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Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions.

The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges the information gap between fire safety engineers, structural engineers and building inspectors, and will be of significant interest to architects, code officials, building designers and fire fighters.

Dr. Guoqiang Li is a Professor at the College of Civil Engineering of Tongji University, China; Dr. Peijun Wang is an Associate Professor at the School of Civil Engineering of Shandong University, China.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

1. Introduction

Abstract
Steel is a non-combustion material, but its yield strength and Young’s modulus degrade quickly at high temperature, which makes the steel structure have a low fire resistance. At the temperature of 600 °C[1], the steel will lose most of its strength and stiffness. The fire in the building may cause global collapse to the steel structure or severe damage to structural components.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

2. Fire in Buildings

Abstract
Fire load is the calorific value of combustible materials per unit area in a building. The combustible material in a building may include
  • wood, paper and combustible plastic for decoration
  • coal gas, natural gas and liquid petroleum gas for cooking;
  • furniture, books, paper, bedding, curtain and carpet;
  • wood, oil and alcohol stored in the room.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

3. Properties of Steel at Elevated Temperatures

Abstract
For structural fire engineering, two sets of data are very important which are
  • the material thermal properties for thermal analysis of structural components, including the thermal conductivity, specific heat, density;
  • the material mechanical properties for structural analysis, including the yield strength, Young’s modulus, stress-strain relationship and the expansion coefficient.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

4. Temperature Elevations of Structural Steel Components Exposed to Fire

Abstract
This chapter will introduce heat transfer from a fire to structural steel components and its modeling in the context of structural engineering for fire safety. There are three basic mechanisms of heat transfer (a) conduction, (b) convection and (c) radiation. In conduction, energy is exchanged in solids on a molecular scale but without any movement of macroscopic portions of matter relative to one another. Convection refers to heat transfer at the interface between a fluid and a solid surface. Radiation is the exchange of energy by electromagnetic waves which can be absorbed, transmitted or reflected at a surface. Unlike conduction and convection, heat transfer by radiation does not require any intervening medium between the heat source and the receiver.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

5. Fire-Resistance of Isolated Flexural Structural Components

Abstract
When one of the following conditions is met, it is thought that the lateral torsional buckling of a flexural component is prevented and only the yield strength capacity of the flexural component is checked[1] at high temperatures
  • a rigid decking (reinforced concrete slab or steel plate) is connected to the compression flange of the flexural component;
  • the ratio of unsupported length l 1 of the compression flange of a simply supported beam to its width b 1 does not exceed the value given in Table 5.1.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

6. Fire-Resistance of Isolated Compressed Steel Components

Abstract
The objective of this chapter is to describe how fire resistance and design calculation is carried out for isolated steel columns. Herein below, the approach provided by the CECS200[1] is adopted as the main source of information for the objects.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

7. Fire-Resistance of Restrained Flexural Steel Components

Abstract
Before 1990, research on fire-resistance of steel structures was mainly focused on isolated members. In 1990, a fire occurred in a partly completed 14-storey office building at Broadgate in London[1,2]. The investigation after the fire showed that behavior of a beam was strongly influenced by the restraint provided by the surrounding structural components. Although the possible beneficial effects of the catenary action of the beam or the membrane action of the composite slab were not evident because relatively low steel temperatures less than 600 °C were reached during the fire, interactions between different structural members in a completed structure subjected to a fire drew the attention of researchers. In 1996, a program of full-scale fire tests was completed on an eight-storey steel-framed building in the UK at Cardington Laboratory, to investigate the behavior of a real steel framed structure under real fire conditions. The typical “runaway” failure of an isolated steel beam in the standard fire test did not occur to the steel frame beam, even though the temperature of the bottom flange of the beam had exceeded 800 °C, which indicted that a steel beam in a framed structure, with the aid of restraint from surrounding members, has better fire-resistant capability than an individual steel beam[3,4,5,6,7]. The local buckling of the bottom flange occurred near the beam-to-column connection during heating, because of tremendous compression stress at this place resulting from the restrained thermal expansion. Damage of beam-to-column connections was also observed due to thermal contraction of the beam during cooling[8,9,10,11,12,13], as shown in Fig. 7.1.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

8. Fire-Resistance of Restrained Steel Columns

Abstract
Traditionally, the fire resistance of a steel column is obtained through a standard fire resistance test conducted on a simply supported compressive specimen subjected to the standard fire exposure, such as ISO834[1]. Although the standard fire resistance test is a convenient way for grading the relative fire performance of different types of structural members, for a number of reasons it is not very effective in developing our understanding of realistic structural behavior in a fire. An important shortcoming is that standard fire resistance tests are carried out on the individual structural member, not on a complete structure. Therefore, structural interactions cannot be assessed. The Broadgate fire[2,3] and the series of Cardington fire tests and the following theoretical analysis[4,5,6] have all shown that strong interactions exist among slabs, columns and beams. An effective way of studying structural interactions in a fire is to perform fire tests on restrained steel members.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

9. Fire-Resistance of Composite Concrete Slabs

Abstract
The contribution of a steel deck to support the sagging moment is usually employed when designing the composite slab. However, the fire resistance of the steel sheet in the composite slab is a big concern. The traditional fire-resistance design of the composite slab is based on the fire resistance test. Nevertheless, the test can not include all the parameters that affect the fire resistance of the slab. Furthermore, the boundary conditions and loads on the composite slab in the fire test may be different from those in the real structure, which means that the fire resistance obtained from the test can not represent the resistance in the real structure.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

10. Analysis of Steel Moment-Resistant Frames Subjected to a Fire

Abstract
Because of the size limitation of a furnace, the fire resistant test is usually carried out on a member or substructure with simplified boundary conditions[1]. Test results do not readily represent the fire resistance of a structure in a real fire. On the other hand, costs and technical restraints also make it unfeasible to carry out fire tests on the full scale complete structure. Establishing analytical approaches for predicating the behavior of a steel construction in a fire have been the effort of many researchers.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

11. Analysis and Design of Large Space Steel Structure Buildings Subjected to a Fire

Abstract
Large space steel structure buildings are widely used in industrial and commercial areas, as shown in Fig. 11.1. A catastrophe to this type of structure caused by a fire happens occasionally, as shown in Fig. 11.2. There are both scientific and engineering demand for proposing analysis and design methods for the fire safety of large space steel structure buildings.
Guoqiang Li, Peijun Wang

Backmatter

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