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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of six workshops collocated with the 13th International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless, ADHOC-NOW Workshops 2014, held in Benidorm, Spain, in June 2014.

The 25 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 59 submissions. The papers address the following topics: emerging technologies for smart devices; marine sensors and systems; multimedia wireless ad hoc networks; security in ad hoc networks; smart sensor protocols and algorithms; wireless sensor, actuator and robot networks.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

2nd International Workshop on Emerging Technologies for Smart Devices, ETSD 2014

Frontmatter

Multimedia Content Delivery Between Mobile Cloud and Mobile Devices

Abstract
The usage of mobile devices in everyday life poses new challenges for processing, adaptation and rendering of multimedia content, which can’t be accomplished due to mobile device limitations (battery lifetime, storage limitation, processing capacity and etc.). The proposed Mobile Cloud Content Delivery (MCCD) framework shows how multimedia delivery applications and services can efficiently exploit the computing power of mobile cloud resources to achieve high efficient delivery of multimedia content. The experimental case study shows how local multimedia content from the mobile device can be offloaded and processed in the mobile cloud and the transformed multimedia content can be delivered back to the user’s mobile device. The case study further shows that using different communication protocols (EDGE, 3G and LTE) to offload media content to MCCD can significantly influence the turnaround computational time.
Goran Jakimovski, Aleksandar Karadimce, Danco Davcev

Delayed Key Exchange for Constrained Smart Devices

Abstract
In the Internet of Things some nodes, especially sensors, can be constrained and sleepy, i.e., they spend extended periods of time in an inaccessible sleep state. Therefore, the services they offer may have to be accessed through gateways. Typically this requires that the gateway is trusted to store and transmit the data. However, if the gateway cannot be trusted, the data needs to be protected end-to-end. One way of achieving end-to-end security is to perform a key exchange, and secure the subsequent messages using the derived shared secrets. However, when the constrained nodes are sleepy this key exchange may have to be done in a delayed fashion. We present a novel way of utilizing the gateway in key exchange, without the possibility of it influencing or compromising the exchanged keys. The paper investigates the applicability of existing protocols for this purpose. Furthermore, due to a possible need for protocol translations, application layer use of the exchanged keys is examined.
Joona Kannisto, Seppo Heikkinen, Kristian Slavov, Jarmo Harju

Concept of IoT 2.0 Platform

Abstract
In the near future, Internet of Things (IoT) should integrate an extremely large amount of heterogeneous entities. However this process runs slower than expected due to the difficulty to develop services related to heterogeneous things. Environment for easy creation of IoT services (based on open interfaces) is one of the solutions for speeding up the IoT massive usage. In order to deploy such an environment, we propose to follow the track of the so-called Telco Application Programming Interface (known as Telco 2.0) initiatives. In this paper we show the concept of IoT 2.0 platform (based on Telco 2.0) and describe functional architecture of the proposed solution.
Jordi Mongay Batalla, Mariusz Gajewski, Konrad Sienkiewicz

A Cooperative End to End Key Management Scheme for E-health Applications in the Context of Internet of Things

Abstract
In the context of Internet of Things where real world objects will automatically be part of the Internet, e-health applications have emerged as a promising approach to provide unobtrusive support for elderly and frail people. However, due to the limited resources available and privacy concerns, security issues constitute a major obstacle to their deployment. Among these issues, key distribution for heterogeneous nodes is problematic due to the inconsistencies in their cryptographic primitives. This paper introduces a new key management scheme that aims to establish session keys for highly resource-constrained nodes ensuring security protection through strong encryption and authentication means. Our protocol is based on collaboration by offloading heavy asymmetric cryptographic operations to a set of third parties. The generated shared secret is then used to derive further credentials. Security analysis demonstrates that our protocol provides strong security features while the scarcity of resources is taken into consideration.
Mohammed Riyadh Abdmeziem, Djamel Tandjaoui

