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Über dieses Buch

This book covers the theoretical background, experimental methods and implementation details to engineer for communication and imaging application, terahertz devices using metamaterials, in mainstream semiconductor foundry processes. This book will provide engineers and physicists an authoritative reference to construct such devices with minimal background. The authors describe the design and construction of electromagnetic (EM) devices for terahertz frequencies (108-1010 cycles/sec) using artificial materials that are a fraction of the wavelength of the incident EM wave, resulting in an effective electric and magnetic properties (permittivity and permeability) that are unavailable in natural materials.



Chapter 1. Introduction

The primary purpose of this text is to provide analytic and experimental methods to design planar metamaterial based wave modulators for terahertz frequencies, especially for communication and imaging applications. This chapter provides the motivation for the reader by answering two basic questions: why terahertz frequencies and why design metamaterials for that frequency regime.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale

Chapter 2. Background Theory

This chapter reviews some of the fundamental electromagnetic principles for a basic understanding of metamaterials and metamaterials as terahertz modulator. Section 2.1 covers the basic electromagnetic properties of materials with non-positive dielectric parameters, permitivity (ε) and permeability (μ). In Sect. 2.2, basic Lorentz oscillator model for permitivity is developed to illustrate the anomalous dispersion behavior that is fundamental to the modulator design. Finally, the basic principle of wave modulation using metamaterials is formulated in Sect. 2.3.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale

Chapter 3. Experimental Methods

This chapter covers modeling, simulations, and test techniques to successfully design and implement metamaterials for terahertz frequencies. Modeling and simulation of metamaterials is briefly covered in Sect. 3.1 with emphasis on the choice of boundary conditions to leverage the symmetry of metamaterial structures and thus dramatically reduce simulation time and solid-state memory requirements. Section 3.2 covers fabrication techniques using commercial foundry process with 45 nm CMOS technology as an example. Few case studies on terahertz metamaterials are covered to showcase the power of using commercial semiconductor process for designing terahertz metamaterials. Finally, Sect. 3.3 covers test and characterization methods in detail to give the reader a solid background on characterizing terahertz metamaterials.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale

Chapter 4. High-Speed Terahertz Modulation Using Active Metamaterial

This chapter covers a case study of metamaterial based terahertz modulator using embedded HEMT devices. A computational and experimental study of the terahertz (THz) device resulting from hybridization of metamaterials with pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistors (pHEMTs), fabricated in a commercial gallium arsenide (GaAs) process is presented. The principle of modulation introduced in Sect. 2.​3 is further elaborated with a detailed analysis of HEMT based modulation. The design and fabrication details of the device using a commercial Gallium-Arsenide (GaAs) process are covered next and finally the experimental methods and the results are discussed.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale

Chapter 5. A Terahertz Spatial Light Modulator for Imaging Application

This chapter covers another case study of an all solid-state metamaterial based terahertz (THz) spatial light modulator (SLM) using the HEMT embedded metamaterial based modulator described previously. The motivation behind such a design is first introduced followed by an introduction to single-pixel imaging. Then, the design and assembly details of the spatial light modulator are discussed. The SLM is demonstrated by raster scanning a 6 × 6 image of an occluded metal object behind a thick polystyrene screen using a single-pixel THz imaging setup.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale

Chapter 6. A Terahertz Focal Plane Array Using Metamaterials in a CMOS Process

Metamaterial research has seen some unprecedented growth in the last two decades. Yet, compact and low-cost metamaterial devices are still infancy. Implementing the designs in a CMOS process will be a right step towards that goal although a huge engineering challenge. In this chapter, a method to implement a metamaterial based terahertz detector is demonstrated. A combination of electromagnetic and circuit simulations shows the viability of such a design, with the hope of serving as a reference for metamaterial designers who are interested in using the CMOS process.
Saroj Rout, Sameer Sonkusale


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