2nd edn. McFarland & Company, Jefferson Anderson CD, Anderson J (2010) Electric and hybrid cars, 2nd edn. McFarland & Company, Jefferson
3.
Zurück zum Zitat Grauers A, Sarasini S, Karlström M, Industriteknik C (2013) Why electromobility and what is it? In: Sandén B (ed) Systems perspectives on electromobility. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg Grauers A, Sarasini S, Karlström M, Industriteknik C (2013) Why electromobility and what is it? In: Sandén B (ed) Systems perspectives on electromobility. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg
4.
Zurück zum Zitat BP (2018) Statistical review of world energy 2018. 1–53 BP (2018) Statistical review of world energy 2018. 1–53
5.
Zurück zum Zitat Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Amon F, Rosengren M (2019) Fire safety of lithium-ion batteries in road vehicles. Borås Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Amon F, Rosengren M (2019) Fire safety of lithium-ion batteries in road vehicles. Borås
6.
Zurück zum Zitat Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Rosengren M (2019) Handling lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles—preventing and recovering from hazardous events. In: 1st International symposium on lithium battery fire safety. Hefei, China Bisschop R, Willstrand O, Rosengren M (2019) Handling lithium-ion batteries in electric vehicles—preventing and recovering from hazardous events. In: 1st International symposium on lithium battery fire safety. Hefei, China
7.
Zurück zum Zitat National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: crash and post-crash fire of electric-powered passenger vehicle National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: crash and post-crash fire of electric-powered passenger vehicle
11.
Zurück zum Zitat Zhou X (2018) Frequent fire accidents on electric vehicle. Operators 10:65–66 Zhou X (2018) Frequent fire accidents on electric vehicle. Operators 10:65–66
12.
Zurück zum Zitat National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: highway HWY18FH013. National Transportation Safety Board National Transportation Safety Board (2018) Preliminary report: highway HWY18FH013. National Transportation Safety Board
13.
Zurück zum Zitat Revill J (2018) Tesla crash may have triggered battery fire: Swiss firefighters Revill J (2018) Tesla crash may have triggered battery fire: Swiss firefighters
25.
Zurück zum Zitat Hertzke P, Müller N, Schenk S, Wu T (2018) The global electric-vehicle market is amped upand on the rise. McKinsey Center for Future Mobility Hertzke P, Müller N, Schenk S, Wu T (2018) The global electric-vehicle market is amped upand on the rise. McKinsey Center for Future Mobility
27.
Zurück zum Zitat Frost & Sullivan (2018) Global electric vehicle market outlook, 2018 Frost & Sullivan (2018) Global electric vehicle market outlook, 2018
33.
Zurück zum Zitat Germany Trade & Invest (2015) Electromobility in Germany: vision 2020 and beyond Germany Trade & Invest (2015) Electromobility in Germany: vision 2020 and beyond
35.
Zurück zum Zitat Council on Clean Transportation I (2015) Supporting the electric vehicle market in U.S. cities Council on Clean Transportation I (2015) Supporting the electric vehicle market in U.S. cities
38.
Zurück zum Zitat Industry Steering Committee (2009) Electric vehicle technology roadmap for Canada: a strategic vision for highway-capable battery-electric, plug-in and other hybrid-electric vehicles. Natural Resources Canada Industry Steering Committee (2009) Electric vehicle technology roadmap for Canada: a strategic vision for highway-capable battery-electric, plug-in and other hybrid-electric vehicles. Natural Resources Canada
41.
Zurück zum Zitat Joey D (2016) Musk frustrated that Koch brothers spending millions to kill electric cars Joey D (2016) Musk frustrated that Koch brothers spending millions to kill electric cars
46.
Zurück zum Zitat Garcia-Valle R, Lopes JAP (2013) Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks. Springer, New York CrossRef Garcia-Valle R, Lopes JAP (2013) Electric vehicle integration into modern power networks. Springer, New York CrossRef
49.
Zurück zum Zitat Dinger A, Martin R, Mosquet X, Rabl M, Rizoulis D, Russo MS (2010) Batteries for electric cars: challenges, opportunities, and the outlook to 2020. The Boston Consulting Group Dinger A, Martin R, Mosquet X, Rabl M, Rizoulis D, Russo MS (2010) Batteries for electric cars: challenges, opportunities, and the outlook to 2020. The Boston Consulting Group
51.
