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Über dieses Buch

This book presents various state-of-the-art applications for the development of new materials and technologies, discussing computer-based engineering tools that are widely used in simulations, evaluation of data and design processes. For example, modern joining technologies can be used to fabricate new compound or composite materials, even those composed of dissimilar materials. Such materials are often exposed to harsh environments and must possess specific properties. Technologies in this context are mainly related to the transportation technologies in their wider sense, i.e. automotive and marine technologies, including ships, amphibious vehicles, docks, offshore structures, and robots. This book highlights the importance the finite element and finite volume methods that are typically used in the context of engineering simulations.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Three Dimensional Simulation of Filling Process for Stacked-Chip Scale Packages

Abstract
Encapsulation is one of the key processes in electronic packaging in order to protect the integrated circuit chips from environmental and mechanical damages. The most obvious choice for the encapsulation process is transfer moulding due to its capability to mould small parts with complex features. An electronic package that employs transfer moulding is Stacked-Chip Scale Package (S-CSP). However, a computer simulation is one of the tools that could be used to simulate and predict the mould process. It is highly desirable in order to avoid the typical time-consuming procedure of mould design and process optimization by trial and error. In this paper, a fully three-dimensional analysis to predict the transfer moulding process of S-CSP encapsulation using a finite volume method (FVM) based software, FLUENT is presented. The proposed FVM simulation model is built and meshed using GAMBIT. Some simplification is done for the simulation model due to time consumption and the complicated geometry of the actual S-CSP model. In the analysis, the volume of fluid (VOF) technique was used to track the flow front of the encapsulation. The viscosity versus shear rate is plotted and the void formation problem is also discussed. The numerical results are compared with the previous experimental results and are in good agreement.
Mior Firdaus Mior Abd Majid, Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Khairul Shahril Shafee, Zainal Nazri Mohd Yusuf, Mohamad Shukri Mohd Zain, Mohd. Zulkifly Abdullah

Analysis of Temperature Distribution Behavior of Motorcycle Brake Pads

Abstract
The gradual phasing-out of asbestos in motorcycles brake friction materials in many parts of the world has sparked the onset of extensive research and development into safer alternatives. As a result, the brake friction industry has seen the birth of different brake pads and shoes in the past decade, each with their own unique composition, yet performing the very same task and claiming to be better than others. This suggests that the selection of the brake pad design geometry surface is based more on original shape and simulation trial and error rather than fundamental understanding. This analysis strives to eliminate the cloud of uncertainty by providing an insight into the pros and cons of the geometry surface shape of motorcycle brake pad and make-up used in contemporary temperature behavior distribution on pads and shoes. In this analysis brake pad designs are reviewed and their advantages and disadvantages in contemporary brake applications are discussed.
Khairul Shahril bin Shaffee, Mohd Khairuddin Hj. Ali Musa, Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Mior Firdaus Mior Abd. Majid, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar

Application of a Portable Coordinate Measuring Machine onto Automotive Door Panel for Quality Inspection Activity

Abstract
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the feasibility of replacing the current inspection method by a portable coordinate measuring machine (CMM) for daily quality inspection in automotive industry. The experiment focusses on inspecting stamped body parts due to the significant number of inspection points that could be time consuming for inspection activities. Two inspection methods were performed, i.e. the application of checking fixture (CF) which is the current method and the second method was using a portable CMM. Both inspections were performed onto the same loose freeform surface of an outer door panel. Factors related to inspection duration, economical and data reliability were all compared to understand the practicality of replacing the current inspection method with a portable CMM. It was found that a portable CMM provide a significant shorter inspection duration, more economical and better data reliability but at the same time is unable to match the performance of conventional inspection onto freeform surface. The conclusion was made that a portable CMM alone is not sufficient to replace the current inspection method thus require further study.
Tajul Adli bin Abdul Razak, B. T. Hang Tuah bin Baharudin, Khairul Shahril bin Shafee, Khairul Akmal bin Shamsuddin

Study on Implementation of Neural Network Controlling Four Quadrants Direct Current Chopper

Part1: Using Single Neural Network Controller with Binary Data Output
Abstract
This paper describes the implementation of Artificial Neural Network (ANN) as chopper operation controller (COC) that is responsible for selecting the correct mode for a four quadrants direct current Chopper (FQDC) that drives a dc series motor. In turn, the direct curent motor propels an electric car (EC). The right mode of chopper operation is necessary for optimum performance and maximum battery power utility. The process starts with preparing the data for training the ANN controller. Then a MATLAB/Simulink model is established to test the performance of the trained ANN. The results show the ANN can perform the tasks of a COC successfully.
S. Arof, N. H. Diyanah, P. A. Mawby, H. Arof

Processor in the Loop for Testing Series Motor Four Quadrants Drive Direct Current Chopper for Series Motor Driven Electric Car

