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Über dieses Buch

This book discusses some of the strategic lines in front of the trends related to the new challenges of global security in this new century: some rather universal problems (migration, terrorism, cyberspace, conflict resolutions techniques in prisons, economic intelligence), as well as more military ones (new conflicts: new world stage, new weapons, new military doctrines, mass destruction weapons and nuclear arms control, outer space and ocean depths), without forgetting some global and conceptual topics (disintegration is driving insecurity, searching for quality in international affairs, shield of security culture through data protection, information society and the protective influence of security culture).

A special focus is put on Europe's interests. The unique, complex process of integration of European states is confronted by various problems caused by the implementation of different political visions presented by the factions of the European Union's establishment. The diverse interpretation of the goals and paths of development of this organization leads to the violation of its cohesion, which is used by global partners with the opportunity to broaden their influence and achieve their own goals by playing European countries individually. There is a need for the EU to go further to achieve a deeper level of integration and strategic autonomy which would allow for the implementation of a coherent policy towards the powers.



Among Global Players


The United Kingdom and Its Future Contribution to the Defense of Europe

The role that the British governments have played in the United Kingdom in recent centuries has been to favor a balance of powers in continental Europe favorable to their security and aggrandizement. Currently the United Kingdom (UK) has decided to separate from the European Union (EU) of which until now it was part. This decision is undoubtedly based on political reasons, but also influenced by an imperial idea that has not yet disappeared completely and by a peculiar and close relationship with the United States, from which the British expect a very high level of cooperation. However, neither the EU can do without British military capabilities in its Common Security and Defense Policy, of which the UK so far was a part, nor can the latter do so in the commercial relations and technological development programs that currently connects their companies with the defense industries of the rest of the Union. In summary, two sectors focus the interest of the UK in maintaining a close relationship with the European Union in the field of security and defense: mutual defense against a common enemy, which Britain sees mainly within the framework of NATO and under the leadership of the United States (USA), and the research and technological development of armaments and commercial relations with the industries of this sector in the Union. Regardless of their departure from the EU, the UK and the EU will undoubtedly reach an agreement in the specific field of security and common defense, and this agreement will undoubtedly be assumed by the USA and NATO. The agreement will surely be effective for the defense of Europe, but it will foreseeably affect the Union’s capabilities to provide itself with an adequate level of strategic autonomy in terms of its defense in order to achieve the role of global actor on the international scene that has long been pursuing.
Eduardo Zamarripa

The Indo-Pacific: The Gauntlet Thrown Down by US, India, Japan and Australia to China’s Asia-Pacific Order

The idea of the Asia-Pacific region is giving way to another construct: the Indo-Pacific, a contest with strategic implications, not least the growth of China’s power and interests. This involves recognizing that the growing economic, geopolitical, and security connections between the Western Pacific and the Indian Ocean regions are creating a single strategic system with the Indian Ocean replacing the Atlantic as the globe’s busiest and most strategically significant trade corridor. The Indo-Pacific frame is closely linked to the Quadrilateral Security Dialogue, or the Quad: a coalition of powers that are either wary or ambivalent towards China: Australia, India, Japan and the United States (USA). The increased cooperation among these four democratic countries is perceived and interpreted in China as part of a USA-driven containment strategy towards Beijing: namely a reaction to the Chinese maritime territorial expansionism signalling that the South China Sea is not part of China’s integral territory (as China likes to argue). As a matter of fact, China, while getting hold of Asian, African, and also European (Piraeus of Athens) commercial ports, feels encircled by the Quad countries and, by exerting political pressure, resorts to carrot-and-stick policies towards countries in the region. In such a contest, the EU could play a pivotal role in the Indo-Pacific game and its contributions through imaginative mediation and political appeasement could be crucial and significant.
Giorgio Spagnol

European Union Vis-A-Vis Russian Federation, and Turkey

The mutual relations of the European Union (EU), the Russian Federation (RF) and the Republic of Turkey (RT) are characterized by lasting economic relationships and political returns. In RF and RT, the judicial system is used to brutally combat all expressions of political disagreement with interest groups in power for decades. It is therefore not surprising that EU relations with both countries remain poor and accession negotiations with RT stalled. RF and RT leaders have many common goals that primarily serve to maintain power. President Putin is already preparing the foreground for future presidential elections in 2024. The creation of a new government in January 2020 and the simultaneous launch of social assistance programs is to improve the image of power and help win parliamentary elections in 2021. Putin has at least three options. Similarly, President Erdogan’s goal is to re-elect the country’s leader in 2023, the 100th anniversary of the Turkish Republic. Actions in all areas of social life are subordinated to this. Moscow will attempt to make Ankara economically and politically dependent to use it as a tool in disputes with EU countries, where it will not necessarily want to be directly involved. Although this relationship has not yet occurred, RF is already using RT to force the EU to divide the gas and oil exploration and extraction zones in the Eastern Mediterranean. In turn, RT authorities will make efforts to maintain an equal distance between RF, EU and the USA.
Jerzy Biziewski