2nd International Workshop on Marine Sensors and Systems, MARSS 2014

Frontmatter

The Time Calibration System of KM3NeT: The Laser Beacon and the Nanobeacon

Abstract
The KM3NeT collaboration has started the construction of a deep sea neutrino telescope in the Mediterranean with an instrumented volume of several cubic kilometers. The objective of the KM3NeT telescope is to observe cosmic neutrinos. For this, the detector will consist of a tri-dimensional array of optical modules, each one composed of a pressure resistant glass sphere housing 31 small area photomultipliers. An important element of the KM3NeT detector is the system for the relative time calibration between optical modules with a precision of about 1 ns. The system comprises two independent devices: a nanobeacon inside each optical module for calibration of optical modules in the same vertical detection unit and a laser beacon for the calibration of optical modules of vertical units. After a general introduction of the KM3NeT project, a detailed description of the KM3NeT time calibration devices is presented.
Diego Real, David Calvo

Adaptive Data Collection in Sparse Underwater Sensor Networks Using Mobile Elements

Abstract
Underwater Wireless Sensor Network (UWSN) is a group of sensors and underwater vehicles, networked via acoustic links to perform collaborative tasks. Due to hostile environment, resource constraints and the peculiarities of the underlying physical layer technology, UWSNs tend to be sparse or partitioned, and energy-efficient data collection in a sparse UWSN is a challenging problem. We consider mobility-assisted routing as a technique for enabling connectivity and improving the energy efficiency of sparse UWSN, considering it as a Delay/Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) or Intermittently Connected Network (ICN). The DTN framework shows superior performance in terms of energy efficiency and packet delivery ratio, at the cost of increased message latency. We investigate the effectiveness of a polling model to analyze the delay performance and propose a dynamic optimization technique to minimize latency adaptively, thereby supporting delay-sensitive applications also. The effectiveness of the proposed technique in modelling the dynamically changing environment and minimizing the data collection latency is validated using NS-2 based simulation.
M. J. Jalaja, Lillykutty Jacob

Acoustic Signal Detection Through the Cross-Correlation Method in Experiments with Different Signal to Noise Ratio and Reverberation Conditions

Abstract
The study and application of signal detection techniques based on cross-correlation method for acoustic transient signals in noisy and reverberant environments are presented. These techniques are shown to provide high signal to noise ratio, good signal discernment from very close echoes and accurate detection of signal arrival time. The proposed methodology has been tested on different signal to noise ratio and reverberation conditions using real data collected in several experiences related to acoustic systems in astroparticle detectors. This work focuses on the acoustic detection applied to tasks of positioning in underwater structures and calibration such those as ANTARES and KM3NeT deep-sea neutrino telescopes, as well as, in particle detection through acoustic events for the COUPP/PICO detectors. Moreover, a method for obtaining the real amplitude of the signal in time (voltage) by using cross correlation has been developed and tested and is described in this work.
S. Adrián-Martínez, M. Bou-Cabo, I. Felis, C. D. Llorens, J. A. Martínez-Mora, M. Saldaña, M. Ardid

Multimedia Wireless Ad Hoc Networks 2014, MWaoN 2014

Frontmatter

CARPM: Cross Layer Ant Based Routing Protocol for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network

Abstract
Applying multimedia to Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) adds more challenges due to WSN resource constraints and the strict Quality of Service (QoS) requirements for multimedia transmission. Different multimedia applications may have different QoS requirements, so routing protocols designed for Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network (WMSN) should be conversant of these requirements and challenges in order to ensure the efficient use of resources to transfer multimedia packets in an utmost manner. The majority of solutions proposed for WMSN depends on traditional layered based mechanisms which are inefficient for multimedia transmission. In this paper we propose a cross-layer Ant based Routing Protocol for WMSN (CARPM) by using modified ant colony optimization (ACO) technique to enhance the routing efficiency. The proposed protocol uses an improved ACO to search for the best path that are satisfied with the multimedia traffic requirements. While making best decision the weightage is given to energy consumption, and queuing delay. The proposed cross layer scheme works between the routing, MAC, and physical layers. Since, the remaining power and timestamp metrics are exchanged from physical layer to network layer. Dynamics duty cycle assignment is proposed at MAC layer which changes according to traffic rate. The presented algorithm is simulated using NS2 and is proven to satisfy its goals through a series of simulations.
Mohammed Abazeed, Kashif Saleem, Suleiman Zubair, Norsheila Fisal

