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This book explores a new framework of Adaptive Water Management (AWM) for evaluating existing approaches in urban water management. It highlights the need to adopt multidisciplinary strategies in water management while providing an in-depth understanding of institutional interactions amongst different water related sectors.

The key characteristics of AWM i.e. polycentric governance, organisational flexibility and public participation are investigated and described through a critical review of the relevant literature. The book presents an empirical case study undertaken in a selected developing-country city to investigate the potential gaps between the current water management approaches and possible implementation of AWM. Feasibility of AWM operations is examined in an environment surrounded by established water management structure with centralised governance and an institutional process based on technical flexibility.

The key elements of AWM performance are (re)structured and transformed into decision support systems. Multi criteria decision models are developed to facilitate quantification and visualization of the elements derived from the case study, which is involved with water companies and water consumers.

The book describes how the concept of AWM, along with structuring suitable decision support systems, can be developed and applied to developing-country cities. The book highlights the barriers for applying the AWM strategies that include established centralised decision making, bureaucratic interactions with external organisations, lack of organisational flexibility within the institutions, and lack of recognition of public role in water management. The findings outline that despite the lack of adaptability in the current water management in the case study, as an example of developing countries, there are positive attitudes among water professionals and the public towards adaptability through public-institutional participation.

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Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Iran, being located in the Middle East, is among the countries with the highest loss of freshwater. During a 7-year period, the Middle East region lost freshwater equal to a volume of 1.44 × 1011 m3 (Voss et al. 2013; NASA Report 2013). In Fig. 1.1 the thick black line with hashed fill shows the area in the Middle East region including Iran with a strong negative trend in total water storage from January 2003 to December 2009 (Voss et al. 2013). According to Voss et al. (2013) water storage in the Middle East region is showing a decline after the beginning of a regional drought in 2007 and following changes in water use. It is mentioned that in a drought situation, farmers and people turn to groundwater use and consequently the majority of the water losses is due to reduction in groundwater availability caused by human activities (NASA Report 2013; Voss et al. 2013). The constant drought in Iran is making the future water supply of the country uncertain. If the current water situation is continued, the country will lose more of its freshwater. As stated by Rahnemaei et al. (2013) there is a high possibility that Iran will run out of suitable sites for dam construction in the near future.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Part I

Frontmatter

Chapter 2. Concepts and Approaches of Main Water Managements

Abstract
Water management could be defined as the activities aimed at planning, developing, distributing and operating water resources, surface water, drainage and sewage. Some people distinguish between ‘water resource management’ (planning, developing and allocating the water resources) and ‘water management’ (the operation and control of water systems). Water system includes the water cycle and three major interacting elements: physical, biological/biogeochemical and human components (Craswell 2004). This chapter presents a review of the main water management approaches that have been introduced over the last decades through water supply management (WSM), water demand management (WDM) and integrated water resource management (IWRM). The chapter discusses if these approaches could deal with the challenges and uncertainty in the water management in a sustainable manner.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Chapter 3. Concept and Application of Adaptive Water Management

Abstract
This chapter illustrates what is known about the Adaptive Water Management (AWM) approach and how it could potentially be an alternative to the current approaches to water management. It highlights that despite many contributions to the AWM debate in recent years, still there is a lack of clarity surrounding the concept of AWM, and also there is no clear agreement on the measurements for reaching adaptability in AWM. The chapter is intended to take a step forward by developing a conceptual framework (Fig. 3.4) before moving on to the research methodology. The framework is intended to evaluate the extent of adaptability in an urban water management by using main AWM principles of polycentric governance, organisational flexibility and public participation. Accordingly, this chapter is an important component of this book as it helps build a conceptual foundation to investigate the possibility of AWM principle implementation in Greater Tehran through a proposed conceptual framework of AWM.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Part II

Frontmatter

Chapter 4. Water Management in Developing Countries: The Example of Iran

Abstract
The aim of this chapter is to scope the water approaches currently operating across developing countries, in order to understand the capacity development needed to transition towards more adaptive management. The chapter presents a big picture of water availability, and the factors influencing the water availability with a focus on developing countries. It highlights the main water challenges in the developing world, and discusses how the water management of Iran is facing these challenges.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Part III

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. The Case Study: Greater Tehran

Abstract
This chapter firstly examines the background of the case study to provide more understanding to the readers. In this regard, the geographical situation, climate, population and water resources of Greater Tehran are discussed. The chapter is intended to address the water challenges of Greater Tehran by drawing information from the governmental documents, Water Company’s website and academic papers related to the water management in Greater Tehran. Moreover, the chapter opens a discussion on the Qanats as an alternative adaptive approach in Greater Tehran water management.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Chapter 6. The Case Study: Methods of Data Collection

Abstract
This chapter  concerns with the methodology choice which affected the process and outcomes of this book. The chapter  identifies a case study on the basis of data collection from the semi-structured interviews to establish the knowledge required for the conceptual framework of AWM.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Part IV

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Data Analysis Methodology

Abstract
This chapter includes evaluation of the AWM framework and details of the data analysis methods used for examining the AWM principles. It describes the methods used to summarise, organise and understand the data collected in the case study.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Chapter 8. Evaluation of Polycentric Governance

Abstract
As indicated earlier in Part I, for adaptive management, decisions are achieved by various authorities and organisations’ collaboration. The governance of AWM is shaped around the social networks of knowledge and information with the water-related organisations. Von Korff et al. (2012) highlighted that the concept of adaptive management is closely linked to the concept of social learning, emphasising collaboration between various organisations involved in water sectors.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Chapter 9. Evaluation of Organisational Flexibility

Abstract
This chapter examines the AWM principle of organisational flexibility in TPWW Company. This principle involves how the company adjusts its strategies and policies over time and also how the different individuals and groups interact in the company. The chapter discusses the findings regarding institutional process of TPWW Company. The chapter draws on data from professionals’ interviews of TPWW Company. It starts with investigating the company’s challenges in Greater Tehran. The organisational flexibility elements are evaluated through two main categories: company’s response to the water challenges (technical or institutional), and the interactions between the different levels (internal management). Multi-criteria decision support tool (AHP) is applied for produced analysis of the collected data.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Chapter 10. Evaluation of the Public Participation

Abstract
This chapter is intended to examine and evaluate public participation, as one of the essential principles of AWM. It discusses the public role in Greater Tehran water management considering two main perspectives derived from the conducted interviews with the managers of TPWW Company and its water consumers.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Part V

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Conclusion

Abstract
The overall aim of this book was to evaluate the extent to which the concept of AWM provides a suitable approach for adoption in Greater Tehran. Accordingly, this chapter discusses the research findings in the light of three AWM principles of polycentric governance, organisational flexibility and public participation.
Farideh Delavari Edalat, M. Reza Abdi

Backmatter

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