Zurück zum Zitat Kolly JM, Panagiotou J, Czech BA (2014) Failure analysis techniques for a lithium-ion battery fire investigation. Fire in vehicles Kolly JM, Panagiotou J, Czech BA (2014) Failure analysis techniques for a lithium-ion battery fire investigation. Fire in vehicles
53.
Zurück zum Zitat Drysdale D (2011) An introduction to fire dynamics, 3rd ed. Wiley, Chichester CrossRef Drysdale D (2011) An introduction to fire dynamics, 3rd ed. Wiley, Chichester CrossRef
55.
Zurück zum Zitat Le Houx J (2017) Developments in composite energy storage. energy technology, environment and sustainability reviews 24832413 Le Houx J (2017) Developments in composite energy storage. energy technology, environment and sustainability reviews 24832413
56.
Zurück zum Zitat Berjoza D, Jurgena I (2017) Effects of change in the weight of electric vehicles on their performance characteristics. Agron Res 15:952–963 Berjoza D, Jurgena I (2017) Effects of change in the weight of electric vehicles on their performance characteristics. Agron Res 15:952–963
57.
Zurück zum Zitat Idaho National Laboratory (2016) 2014 BMW i3 review-advanced vehicle testing—baseline vehicle testing result. INL/MIS-15-34211 Idaho National Laboratory (2016) 2014 BMW i3 review-advanced vehicle testing—baseline vehicle testing result. INL/MIS-15-34211
63.
Zurück zum Zitat Liu Y, Sun P, Niu H, et al (2020) Propensity to self-heating ignition of open-circuit pouch Lithium-ion battery pile on a hot boundary. Fire Saf J (under review) Liu Y, Sun P, Niu H, et al (2020) Propensity to self-heating ignition of open-circuit pouch Lithium-ion battery pile on a hot boundary. Fire Saf J (under review)
64.
Zurück zum Zitat He X, Restuccia F, Zhang Y, et al (2019) Experimental study of self-heating ignition of lithium-ion batteries during storage and transport: effect of the number of cells. Fire Technol (under review) He X, Restuccia F, Zhang Y, et al (2019) Experimental study of self-heating ignition of lithium-ion batteries during storage and transport: effect of the number of cells. Fire Technol (under review)
66.
Zurück zum Zitat Justen R, Schöneburg R (2011) Crash safety of hybrid and battery electric vehicles. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, Washington Justen R, Schöneburg R (2011) Crash safety of hybrid and battery electric vehicles. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, Washington
67.
Zurück zum Zitat Wisch M, J. Ott RT, Léost Y, et al (2014) Recommendations and guidelines for battery crash safety and post-crash handling. EVERSAFE Wisch M, J. Ott RT, Léost Y, et al (2014) Recommendations and guidelines for battery crash safety and post-crash handling. EVERSAFE
68.
Zurück zum Zitat Uwai H, Isoda A, Ichikawa H, Takahashi N (2011) Development of body structure for crash safety of the newly developed electric vehicle. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, Washington Uwai H, Isoda A, Ichikawa H, Takahashi N (2011) Development of body structure for crash safety of the newly developed electric vehicle. In: 22nd Enhanced safety of vehicles conference, Washington
71.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsson F, Mellander B-E (2017) Lithium-ion batteries used in electrified vehicles—general risk assessment and construction guidelines from a fire and gas release perspective. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås Larsson F, Mellander B-E (2017) Lithium-ion batteries used in electrified vehicles—general risk assessment and construction guidelines from a fire and gas release perspective. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Borås
72.
Zurück zum Zitat Larsson F (2017) Lithium-ion battery safety-assessment by abuse testing, fluoride gas emissions and fire propagation. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg Larsson F (2017) Lithium-ion battery safety-assessment by abuse testing, fluoride gas emissions and fire propagation. Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg
73.
Zurück zum Zitat Colella F (2016) Understanding electric vehicle fires. In: Fire protection and safety in tunnels. Stavanger Colella F (2016) Understanding electric vehicle fires. In: Fire protection and safety in tunnels. Stavanger
74.
Zurück zum Zitat Glassman I, Yetter RA (2008) Combustion, 4th ed. Academic Press, New York Glassman I, Yetter RA (2008) Combustion, 4th ed. Academic Press, New York
75.
