Weitere Artikel dieser Ausgabe durch Wischen aufrufen
This paper develops a theory of entrepreneurial learning from performance errors. The paper explains how entrepreneurs generate outcomes, and based on these, detect and correct errors in their own knowledge about the activities involved in creating and operating a new venture. The model developed in this paper reflects the major cognitive functions leading to outcome generation, error detection and error correction. We draw testable propositions about the effects of entrepreneurs’ domain-specific knowledge and cognitive ability on each stage of the learning process, which ultimately determine how much the entrepreneurs can learn from a given performance error.
Bitte loggen Sie sich ein, um Zugang zu diesem Inhalt zu erhalten
Sie möchten Zugang zu diesem Inhalt erhalten? Dann informieren Sie sich jetzt über unsere Produkte:
Adner, R. (2002). When are technologies disruptive? A demand-based view of the emergence of competition. Strategic Management Journal, 23, 667–688. CrossRef
Aldrich, H. (2000). Organizations evolving. London: Sage.
Anderson, J. R. (1987). Skill acquisition: Complication of weak-method problem solutions. Psychological Review, 94, 192–210. CrossRef
Anzai, Y., & Simon, H. A. (1979). The theory of learning by doing. Psychological Review, 86, 124–140. CrossRef
Azoulay, P., & Shane, S. (2001). Entrepreneurs, contracts, and the failure of young firms. Management Science, 47, 337–358. CrossRef
Baron, R. A. (1998). Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: Why and when entrepreneurs think differently than other people. Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 275–294. CrossRef
Bazerman, M. H. (2001). Judgment in managerial decision making. New York: Wiley.
Berkson, W., & Wettersten, J. (1984). Learning from error: Karl Popper’s psychology of learning. La Salle, IL: Open Court.
Block, Z., & McMillan, I. C. (1985). Milestones for successful venture planning. Harvard Business Review, 63(5), 184–196.
Boland Jr., R. J., Singh, J., Salipante, P., Aram, J. D., Fay, S. Y., & Kanawattanachai, P. (2001). Knowledge representations and knowledge transfer. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 393–417. CrossRef
Carter, N., Gartner, W., & Reynolds, P. (1996). Exploring start-up event sequences. Journal of Business Venturing, 11, 151–166. CrossRef
Caves, R. E. (1998). Industrial organization and new findings on the turnover and mobility of firms. Journal of Economic Literature, 36, 1947–1982.
Chandler, G. N., & Jansen, E. (1992). The founder’s self-assessed competence and venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 223–236. CrossRef
Christensen, C., & Bower, J. (1996). Customer power, strategic investment, and the failure of leading firms. Strategic Management Journal, 17, 197–218. CrossRef
Cope, J. (2001). The entrepreneurial experience: Towards a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Lancaster, Lancaster, England.
Cope, J. (2005). Toward a dynamic learning perspective of entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 373–397. CrossRef
Cope, J., & Watts, G. (2000). Learning by doing: An exploration of experience, critical incidents and reflection in entrepreneurial learning. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 6(3), 104–124. CrossRef
Corbett, A. C. (2005). Experiential learning within the process of opportunity identification and exploitation. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 473–491. CrossRef
Covin, J. G., & Miles, M. P. (1999). Corporate entrepreneurship and the pursuit of competitive advantage. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 23(3), 47–64.
Covin, J. G., & Miles, M. P. (2007). Strategic use of corporate venturing. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31(2), 183–207. CrossRef
Cyert, R. M., & March, J. G. (1963). A behavioral theory of the firm. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Daft, R. L., & Weick, K. E. (1984). Toward a model of organizations as interpretation systems. Academy of Management Review, 9, 284–295. CrossRef
Davidsson, P., & Honig, B. (2003). The role of social and human capital among nascent entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 18, 301–331. CrossRef
Dormann, T., & Frese, M. (1994). Error training: Replication and the function of exploratory behavior. International Journal of Human–Computer Interaction, 6, 365–372. CrossRef
Dutta, D. K., & Crossan, M. M. (2005). The nature of entrepreneurial opportunities: Understanding the process using the 41 organizational learning framework. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29, 425–450. CrossRef
Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32, 543–576. CrossRef
Fisher, K. M., & Lipson, J. I. (1986). Twenty questions about student errors. Journal of Research in Science and Teaching, 23, 783–803. CrossRef
Fiske, S. T., & Taylor, S. E. (1991). Social cognition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Gartner, W. B. (1990). What are we talking about when we talk about entrepreneurship? Journal of Business Venturing, 5, 15–28. CrossRef
Gatewood, E. J., Shaver, K. G., Powers, J. B., & Gartner, W. B. (2002). Entrepreneurial expectancy, task effort, and performance. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(2), 187–207. CrossRef
Gavetti, G., & Levinthal, D. (2000). Looking forward and looking backward: Cognitive and experiential search. Administrative Science Quarterly, 45, 113–137. CrossRef
Glaser, R., & Bassok, M. (1989). Learning theory and the study of instruction. Annual Review of Psychology, 40, 631–666. CrossRef
Gully, S. M., Payne, S. C., Koles, K. L. K., & Whiteman, J.-A. K. (2002). The impact of error training and individual differences on training outcomes: An attribute–treatment interaction perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 143–155. CrossRef
Guth, W. D., Kumaraswamy, A., & McErlean, M. (1991). Cognition, enactment and learning in the entrepreneurial process. In N. C. Churchill (Eds.) Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 242–253). Wellesley, MA: Babson College.
