In an international environment of mercantile capitalism, colonialism and imperialism, the present industrialised countries in general and the United Kingdom in particular embarked on an ‘Industrial Revolution’. This industrial revolution was basically characterised by the use of fossil energy (coal, oil, etc.) instead of biological energy (humans, horses, oxen, etc.) for the large-scale production of goods for human use. The supplanting of human and animal power by coal, oil and electrical energy greatly extended human capability: it was a quantum leap forward in the evolution of human society in its everyday business, which should be ranked with such milestones in human progress as development of agriculture and domestication of cattle in about the tenth millennium BC or of irrigation technology in the valleys of the Nile, Tigris-Euphrates and Indus in the fourth millennium BC which led to the growth of the first civilisations.
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- A Synoptic View of the Industrial Revolution in Theoretical Perspective
Purushottam Narayan Mathur
- Palgrave Macmillan UK
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