Zurück zum Zitat Babrauskas V (2003) Ignition handbook. Fire science publishers/society of fire protection engineers, Issaquah Babrauskas V (2003) Ignition handbook. Fire science publishers/society of fire protection engineers, Issaquah
76.
Zurück zum Zitat Doughty DH, Pesaran AA (2012) Vehicle battery safety roadmap guidance. Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver CrossRef Doughty DH, Pesaran AA (2012) Vehicle battery safety roadmap guidance. Renewable Energy Laboratory, Denver CrossRef
79.
Zurück zum Zitat Tewarson A (1997) A study of the flammability of plastics in vehicle components and parts. Technical Report FMRC JI 0B1R7RC, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA Tewarson A (1997) A study of the flammability of plastics in vehicle components and parts. Technical Report FMRC JI 0B1R7RC, Factory Mutual Research Corporation, Norwood, MA
80.
Zurück zum Zitat Iguchi M (2015) Divergence and convergence of automobile fuel economy regulations: a comparative analysis of EU, Japan and the US. Springer, Berlin CrossRef Iguchi M (2015) Divergence and convergence of automobile fuel economy regulations: a comparative analysis of EU, Japan and the US. Springer, Berlin CrossRef
91.
Zurück zum Zitat Macneil DD, Lougheed G, Lam C, et al (2015) Electric vehicle fire testing. In: 8th EVS-GTR meeting, Washington, USA 1–5 June 2015 Macneil DD, Lougheed G, Lam C, et al (2015) Electric vehicle fire testing. In: 8th EVS-GTR meeting, Washington, USA 1–5 June 2015
92.
Zurück zum Zitat Iclodean C, Varga B, Burnete N, et al (2017) Comparison of different battery types for electric vehicles. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineering Iclodean C, Varga B, Burnete N, et al (2017) Comparison of different battery types for electric vehicles. In: IOP conference series: materials science and engineering
94.
Zurück zum Zitat Watanabe N, Sugawa O, Suwa T, et al (2012) Comparison of fire behaviours of an electric-battery-powered behicle and gasoline-powered vehicle in a real-scale fire test. In: 2nd International conference on fires in vehicles, Chicago Watanabe N, Sugawa O, Suwa T, et al (2012) Comparison of fire behaviours of an electric-battery-powered behicle and gasoline-powered vehicle in a real-scale fire test. In: 2nd International conference on fires in vehicles, Chicago
95.
Zurück zum Zitat Lecocq A, Bertana M, Truchot B, Marlair G (2012) Comparison of the fire consequences of an electric vehicle and an internal combustion engine vehicle. In: International conference on fires in vehicles—FIVE 2012. Chicago, United States, pp 183–194 Lecocq A, Bertana M, Truchot B, Marlair G (2012) Comparison of the fire consequences of an electric vehicle and an internal combustion engine vehicle. In: International conference on fires in vehicles—FIVE 2012. Chicago, United States, pp 183–194
96.
Zurück zum Zitat WPI VH (2017) Li-ion battery energy stroage systems: Effect of separation deistances based on a radiation heat transfer analysis WPI VH (2017) Li-ion battery energy stroage systems: Effect of separation deistances based on a radiation heat transfer analysis
98.
Zurück zum Zitat Lam C, MacNeil D, Kroeker R, et al (2016) Full-scale fire testing of electric and internal combustion engine vehicles. In: 4th International conference on fire in vehicle, Baltimore Lam C, MacNeil D, Kroeker R, et al (2016) Full-scale fire testing of electric and internal combustion engine vehicles. In: 4th International conference on fire in vehicle, Baltimore
99.
Zurück zum Zitat Stephens D, Stout P, Sullivan G, et al (2019) Lithium-ion battery safety issues for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (Report No DOT HS 812 418), Washington, DC Stephens D, Stout P, Sullivan G, et al (2019) Lithium-ion battery safety issues for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles. National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (Report No DOT HS 812 418), Washington, DC
100.
Zurück zum Zitat Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) (2017) Accident assistance and recovery of vehicles with high-voltage systems. Verband der Automobilindustrie eV 1–30 Verband der Automobilindustrie (VDA) (2017) Accident assistance and recovery of vehicles with high-voltage systems. Verband der Automobilindustrie eV 1–30
101.
Zurück zum Zitat Thermal A, Chamber T (2019) Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber. 5:1–17 Thermal A, Chamber T (2019) Analysis of li-ion battery gases vented in an inert atmosphere thermal test chamber. 5:1–17
103.