Challenges to Security


Economic Intelligence and National Security

Intelligence is in fashion! Anytime, anywhere a threat materializes and inflicts damage on society, citizens demand their governments to respond rapidly with remedies. This triggers an increase in intelligence activities and information sharing among allied nations. However, in most cases, the public is unaware of the breadth and depth of existing threats to their well-being. The time from action to result of aggressive actions is not always short. Some threats have a long lead time from the initiation of action to demonstrable results. Although economic aggression can have presence in both the quick reacting and long lead time results, it is usually of a more subtle form of threat against a nation. In recent decades nations have migrated to a globalized world, and that participation is based on each nation’s economic interests and objectives. A strong intelligence capability focused on economic activities is essential to a nation’s security. This paper addresses the evolving role of economic intelligence in western nations and with specific focus on its current role in Spain.
Valentín Martínez Valero

Analytical Approach to Emergent Hybrid Threats Phenomena. Case Study: EU and Colombia

This chapter analyses Hybrid Warfare-related phenomena, an emerging concept applied to the polymorphisms of modern wars which articulates the implementation of new means and modes generally associated with information technologies (IT), along with strategies comprising more than the battlefield. From States (at war or conflict), to terrorist groups and the organized crime, this contemporary scenario increases the complexity and difficulty to understand this kind of war or conflict. For this reason, this paper addresses the traditional and emerging illegal actors of asymmetric character present in the European Union (EU) and Colombia, as both cases share a wide-range of actors and/or organizations which have taken advantage of the globalization process to develop new activities which could be understood under the rubric of hybridity.
Juan-José Delgado-Morán, Jonnathan Jiménez-Reina, Álvaro Cremades-Guisado

Competition in the Outer Space and Ocean Depths

The aim of this chapter is to present in a brief manner the developments in the spheres previously unheard of, unknown or perhaps forgotten—the outer space and ocean depths. Whenever technology allows it, people reach for new frontiers and, as with everything else, what follows is a rather fierce competition between states. As all actions within the realms of outer space and ocean depths are veiled in secrecy—undoubtedly to gain advantage over the competitors—precious little is known and/or made public. Finding solid, reliable data is intentionally made extremely difficult, if not virtually impossible; therefore the material presented is based on scraps of information found or made available, without any certainty whether those bits had been offered accidentally or on purpose. There is no doubt, however, that major and lesser world powers are deeply interested in developing research and knowledge of the outer space and ocean depths to the degree limited only by available technology and financial resources. As it is something quite novel, relatively speaking, the envelope is invariably pushed by the military, as it has always been in the sphere of R&D, innovations and state-of-art equipment. Sky and the bottom of the sea are no longer the limits for human quest.
Roman S. Czarny, Krzysztof Kubiak

The (International) Terrorist Attack Model Against Diplomatic Interests

Since 9/11 terrorism has hit everywhere in the world. However, the War on Terror has reduced the number of attacks in the West even though the terrorists have kept Europe, Australia and the US as their main targets. Faced with the difficulty of attacking the territory of Western states, terrorist groups have tried to attack Western targets in their own countries. One of such targets has been diplomatic facilities which have become the main target of Al Qaeda or The Islamic State since 2005.
Alberto Priego

Today’s Challenges to International Peace and Security: Searching for Quality in International Affairs

To evaluate today’s challenges to peace and security it is appropriate to take a long-term perspective. A look at the trends in armed conflicts is a starting-point. Data from the Uppsala Conflict Data Project (UCDP) help us in this regard. The assessment also requires a study of the relationships between the actors most responsible for keeping international peace and security, the major powers, again observing pertinent trends. This will be approached in terms of particularistic and universalistic relations. Finally, it needs a discussion on possible alternatives in order to keep a focus on a world of peace and security that is beneficial for the entire international system and, in that sense, for the planet as a whole. This chapter is devoted to these three tasks.
Peter Wallensteen

Necessary Changes


New World Stage, New Weapons, New Military Doctrines

This presentation starts with a brief of the situation of the current world stage after the period of post Cold War. The author shows a short brief of the three main powers: United States of America (USA), People Republic of China (PRC), and Russian Federation, as well as other countries such as North Korea or Iran. He concludes it with the main aspects of the future conflicts in the XXI Century: in the littoral areas, in the middle of people and strong cyber and networked global stage. Colonel Lopez presents the new threats, mainly the concepts of Anti Access/Area Denial (A2/AD) as well the new doctrines to oppose them. Follow it, the Author expose the main concepts and changes in the development of future weapons in the Land, Air or Maritime Landscape and finally he presents conclusions about all of it.
Juan Lopez Diaz

Long-Lasting Solutions to the Problem of Migration in Europe

This is the following of a previous publication on the refugee crisis in Europe and its security challenges. Here we suggest some long-lasting solutions to the problem of migration. These may be summarize in four points: dealing with the countries of origin and of transit, adequate control of borders, and positive measures to facilitate the integration of the newcomers in their countries of destination.
J. Martín Ramírez

