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Über dieses Buch

An authoritative and comprehensive volume of knowledge and green technologies wholly focused on the future of the bioeconomy. The authors present data, show opportunities, discuss R&D findings, analyze strategies, assess the wider economic impact, showcase achievements, criticize policies and propose solutions for the green revolution in biofuels, biochemicals and biomaterials’ production and power generation.
A fascinating range of case studies from the US, China and many European countries are used to inform readers about the impact of this field on society and how various technologies are currently being implemented.

Additionally, the role of industry on this green industrial revolution is outlined with contributions from several major companies such as DuPont (US), UPM-Kymmene Oy (Finland), Anhui BBCA Biochemical Co (China).

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Legacy of Petroleum-Based Economy

Abstract
During the industrial revolution of the nineteenth century, the use of coal as fuel set the “train” of progress in motion, which definitely induced a significant improvement in the living standards. After several discoveries, inventions, and innovations, the use of crude oil, the so-called black gold, enabled humanity to reach a higher level of prosperity, especially so between the end of the second World War and the oil embargo crisis. Currently, crude oil is the most traded commodity in the world market and is the main feedstock to produce a wide range of fuels and products such as plastics, textile fibers, dyes, etc.
The heavy reliance on petroleum and other fossil fuels for decades caused many environmental disasters around the world and major geopolitical tensions especially in oil-producing countries. In this chapter, the environmental (water, soil, and air) and geopolitical legacy of the petroleum era as well as its impact of human society are thoroughly discussed in order to highlight seriousness of those issues and the necessity for an alternative sustainable economic model for the future.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 2. Bioeconomy: The Path to Sustainability

Abstract
As the global environmental, geopolitical, and socioeconomic situation started to worsen, humanity became aware that the current economic model based on fossil resources is not a viable one and its shortcomings are being sensed all over the world (economic crisis, global warming, accentuated disparities, recurrent pollution incidents, etc.). In response, a general consensus was made about the necessity to reintroduce biomass as the core element for the future economic model allowing a sustainable development, along with dealing with the major issues being faced by humanity nowadays.
In this chapter, the various definitions around the bioeconomy concept are presented, as well as the urgent need elaborate an authoritative definition of this concept in order to synchronize the efforts of all possible contributors (legislators, scientists, industrialists, etc.) for a wider promotion and implementation of this new economic model through a gradual and smooth transition in raw materials from fossil to renewal resources.
The main aim of bioeconomy is primarily to conduct the various agricultural, forestry, and industrial activities in a sustainable manner. Thus, in order to ensure a successful transition to bioeconomy, the key endeavor is to find out different viable schemes to combine both sustainability and profitability. This is definitely the major challenge to face bioeconomy for the next couple of decades. The leading role of science and technology in this vital transition phase towards sustainable bioeconomy is emphasized.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 3. Biomass: The Sustainable Core of Bioeconomy

Abstract
Bioeconomy, through its industrial and agricultural activities, as well as forestry and fishery, is aiming at providing markets with various bio-based commodities at competitive prices. Thus, the use and conversion of bioresources is at the core of bioeconomy, and in order to produce a wide range of end products, a multitude of bio-based production and manufacturing processes are applied or being upgraded, all depending on the availability and biochemical composition of biomass.
In this chapter, a detailed characterization of many bioresources is presented as the primary step for its industrial or agricultural valorization. This includes woody, herbaceous, and aquatic biomass as well as agro-industrial and municipal wastes. The main components of bioresources valued by several industrial activities are cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin (i.e., lignocellulosic biomass), along with starch, lipids, proteins, chitin, and chitosan. Based on the data presented in this third chapter, three main characteristics could be given to biomass: renewability, availability, and versatility, which are among the main prerequisite to implement bioeconomy on a sustainable ground.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 4. Biofuels and Bioenergy

Abstract
The depletion of fossil fuels and the global environmental awareness along, with several economic concerns, are the major driving forces behind the worldwide orientation towards renewable bioresources and agro-industrial wastes for the production of alternative fuels in a sustainable manner. Consequently, the development of more efficient biomass-producing systems and biomass-processing technologies are becoming serious challenges for industrialists and researchers in order to provide markets with eco-friendly fuels at competitive prices and contribute to the reduction of CO2 emissions.
In this chapter, multiple opportunities to valorize biomass as feedstock for fuel and energy production are highlighted. This includes various woody, herbaceous, agro-industrial, and aquatic bioresources, as well as animals, and microorganisms, rich in cellulose, hemicellulose, starch, chitin, and lipids for the production of bioethanol, biodiesels, and biogas. The conversion of those bioresources to the desired biofuels involves a variety of technologies and processes, which are presented and compared in this chapter, including biomass pretreatments, thermochemical and biological conversion procedures, as well as separation, purification, and upgrading technologies. The need for more R&D breakthroughs enabling the production of biofuels at more competitive prices is also highlighted as a major step to accelerate the shift towards bioeconomy.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 5. Biochemicals