Zurück zum Zitat (2019) Tesla vehicle safety report. Tesla (2019) Tesla vehicle safety report. Tesla
111.
Zurück zum Zitat Winkler S (2018) Final report—crash involving Tesla Model S—10400 South Bangerter Highway. South Jordan Police Department Winkler S (2018) Final report—crash involving Tesla Model S—10400 South Bangerter Highway. South Jordan Police Department
118.
Zurück zum Zitat Batenburg C Van (2014) Introduction to HEV, PHEV and EVs: For technicians and students new to high-voltage systems, 1st edn. Automotive Career Development Center Batenburg C Van (2014) Introduction to HEV, PHEV and EVs: For technicians and students new to high-voltage systems, 1st edn. Automotive Career Development Center
119.
Zurück zum Zitat Warner JT (2015) The handbook of lithium-ion battery pack design: chemistry, components, types and terminology. Elsevier, Amsterdam Warner JT (2015) The handbook of lithium-ion battery pack design: chemistry, components, types and terminology. Elsevier, Amsterdam
120.
Zurück zum Zitat Beauregard GP, Phoenix AZ (2008) Report of investigation: Hybrids plus plug in hybrid electric vehicle. National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Inc and US Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory by ETEC, Arlington Beauregard GP, Phoenix AZ (2008) Report of investigation: Hybrids plus plug in hybrid electric vehicle. National Rural Electric Cooperative Association, Inc and US Department of Energy, Idaho National Laboratory by ETEC, Arlington
125.
Zurück zum Zitat Garche J, Brandt K (2019) Li-battery safety. Elsevier, Amsterdam Garche J, Brandt K (2019) Li-battery safety. Elsevier, Amsterdam
126.
Zurück zum Zitat Tidblad AA (2018) Regulatory outlook on electric vehicle safety. In: 5th International conference on fires in vehicles. Borås Tidblad AA (2018) Regulatory outlook on electric vehicle safety. In: 5th International conference on fires in vehicles. Borås
127.
Zurück zum Zitat Cabrera Castillo E (2015) Advances in battery technologies for electric vehicles. Elsevier, Amsterdam Cabrera Castillo E (2015) Advances in battery technologies for electric vehicles. Elsevier, Amsterdam
128.
Zurück zum Zitat Doughty DH, Crafts CC (2006) FreedomCAR electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. SAND2005-3123 Doughty DH, Crafts CC (2006) FreedomCAR electrical energy storage system abuse test manual for electric and hybrid electric vehicle applications. SAND2005-3123
131.
Zurück zum Zitat SAE (2009) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) safety and abuse testing. SAE J2464_200911 2 SAE (2009) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storage system (RESS) safety and abuse testing. SAE J2464_200911 2
132.
Zurück zum Zitat SAE Ground Vehicle Technical Committees (2011) Electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system safety standard SAE Ground Vehicle Technical Committees (2011) Electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system safety standard
133.
Zurück zum Zitat UL (2013) Batteries for use in electric vehicles. UL 2580 UL (2013) Batteries for use in electric vehicles. UL 2580
134.
Zurück zum Zitat IEC (2010) Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles—part 2: reliability and abuse testing IEC (2010) Secondary lithium-ion cells for the propulsion of electric road vehicles—part 2: reliability and abuse testing
135.
Zurück zum Zitat SAE (2011) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storages. SAE J2464 2 SAE (2011) Electric and hybrid electric vehicle rechargeable energy storages. SAE J2464 2
136.
Zurück zum Zitat UNCECE (2015) Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the electric power train [2015/05]. Regulation No 100 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE) UNCECE (2015) Uniform provisions concerning the approval of vehicles with regard to specific requirements for the electric power train [2015/05]. Regulation No 100 of the Economic Commission for Europe of the United Nations (UNECE)
137.
Zurück zum Zitat SAE (2013) Safety standard for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system utilizing lithium-based rechargeabel cell J2929-201302 SAE (2013) Safety standard for electric and hybrid vehicle propulsion battery system utilizing lithium-based rechargeabel cell J2929-201302
149.
Zurück zum Zitat US Department of Transportation (2014) Interim guidance for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles equipped with high-voltage batteries. DOT HS 811 575 US Department of Transportation (2014) Interim guidance for electric and hybrid-electric vehicles equipped with high-voltage batteries. DOT HS 811 575
150.