Access and Resources Reservation in 4G-VANETs for Multimedia Applications

Abstract
The development of Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks (VANET) has witnessed the release of various multimedia services and made it important to develop architectures and routing protocols capable of (a) handling the multimedia QoSs requirements and the real-time services’ constraints; (b) maximizing the network coverage; and (c) managing resources on the Road Side Units (RSUs), in order to guarantee the continuous delivery of real-time services.
In this work, we provide a novel 4G-based VANET heterogeneous architecture, which integrates IEEE 802.11p and 3GPP LTE access networks, to provide access to multimedia services. A tree-based network access scheme is developed, providing a rapid connection and handover to highly mobility vehicles, and allowing to maximize at a large extent the network coverage beyond the area uncovered by RSUs (in the form of LTE eNodeBs). Techniques for the proactive resources provision on the RSUs, and the management of QoS-aware vertical and horizontal handovers, are developed.
Mouna Garai, Mariem Mahjoub, Slim Rekhis, Noureddine Boudriga, Mohamed Bettaz

Security in Ad Hoc Networks, SecAN 2014

Frontmatter

Detection and Prevention of Black Hole Attacks in Mobile Ad hoc Networks

Abstract
Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are vulnerable to external threats due to their open access and lack of central point of administration. Black hole attack is a well-known routing attack, in which an attacker node replies to the Route Requests (RREQs) by pretending itself as a neighbor of the destination node in order to get the data. These days, it has become very challenging to secure a network from such attacks. In this paper, we propose a Detection and Prevention System (DPS) to detect black hole attack in MANETs. For this purpose, we deploy some special nodes in the network called DPS nodes, which continuously monitor RREQs broadcasted by other nodes. DPS nodes detect the malicious nodes by observing the behavior of their neighbors. When a node with suspicious behavior is found, DPS node declares that suspicious node as black hole node by broadcasting a threat message. Hence, the black hole node is isolated from the network by rejecting all types of data from it. The simulations in NS-2 show that our proposed DPS mechanism considerably reduces the packet drop ratio with a very low false positive rate.
Muhammad Imran, Farrukh Aslam Khan, Haider Abbas, Mohsin Iftikhar

A Novel Collaborative Approach for Sinkhole Detection in MANETs

Abstract
This paper presents a novel approach intended to detect sinkholes in MANETs running AODV. The study focuses on the detection of the well-known sinkhole attack, devoted to attract most of the surrounding network traffic by providing fake routes, and thus, invalidating alternative legitimate routes and disrupting the normal network operation. Our detection approach relies on the existence of “contamination borders”, formed by legitimate nodes under the influence of the sinkhole attack and, at the same time, neighbors of non-contaminated legitimate nodes. Thus, by collecting the routing information of the neighbors, these nodes are likely to be able to properly detect sinkholes. We evaluate our approach in a simulation framework and the experimental results show the promising nature of this approach in terms of detection capabilities.
Leovigildo Sánchez-Casado, Gabriel Maciá-Fernández, Pedro García-Teodoro, Nils Aschenbruck

2nd Smart Sensor Protocols and Algorithms–SSPA2014

Frontmatter

A Smart M2M Deployment to Control the Agriculture Irrigation

Abstract
Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have become in a very powerful infrastructure to manage all kind of services. They provide the mechanism to control a big number of devices distributed around a big geographical space. The implementation of a sensor network is cheap and fast and it allows us to add a smart layer over the physical topology. For these reasons, they have begun to be used in many applications and environments. In this paper, we propose a new smart M2M system based on wireless sensor network to manage and control irrigation sprinklers. Humidity and temperature of soil are used to extract information about soil conditions. The network protocol builds an ad hoc infrastructure to exchange the information over the whole WSN. The proposed algorithm uses the meteorological parameters and characteristics of soil to decide which irrigation sprinklers have to be enabled and when we have to do it. Using our intelligent system we can reduce irrigation water consumption, avoiding activation of sprinklers when they are not needed.
Alberto Reche, Sandra Sendra, Juan R. Díaz, Jaime Lloret