Hargadon, A. B., & Douglas, W. (2001). When innovations meet institutions: Edison and the design of the electric light. Administrative Science Quarterly, 46, 476–501. CrossRef
Harrison, R. T., & Leitch, C. M. (2005). Entrepreneurial learning: Researching the interface between learning and the entrepreneurial context. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(4), 351–371. CrossRef
Hayek, F. A. (1945). The use of knowledge in society. The American Economic Review, 35, 519–530.
Hill, R. C., & Levenhagen, M. (1995). Metaphors and mental models: Sensemaking and sensegiving in innovative and entrepreneurial activities. Journal of Management, 21, 1057–1074. CrossRef
Horton, D. L., & Mills, C. B. (1984). Human learning and memory. Annual Review of Psychology, 35, 361–394. CrossRef
Ivancic, K., & Hesketh, B. (1995/1996). Making the best of error during training. Training Research Journal, 1, 103–125.
Jenkins, M., & Johnson, G. (1997). Entrepreneurial intentions and outcomes: A comparative causal mapping study. Journal of Management Studies, 34, 895–920. CrossRef
Kaish, S., & Gilad, B. (1991). Characteristics of opportunities search of entrepreneurs versus executives: Sources, interests, and general alertness. Journal of Business Venturing, 6, 45–61. CrossRef
Keh, H. T., Foo, M. D., & Lim, B. C. (2002). Opportunity evaluation under risky conditions: The cognitive processes of entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(2), 125–149. CrossRef
Krueger Jr., N. F. (2007). What lies beneath? The experiential essence of entrepreneurial thinking. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31, 123–138. CrossRef
Kuratko, D. F., & Hornsby, J. S. (1997). An examination of owner’s goals in sustaining entrepreneurship. Journal of Small Business Management, 35(1), 24–33.
Kuratko, D. F., Ireland, R. D., Covin, J. G., & Hornsby, J. S. (2005). A model of middle-level managers’ entrepreneurial behavior. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(6), 699–716. CrossRef
Lafuente, A., & Salas, V. (1989). Types of entrepreneurs and firms: The case of new Spanish firms. Strategic Management Journal, 10, 17–30. CrossRef
Langley, P. (1985). Learning to search: From weak methods to domain-specific heuristics. Cognitive Science, 9, 217–260. CrossRef
Lumpkin, G. T., & Lichtenstein, B. B. (2005). The role of organizational learning in the opportunity-recognition process. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29, 451–472. CrossRef
March, J. G. (1991). Exploration and exploitation in organizational learning. Organization Science, 2(1), 71–87. CrossRef
McClelland, D. C. (1987). Characteristics of successful entrepreneurs. Journal of Creative Behavior, 21(3), 219–233.
Metalsky, G. I., & Abramson, L. Y. (1981). Attributional styles: Toward a framework for conceptualization and assessment. In P. C. Kendall & S. D. Hollon (Eds.) Cognitive-behavioral intension: Assessment methods. New York: Academic.
Minniti, M., & Bygrave, W. (2001). A dynamic model of entrepreneurial learning. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 25(3), 5–16.
Mitchell, R. K., Busenitz, L. W., Bird, B., Gaglio, C. M., McMullen, J. S., Morse, E. A., et al. (2007). The central question in entrepreneurial cognition research. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 31, 1–27. CrossRef
Morris, M. H., Kuratko, D. F., & Covin, J. G. (2008). Corporate entrepreneurship & innovation. Mason, OH: Thomson.
Naffziger, D. W., Hornsby, J. S., & Kuratko, D. F. (1994). A proposed research model of entrepreneurial motivation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 18(3), 29–42.
Nordstrom, C. R., Wendlend, D., & Williams, K. B. (1998). “To err is human:” An examination of the effectiveness of error management training. Journal of Business and Psychology, 12(3), 269–282. CrossRef
Ohlsson, S. (1987). Transfer of training in procedural learning: A matter of conjectures and refutations? In L. Bolc (Ed.) Computational models of learning (pp. 55–88). Berlin: Springer.