Abstract
Various chemicals are being produced from fossil resources, primarily petroleum (petrochemicals) as well as coal and natural gas. With the decade-long advances in the petrochemical industry, the extent of utilization of the end products produced from platform chemicals from fossil resources is so versatile that it affects every aspect in our today’s life, including plastics, pesticides, dyes, personal care products, and even vitamins and aspirin.
In this chapter, various profitable opportunities to convert biomass and derived wastes into value-added biochemical compounds are showcased and discussed with respect to their production procedures (chemical and/or enzymatic) and yields and applied separation and purification technologies. This includes the production of organic acids (glycolic, 3-hydroxypropionic, and succinic acids), pharmaceuticals and biocosmetics (antibiotics, antibiotics, and antioxidants), fuel and food additives and biopesticides, all from renewable and available plants, aquatic biomass, and microorganisms.
In this context, joint academic and industrial research and development is highlighted as the main key to implement a bio-based economy able to produce a wide range of alternative green chemicals at a large scale, either within the current chemical, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries or via more sustainable bioprocessing activities in new integrated biorefineries.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 6. Biomaterials

Abstract
The production of various biomaterials from bioresources and biowastes is a major industrial activity in bioeconomy. Providing markets with bio-based materials as replacements to the fossil-based ones is facing two main challenges. The first one is related to the wide range of materials to be replaced by bioproducts at a competitive basis (i.e., producing equal quantities of better quality products). The second challenge, which needs to be seriously taken into consideration in bioeconomy, is managing the expected competition over the available biomass between the industries involved in the production of materials and those in the biofuel and biochemical sectors.
In the present chapter, numerous materials derived from renewable biomass are presented, along with the involved mechanical, thermochemical, and biological production procedures. This includes pulp and paper, bioplastics from various biopolymers and microorganisms, as well as biochars and activated carbons with versatile applications such as energy storage, water and wastewater treatment, soil amendment and remediation, and CO2 sequestration.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 7. Biorefineries: Industrial-Scale Production Paving the Way for Bioeconomy

Abstract
The development and application of industrial-scale conversion procedures in high-yielding and cost-efficient production facilities is a vital endeavor to successfully implement bioeconomy and produce valuable products such as biofuels and platform chemicals from biomass and derived wastes in a sustainable manner. Such effort is expected to benefit various strategic sectors mainly related to energy security by gradually reducing the dependency on fossil fuels (which will appease many geopolitical tensions around the world) and the mitigation of various environmental issues such as global warming and toxic wastes and emissions.
The facilities where such sustainable bio-based production processes are operated are referred to as biorefineries. In this chapter, various categories of biorefineries are reported (green, whole grain, lignocellulosic biomass, oleo-chemical, and marine biorefineries), along with the related strategies and technologies. Considering the strategic importance of such production facilities in the bioeconomy concept, several issues and challenges are also presented and discussed with respect to both the design and operation of biorefineries. The urgent need for a wider expansion plan of biorefineries well implemented in their local environments (sustainable management of biomass, water, and energy resources) is also highlighted. Besides, two commercially available biorefining technologies are reported in order to represent the biorefining technological know-how in Europe (Borregaard, Norway) and Northern America (Envergent Technologies, Canada/United States).
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 8. Implementing the Bioeconomy on the Ground: An International Overview

Abstract
Bioeconomy is a holistic economic model developed and applied to manage the available raw materials from biomass and valorize the biowastes generated for the various agro-industrial activities. The implementation of this sustainable concept on the ground is based on a variety of green technologies related to the acquisition and conversion of biomass to produce a wide range of biofuels, biochemicals, and biomaterials, with little to no competition with food resources.
The decision to implement bioeconomy in any country is well justified and of strategic importance, especially if enough renewable raw materials could be made available to “fuel” the country’s economy and the major industrial activities. In this chapter various visions, strategies, resources, and opportunities, as well many industrial cases related to the implementation of bioeconomy, are presented and discussed in various leading countries in the world including the United States, several European countries, and China. A closer look on the Finnish bioeconomy and its related industrial achievements and prospects is also given.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi

Chapter 9. Bioeconomy: Multidimensional Impacts and Challenges

Abstract
For decades, the reliance on fossil resources for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials has generated unsustainable economic models which have created complicated economic, environmental and geopolitical circumstances around the world. Hence, in order to become sustainable economic model, bioeconomy has to deal with those challenges, as well as the important social factor related to issues such as accentuated disparities, population growth, and mass migration. During the current transition phase towards sustainability, bioeconomy is affected by various factors, notably the availability of biomass and the development or acquisition of biorefining technologies. Once implemented on the ground, bioeconomy starts to impact various aspects related to sustainable development, the environment, and societies. Simultaneously, it starts to face new sets of challenges mainly related to serious agricultural, industrial, environmental, and social issues.
Thus, in the present chapter, the impacts of bioeconomy and the prospects of its worldwide implementation are thoroughly discussed from a multidimensional outlook including industrial, environmental, social, and geopolitical perspectives. This includes the need for a continuous monitoring of the sustainability of bioproducts and biorefineries via various metrics, as well as the assessment of key environmental and social factors such as greenhouse gas emissions, land-use change, biodiversity, employment, food security, and the dangerous, yet somehow underestimated, problem of corruption.
Mika Sillanpää, Chaker Ncibi
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