A Location Prediction Based Data Gathering Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks Using a Mobile Sink

Abstract
Traditional data gathering protocols in wireless sensor networks are mainly based on static sink, and data are routed in a multi-hop manner towards sink. In this paper, we proposed a location predictable data gathering protocol with a mobile sink. A sink’s location prediction principle based on loose time synchronization is introduced. By calculating the mobile sink location information, every source node in the network is able to route data packets timely to the mobile sink through multi-hop relay. This study also suggests a dwelling time dynamic adjustment method, which takes the situation that different areas may generate different amount of data into account, resulting in a balanced energy consumption among nodes. Simulation results show that our data gathering protocol enables data routing with less data transmitting time delay and balance energy consumption among nodes.
Chuan Zhu, Yao Wang, Guangjie Han, Joel J. P. C. Rodrigues, Hui Guo

Deployment and Performance Study of an Ad Hoc Network Protocol for Intelligent Video Sensing in Precision Agriculture

Abstract
Recent advances in technology applied to agriculture have made possible the Precision Agriculture (PA). It has been widely demonstrated that precision agriculture provides higher productivity with lower costs. The goal of this paper is to show the deployment of a real-time precision sprayer which uses video sensing captured by lightweight UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) forming ad hoc network. It is based on a geo-reference system that takes into account weeds inside of a mapped area. The ad hoc network includes devices such as AR Drones, a laptop and a sprayer in a tractor. The experiment was carried out in a corn field with different locations selected to represent the diverse densities of weeds that can be found in the field. The deployed system allows saving high percentage of herbicide, reducing the cost spent in fertilizers and increasing the quality of the product.
Carlos Cambra, Juan R. Díaz, Jaime Lloret

8th International Workshop on Wireless Sensor, Actuator and Robot Networks–WiSARN 2014

Frontmatter

Virtual Localization for Robust Geographic Routing in Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
Geographic routing protocols are well suited to wireless sensor networks because of their modest resource requirements. A major limiting factor in their implementation is the requirement of location information. The virtual localization algorithm provides the functionality of geographic routing without any knowledge of node locations by constructing a virtual coordinate system. It differs from similar algorithms by improving efficiency – greedy routing performs significantly better over virtual locations than over physical locations. The algorithm was tested and evaluated in a real network environment.
Tony Grubman, Y. Ahmet Şekercioğlu, Nick Moore

Micro Robots for Dynamic Sensor Networks

Abstract
In a network of micro sensors, the network capabilities can be greatly enhanced if participant nodes are able to fine-tune their positions. Even when a node is optimally located, it could benefit from subtle maneuvers that optimize the functionality of the node’s directional sensors. In particular, the ability to aim a directional networking interface (e.g., antenna) is essential for low-power networking that is enforced by the tiny form-factor of the nodes. This paper presents a prototype design for a multi-terrain sensor-carrying micro robot, which excels in subtle movements. The robot has an egg-shaped shell, which provides protection, recover-ability and unique maneuvering capabilities in versatile terrains. We demonstrate the advantages of the suggested design in the context of dynamic sensor networks.
Boaz Benmoshe, Kobi Gozlan, Nir Shvalb, Tal Raskin

A Pragmatic Approach for Effective Indoor Localization Using IEEE 802.11n

Abstract
Wi-Fi based Indoor Localization is commonly used in pervasive systems due to its ease of use and relatively low cost. In recent times, IEEE 802.11n is gaining more attention due to the operation of devices in dual band (2.4 GHz and 5 GHz) simultaneously. However the utility of dual band in Wi-Fi indoor localization is still a subject of study and has not been widely implemented. The focus of this paper is to evaluate the feasibility of using both these bands by comparing their indoor localization performance using fingerprinting techniques in a real indoor environment. The effects of interference and localization accuracy are the subject of the experimental study. Based on the study, we propose intelligent policies which effectively utilize the advantages of both the bands. Our experiments and analysis have demonstrated the effectiveness of our policies in improving the accuracy of indoor localization.
P. Shanmugaapriyan, H. Chitra, E. Aiswarya, Vidhya Balasubramanian, S. Ashok Kumar

