Studies in the 1980’s showed that there had been extensive loss of fish and invertebrates in lakes and streams in upland Wales due to acid deposition. A regional survey of these waters in 1995 showed that, despite large reductions in sulphur emissions, acidification was still widespread and no biological improvement was detectable. Policy options are needed which should include reductions in nitrogen as well as sulphur, the contribution of land use (especially conifer afforestation), liming and the introduction of species. This paper describes a screening study comprising the construction of an evaluation matrix, the use of decision workshops of expert stakeholders and trade-off analysis to identify possible combinations of options. The resulting output is being used to construct a regional strategy for achieving measurable ecosystem recovery within the next 10 years.
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- A Strategic Appraisal of Options to Ameliorate Regional Acidification
Alun S. Gee
- Springer Netherlands