Ohlsson, S. (1996). Learning from performance errors. Psychological Review, 103, 241–262. CrossRef
Pakes, A., & Ericson, R. (1998). Empirical implications of alternative models of firm dynamics. Journal of Economic Theory, 79, 1–45. CrossRef
Parker, S. C. (2007). Learning about the unknown: How fast do entrepreneurs adjust their beliefs? Journal of Business Venturing, 21, 1–26. CrossRef
Politis, D. (2005). The process of entrepreneurial learning: A conceptual framework. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 29(4), 399–424. CrossRef
Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. M. (1993). The learning experiences of entrepreneurs. In N. C. Churchill (Ed.) Frontiers of entrepreneurship research (pp. 234–245). Wellesley, MA: Babson College.
Reuber, A. R., & Fischer, E. M. (1999). Understanding the consequences of founders’ experience. Journal of Small Business Management, 37(2), 30–45.
Reynolds, P. (1997). Who starts firms? Preliminary explorations of firms in gestation. Small Business Economics, 10, 103–115.
Reynolds, P. D., & White, S. (1993). Wisconsin’s entrepreneurial climate study. Milwaukee, WI: Marquette University, Center for the Study of Entrepreneurship.
Rindova, V. P., & Kotha, S. (2001). Continuous morphing: Competing through dynamic capabilities, form, and function. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 1263–1280. CrossRef
Rindova, V. P., Petkova, A. P., & Kotha, S. (2007). Standing out: How new firms in emerging markets build reputation in the media. Strategic Organization, 5, 31–70. CrossRef
Rosch, E. (1975). Cognitive representations of semantic categories. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 104, 192–233. CrossRef
Rosch, E., & Lloyd, B. B. (1978). Cognition and categorization. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Ryle, G. (1949). The concept of mind. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Schank, R. (1986). Explanation patterns: Understanding mechanically and creatively. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Shane, S. (2000). Prior knowledge and the discovery of entrepreneurial opportunities. Organization Science, 11, 448–469. CrossRef
Shane, S., & Stuart, T. (2002). Organizational endowments and the performance of university start-ups. Management Science, 48, 154–170. CrossRef
Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25, 217–226. CrossRef
Shaver, K. G., & Scott, L. R. (1991). Person, process, choice: The psychology of new venture creation. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 16(2), 23–45.
Simon, M., & Houghton, S. M. (2002). The relationship among biases, misperceptions, and the introduction of pioneering products: Examining differences in venture decision contexts. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 27(2), 105–125. CrossRef
Sitkin, S. B. (1992). Learning through failure: The strategy of small losses. Research in Organizational Behavior, 14, 231–266.
Smilor, R. W. (1997). Entrepreneurship: Reflections on a subversive activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 341–346. CrossRef
Smith, E. M., Ford, J. K., & Kozlowski, S. W. J. (1997). Building adaptive expertise: Implications for training design. In M. A. Quinones, & A. Ehrenstein (Eds.) Training for a rapidly changing workplace: Applications of psychological research (pp. 89–118). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. CrossRef
Starr, J. A., & Bygrave, W. D. (1992). The second time around: Outcomes, assets and liabilities of prior start-up experience. In S. Birley, & I. MacMillan (Eds.) International perspectives on entrepreneurship. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier.
Stiso, M. E., & Payne, S. C. (2004). The influence of incentives and timing on the effectiveness of error training. Working paper, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX.
Stotland, E., & Canon, L. K. (1972). Social psychology: A cognitive approach. Philadelphia: Saunders.
Thorngate, W. (1976). Must we always think before we act? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 2, 31–35. CrossRef
Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. In J. Katz, & R. Brockhaus (Eds.) Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth (vol. 3, (pp. 119–138)). Greenwich, CT: JAI.
Walsh, J. P. (1995). Managerial and organizational cognition: Notes from a trip down memory lane. Organization Science, 6, 280–321. CrossRef
Weick, K. E. (1979). Cognitive processes in organizations. Research in Organizational Behavior, 1, 41–74.
Weiner, B., Russell, D., & Lerman, D. (1978). Affective consequences of causal ascriptions. In J. H. Harvey, W. Ickes, & R. F. Kidd (Eds.) New directions in attribution research (vol. 2, (pp. 59–90)). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
Westhead, P., & Wright, M. (1998). Novice, portfolio, and serial founders: Are they different? Journal of Business Venturing, 13, 173–204. CrossRef
Wright, M., Robbie, K., & Ennew, C. (1997). Venture capitalists and serial entrepreneurs. Journal of Business Venturing, 12, 227–249. CrossRef
Zimmerman, M. A., & Zeitz, G. J. (2002). Beyond survival: Achieving new venture growth by building legitimacy. Academy of Management Review, 27, 414–431. CrossRef
- A theory of entrepreneurial learning from performance errors
Antoaneta P. Petkova
- Springer US
International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal
Print ISSN: 1554-7191
Elektronische ISSN: 1555-1938
Neuer Inhalt/© Stellmach, Neuer Inhalt/© BBL, Neuer Inhalt/© Maturus, Pluta Logo/© Pluta, Neuer Inhalt/© hww, Voraussetzungen für wirtschaftliche additive Fertigung/© Marco2811 | Fotolia