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A stakeholder is a person or institution with a legitimate interest in a given information and communications technology (ICT) system. Examples of stakeholders are users, owners, operators, regulatory government agencies, system architects, and software developers. Given a set of stakeholders, a complex adaptive ICT system is fragile to a particular type of negative impact, for example, downtime, if a possible large impact is unacceptable to some stakeholders in the set and robust if all possible impacts are acceptable to all stakeholders. The ICT system is anti-fragile if it learns (perhaps with help from some stakeholders) to maintain an acceptable impact to all stakeholders as the system and environment change over time.
- Achieving Anti-fragility
Kjell Jørgen Hole
- Chapter 2
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