Use of Time-Dependent Spatial Maps of Communication Quality for Multi-robot Path Planning

Abstract
We consider the path planning problem of mobile networked agents (e.g., robots) that have to travel towards assigned target locations. Robots’ path planners have to optimally balance potentially conflicting goals: keep the traveled distance within an assigned maximum value while, at the same time, let the robot reliably and effectively communicate with other robots in the multi-robot network, and reduce the risk of collisions. We propose a solution approach based on the integration of two components: a link quality predictor based on supervised learning, and a path optimizer, based on a mathematical programming formulation. The predictor is built offline and yields spatial predictions of the expected communication quality of the wireless links in terms of packet reception rate. Exploiting shared information about planned trajectories, these spatial predictions are used online by the robots to build time-dependent spatial maps of communication quality, to iteratively assess the best path to follow considering both local and prospective links, and to plan paths accordingly. To deal robustly with dynamic environments, path planning is implemented as a multi-stage scheme using a receding horizon strategy. The framework is evaluated in realistic simulation scenarios, showing the effectiveness of using the spatial predictor for the effective online planning of network-aware trajectories.
Gianni A. Di Caro, Eduardo Feo Flushing, Luca M. Gambardella

Responsibility Area Based Task Allocation Method for Homogeneous Multi Robot Systems

Abstract
The paper presents task decomposition and allocation method for multi-robot systems for area coverage tasks. The method is based on the notion of responsibility area which is the part of the environment that is considered to be atomic task which is allocated to a single robot. The responsibility areas are defined based on the equality of the needed amount of work for their processing. The amount of work is calculated based on the particular area and obstacles in it. The task allocation is done in the way that the most suitable responsibility areas are sequentially added to each robot. The main criterion for the task allocation is the distance from the responsibility area to the particular robot. Still the indexing mechanism is introduced to make the robots to process the environment region by region without leaving unprocessed responsibility areas. The method is implemented and tested in the multi-robot system for vacuum cleaning of large areas that cannot be cleaned by a single vacuum cleaning robot.
Egons Lavendelis

Key Factors for a Proper Available-Bandwidth-Based Flow Admission Control in Ad-Hoc Wireless Sensor Networks

Abstract
In this paper, first, we present our simulation studies that help to outline key factors for a proper available-bandwidth-based flow admission control in ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In most cases, WSNs use the IEEE 802.15.4 standard, therefore our simulation studies are based on the same standard. The identified key factors are: (i) the overheads (back-off, retransmission, contention window, ACK packet, and ACK waiting time) associated with the unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 Carrier Sense Multiple Access Collision Avoidance (CSMA-CA) MAC layer protocol reduce the amount of available bandwidth, (ii) the impact of the MAC layer overheads on a node’s available bandwidth is a function of the number of active transmitters and data traffic load within the interference range of the node, (iii) contention count on a node that is not on a flow’s data forwarding path is a function of the number of active transmitters (along the flow’s data forwarding path) within the interference range of the node, and (iv) a flow’s intra-flow contention count on a node (along the flow’s data forwarding path) depends on the hop-count distance of the node from the source and the destination nodes, and the node’s interference range. Second, we present a survey of state-of-the-art flow admission control algorithms for ad-hoc wireless networks. The survey demonstrates that the state-of-the-art flow admission control algorithms do not completely consider the key identified factors or make incorrect assumptions about them. Third, we propose techniques that an available-bandwidth-based flow admission control algorithm can use to incorporate the key identified factors. Hence, the work presented in this paper can serve as a basis of a more effective available-bandwidth-based flow admission control algorithm for ad-hoc wireless networks.
Muhammad Omer Farooq, Thomas Kunz