The Role of NATO

NATO, the most successful defensive alliance in history, was born in 1949 and through its already long life has been able to adapt to the evolving security environment. At the end of the second decade of the XXI Century, NATO needs again to adapt its doctrine end structures not only for an ever-changing security environment but also for the appearance of a new model of security that has to assure the resilience not only of defence structures and military units but also of civil structures, public services and essential resources. Today to preserve the continuity of proper functioning of services is on the first line of security and defence for modern societies. But there are other factors that must be considered to understand the very relevant paradigm shift in security in NATO on its 70 years of life. The Washington Treaty (see Epilogue) (NATO 1949) was signed by 12 countries on the 4th of April 1949. Seventy years later the 6th of February 2019 the Permanent Representatives of the 29 member countries of the Alliance signed (see Epilogue) (NATO 2019) the Accession Protocol for the future Republic of North Macedonia. There have been 17 Accession Protocols signed before this one and as a matter of fact, Article 10 of the Treaty has been the most frequently used during the 70 years of life of the Alliance. Although the Washington Treaty has not been modified since 1949, the Atlantic Alliance security model has changed significantly through the years, especially since 1989.
Federico Yaniz

European Union’s Strategic Autonomy

It is hardly to understand, why the European Union (EU), an organisation of 27 member states on a single continent with close economic and cultural links, with a population of almost 450 million, does not have its own effective instrument for implementing security and defence policy. Its dependence on the USA in this respect has not given rise to much reflection so far. The general detente and relative state of security after the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact corresponded to the European elite, recognising that Europe is basically free of external threats. This made it possible to allocate more funds in favour of social development programmes at the expense of security and defence. It was only Russia’s actions against Georgia and Ukraine, internal integrity challenges, fading unipolar system and the uncontrolled influx of immigrants in the aftermath of the unrest in the Middle East and Northern Africa that caused anxiety among the European establishment, as the lack of effective tools for counteracting the threats facing the EU’s borders was exposed. The full strategic autonomy in the security and defence domain should be the middle-term future goal (10 years). The essential objective is the ability to take decisions and implement them within the whole spectrum of the provisions of Article 42 of the Lisbon Treaty, including the mutual defence task so far delegated to NATO and taken out of the prerogatives of the EU administration. This fundamental change requires from national political elites to be prepared to accept and support a federal structure of the organization and centralization of the governance. The European Union’s strategic autonomy does not cross NATO, on the contrary. Its achievement should strengthen the North Atlantic Alliance. In the new format, the NATO EU pillar would be one of the NATO’s regional hubs, together with NATO North Africa, NATO Middle East and NATO Asia if this organization is developed in this way. Other NATO pillars are not excluded. The NATO EU hub would primarily be responsible for European Union’s security and defence as well as promotion of peace and development in its neighbourhood working with partners.
Jacek Ochman, Jerzy Biziewski

Social Aspects


Information Society and the Protective Influence of Security Culture

The author assumes that all human societies ever created have been information societies. This is because without the information flow, enabled by communication, it is impossible for the security environment—a fundamental component of every society—to arise and develop. Communication is of interest for a researcher in security sciences, especially in terms of the second energy stream of security culture. This paper aims to organize these observations, particularly in terms of the ontology of the contemporary social world. The author first discusses changes in the social world and the developments in communication up to 20th century’s digital revolution, that has brought computers and that still lasts. This discussion allows for distinguishing, characterizing and comparing three development models of contemporary information society: the American, the Japanese, and the European one. The author also indicates the threats stemming from losing control over digital progress, e.g. those pertaining to the perception of reality by computer users, the upbringing of children with visual media, and the low quality of information on the Internet. On this basis conclusions of a warning character are formed on the functioning of the contemporary human in the world of the media.
Juliusz Piwowarski

Conflict Resolution in Prisons. Education, Restorative Justice and Prisoner Facilitated Mediation

This document analyses the importance of techniques focused on peaceful conflict resolution, the engagement of perpetrators through restorative justice processes and prisoner facilitated mediation. Likewise, it analyses the impact of education and treatment programmes to reduce interpersonal and intrapersonal violence and assaults in prisons. Two programmes are highlighted as examples; the first, for reducing violent behaviour and the second, a programme consisting of a new model for useful, realistic and universally-applicable social harmony for achieving the prison’s therapeutic, training, educational and social harmony objectives, called respect units.
Luis Millana, Juan Carlos Fernández-Rodríguez, Fernando Miralles Muñoz

The Necessary Link Between Security Culture and Data Protection in the European Union

Appropriate behavior is indeed a major factor in Security culture, along with the mechanisms available to supervise and sanction, when needed be, wrongful actions. The concept of Security culture was interlinked with Information Security, thus spawning a new concept of Information Security culture, that later evolved to Cybersecurity Culture, which is a concept that has been developed in CSS’s all over Europe and the world. Cybersecurity culture, as opposed to Security culture, is a term that can be applied not only to companies, organizations or institutions, but also to the general public of a given nation or even a region. CSS’s have been the instrument to explain and develop this term.
Luis A. García-Segura


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