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As technology scales into the nano-regime, electromigration (EM) issues become a major threat that causes IR drops on the power delivery network (PDN) and can eventually lead to permanent failures. Conventionally, EM has been constrained by design rules during the physical design phase. In this chapter, we present experimental evidence demonstrating that EM recovery can be accelerated and activated by “reversing” the direction of stress (current in the case of EM). The recovery mechanism can be employed to relax the conservative EM design rules at design time and can potentially fix EM issues before catastrophic failure during run time. Similar to the BTI case we demonstrate that EM wearout and recovery can also follow an optimal circadian rhythm leading to an almost complete recovery. The chapter concludes by discussing the implications of EM recovery on potential improvements of chip signoff procedures.
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- Accelerating and Activating Recovery Against EM Wearout
Mircea R. Stan
- Chapter 3