OpenCV WebCam Applications in an Arduino-Based Rover

Abstract
In this work we design and implement Arduino-based Rovers with characteristics of re-programmability, modularity in terms of type and number of components, communication capability, equipped with motion support and capability to exploit information both from the surrounding and from other wireless devices. These latter can be homogeneous devices (i.e. others similar rovers) and heterogeneous devices (i.e. laptops, smartphones, etc.). We propose a Behavioral Algorithm that is implemented on our devices in order to supply a proof-of-concept of the effectiveness of Detection task. Specifically, we implement “Object Detection” and “Face Recognition” techniques based on OpenCV and we detail the modifications necessary to work on embedded devices. We show the effectiveness of controlled mobility concept in order to accomplish a task, both in a centralized way (i.e. driven by a central computer that assign the task) and in a totally distributed fashion, in cooperation with other Rovers. We also highlight the limitations of similar devices required to accomplish specific tasks and their potentiality.
Valeria Loscrí, Nathalie Mitton, Emilio Compagnone

A Generalized Data Preservation Problem in Sensor Networks–A Network Flow Perspective

Abstract
Many emerging sensor network applications require sensor node deployment in challenging environments that are remote and inaccessible. In such applications, it is not always possible to deploy base stations in or near the sensor field to collect sensory data. Therefore, the overflow data generated by some nodes is first offloaded to other nodes inside the network to be preserved, then gets collected when uploading opportunities become available. In this paper, we study a generalized data preservation problem in sensor networks, whose goal is to minimize the total energy consumption of preserving data inside sensor networks, given that each node has limited battery power. With an intricate transformation of the sensor network graph, we demonstrate that this problem can be modeled and solved as a minimum cost flow problem. Also, using data preservation in sensor networks as an example, we show that seemingly equivalent maximum flow techniques can result in dramatically different network performance. Much caution thus needs to be exercised while adopting classic network flow techniques into sensor network applications, despite successful application of network flow theory to many existing sensor network problems. Finally, we present a load-balancing data preservation algorithm, which not only minimizes the total energy consumption, but also maximizes the minimum remaining energy of nodes that receive distributed data, thereby preserving data for longer time. Simulation results show that compared to the existing techniques, this results in much evenly distributed remaining energy among sensor nodes.
Bin Tang, Rajiv Bagai, FNU Nilofar, Mehmet Bayram Yildirim

SHERPA: An Air-Ground Wireless Network for Communicating Human and Robots to Improve the Rescuing Activities in Alpine Environments

Abstract
Robot-based rescue systems are envisioned now-a-days as a promising solution for saving human lives after the avalanche accidents in alpine environments. To this aim, a European project named “Smart collaboration between Humans and ground-aErial Robots for imProving rescuing activities in Alpine environments (SHERPA)” has been launched. Robots with smart sensors and mobility feature are needed for achieving the goal of this project, therefore, the SHERPA networks need to consider two degrees of freedom: one is throughput for transmitting realtime images and videos and another is range for mobility. In this paper, we design a wireless network infrastructure with the objective to communicate human and robots during the rescue mission in alpine environments. Firstly, we study about the network components, scenario and topology according to this environment. Then we design the network infrastructure for communicating among network components by taking account of the two degrees of freedom. Finally, the performance of the network is analyzed by means of numerical simulations. The simulation results reveal the effectiveness of the proposal.
Md Arafatur Rahman

Design and Implementation of the Vehicular Network Testbed Using Wireless Sensors

Abstract
Testbeds are indispensable tools in research and development process in wireless networks technologies. They show us how our solution is going to work in a real environment. In the recent years there is a growing trend in the development of testbeds aimed to be used as tools for both research and verification of the results obtained theoretically and using simulators. We are presenting an experimental vehicular network testbed based on cheap, off-the-shelf wireless sensors that are gathering environmental data, temperature, humidity and luminosity. These sensors are connected to road-side units (RSUs) running the Linux operating system and dedicated software distribution, Airplug. This complete system (wireless sensors, RSUs and Airplug software distribution) can be used for simulation, emulation and experiments in vehicular networks but also for any other type of wireless network. We use this system to gather environmental data and then reuse collected data in different emulation and experimental scenarios. We are showing the usefulness of our wireless sensors testbed and possible scenarios of its usage in emulation and real experiments.
Jovan Radak, Bertrand Ducourthial, Véronique Cherfaoui, Stéphane Bonnet

Backmatter

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