Zurück zum Zitat Wang Q (2018) Study on fire and fire spread characteristics of lithium ion batteries. In: 2018 China national symposium on combustion Wang Q (2018) Study on fire and fire spread characteristics of lithium ion batteries. In: 2018 China national symposium on combustion
151.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersson P, Brandt J, Willstrand O (2016) Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus. SP Report Andersson P, Brandt J, Willstrand O (2016) Full scale fire-test of an electric hybrid bus. SP Report
154.
Zurück zum Zitat Polinares (2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium. GLOBAL 2000 VerlagsgesmbH Polinares (2012) Fact Sheet: Lithium. GLOBAL 2000 VerlagsgesmbH
156.
Zurück zum Zitat NFPA (2018) Standard for porable fire extinguishers. NFPA 10 NFPA (2018) Standard for porable fire extinguishers. NFPA 10
158.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersson P, Wikman J, Arvidson M, et al (2017) Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden Andersson P, Wikman J, Arvidson M, et al (2017) Safe introduction of battery propulsion at sea. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden
159.
Zurück zum Zitat Willstrand O (2019) To manage fire risks related to Li-ion batteries in vehicles Universitet/högskola/företag. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden 8P03983-03: Willstrand O (2019) To manage fire risks related to Li-ion batteries in vehicles Universitet/högskola/företag. RISE Research Institutes of Sweden 8P03983-03:
160.
Zurück zum Zitat United Nations Economic and Social Council (UNECE) (1958) Agreement concerning the adoption of harmonized technical United Nations regulations for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the. In: Unitied Nations Treaty. United Nations, Geneva United Nations Economic and Social Council (UNECE) (1958) Agreement concerning the adoption of harmonized technical United Nations regulations for wheeled vehicles, equipment and parts which can be fitted and/or be used on wheeled vehicles and the conditions for reciprocal recognition of approvals granted on the. In: Unitied Nations Treaty. United Nations, Geneva
161.
Zurück zum Zitat The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2016) SBF 127:16 Regler för brandskydd på arbetsfordon och -maskiner The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2016) SBF 127:16 Regler för brandskydd på arbetsfordon och -maskiner
162.
Zurück zum Zitat The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2017) Regler för fast automatiskt släcksystem på bussar. SBF 128:3 The Swedish Fire Protection Association (2017) Regler för fast automatiskt släcksystem på bussar. SBF 128:3
163.
Zurück zum Zitat RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (2018) SP Method 4912Method for testing the suppression performance of fire suppression systems intended forengine compartments of buses, coachesand other heavy vehicles RISE Research Institutes of Sweden (2018) SP Method 4912Method for testing the suppression performance of fire suppression systems intended forengine compartments of buses, coachesand other heavy vehicles
164.
Zurück zum Zitat Andersson P, Sundström B (2014) Proceedings from 3rd international conference on fires in vehicles. In: FIVE—fires in vehicles. p 274 Andersson P, Sundström B (2014) Proceedings from 3rd international conference on fires in vehicles. In: FIVE—fires in vehicles. p 274
165.
Zurück zum Zitat NFPA (2015) Emergency field guide. NFPA NFPA (2015) Emergency field guide. NFPA
168.
Zurück zum Zitat Joyeux D, Kruppa J, Cajot L-G, et al (2001) Demonstration of real fire tests in car parks and high rise buildings Joyeux D, Kruppa J, Cajot L-G, et al (2001) Demonstration of real fire tests in car parks and high rise buildings
170.
Zurück zum Zitat NFPA (2020) National electrical code. NFPA 70 NFPA (2020) National electrical code. NFPA 70
172.
Zurück zum Zitat NFPA (2014) Hybrid and electric vehicle emergency field guide. 1–38 NFPA (2014) Hybrid and electric vehicle emergency field guide. 1–38
Metadaten
Titel
A Review of Battery Fires in Electric Vehicles
verfasst von
Peiyi Sun
Roeland Bisschop
Huichang Niu
Xinyan Huang
Publikationsdatum
11.01.2020
Verlag
Springer US
Erschienen in
Fire Technology / Ausgabe 4/2020
Print ISSN: 0015-2684
Elektronische ISSN: 1572-8099
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10694-019-00944-3

Weitere Artikel der Ausgabe 4/2020

Fire Technology 4/2020 Zur Ausgabe