Part1: Chopper Operation Modes Testing
Abstract
This paper describes the process of testing a four quadrant drive direct current (DC) chopper (FQDC) that controls a DC series motor using the processor in the loop (PIL) technique. The DC motor serves as a propeller to an electric vehicle (EV). The main function of the four quadrant drive chopper is to provide a smooth operation for the electric vehicle(EV) while optimizing battery power consumption and maximizing distance traversed. In the processor in the loop (PIL) test, MATLAB/Simulink environment was used as the platform for the four quadrants drive chopper and electric vehicle, whereas in the hardware part, the FQDC was controlled by three PIC microcontrollers. Serial communication was used as the channel of data transfer between the hardware and software. The simulation results of the ATLAB/Simulink indicate that the FQDC controller was able to control the DC motor that drove the EV. Overall, the PIL technique was suitable for testing and validating the operation of the FQDC, its controllers and the control algorithm.
S. Arof, N. H. Diyanah, N. M. Yaakop, P. A. Mawby, H. Arof

Comparative Study of Fuel Consumption, Acceleration and Emission for Road Vehicle Using LPG or Gasoline

Abstract
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is also called as butane or propane. LPG is a group of hydrocarbons which exists as vapor under ambient condition and has been widely used in many applications. The objective of this study is to investigate the performance effects of operating a car on LPG. The effects studied included the fuel consumption, acceleration and exhaust emission for road vehicles (cars). The engine had been retrofitted with a bi-fuel LPG kit, thus the engine is able to run with LPG or gasoline. Comparative study of the performance for the engine using gasoline and LPG was conducted. The fuel consumption experiment was conducted based on an on-the road drive cycle. The pick-up performance of the car was measured by the time required to accelerate the vehicle to various speeds. The emission of the vehicle was investigated using a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) gas analyzer. The result indicated that LPG fuel consumption is slightly higher in comparison with gasoline fuel consumption. However, running on LPG reduces emission such CO, CO2, O2 and HC. Finally, fuel cost reduction can be achieved with LPG.
Loke Kean Koay, Muhammad Jasni Md Sah, Rusli bin Othman

Design and Construction of a Micro-hydro Turbine for Additional Home Power to Use a Conventional Water Pipeline

Abstract
This paper covers the design and fabrication of a micro-hydro turbine that is using a conventional water pipeline to generate additional home power. The process started with identifying the suitable design and then uses the standard design as reference to develop the micro-hydro turbine. The project included computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation test that was run using ANSYS CFX. Data obtained from simulation test was used to verify the actual data that obtain from confirmation test.
Tajul Adli bin Abdul Razak, Shahril Nizam bin Mohamed Soid, Khairil Shahril bin Shafee, Mohd Riduan bin Ibrahim, Aznizam bin Abdullah

Design and Fabrication of a Magneto-rheological Fluid Based Torque Sensor for Automotive Application

Abstract
A magneto-rheological (MR) based torque sensor is a device that transmits the torque by the cutting force of the MR fluid. The magneto-rheological fluids technology has been tested for many industrial applications, such as dampers, actuators, etc. A MR fluid is an intelligent material whose rheological characteristics change rapidly and can be easily controlled in the existence of an applied magnetic field. It presents a viscous coupling controllable by torque, the coupling consists of two types of discs, one is connected to a housing (fixed discs), and the other is connected to an axis (rotating discs). The drive discs and the follower discs are arranged in turn and are interleaved. The MR fluid is filled in the housing. The magnetic fields freeze the fluid so that the shearing torque is generated between the diving discs and the follower discs due to the shears between the slots in the discs below the magnetic fields. The torque is controlled by electromagnets. To have a large pair with small electrical power, the coil turns must be large, so that the response is delayed due to the inductance of the coil. A comparison between the magnetic flux and the intensity of the designs obtained from finite element analysis allow to derive the best design for the prototype in order to proof the concept. The turn of the winding coil and the current as a fixed value is 1500 turn and 1 A current.
Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Amirul Qusyaini Alwi

Development of a 2-Dof Parallel Kinematics Machine for Macro Scale Products

Abstract
This paper presents a new computer numerical control (CNC). The revolution of a parallel kinematics machine (PKM) is reducing many problems in the manufacturing process from a theoretical and practical point of view. The experimental setup was developed to optimize the kinematics design of a 2 Degree of Freedom (2 DoF) planar parallel manipulator. The excellent workspace design without link collision is presented in this paper. It was observed that increasing the precision in the PKM modeling, reduces the drawback of the existing product. The result is obtained from the various experiment which were plotted graphically and discussed in this paper.
Nor Liyana Maskuri, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Ahmad Razlee Ab Kadir

Development of a Capacitor Using a Rubber Based Magneto Rheological Elastomer

Abstract
A capacitor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that stores electrical energy in an electric field. The most famous capacitor current in use the market and industry is a ceramic capacitor. However, the dielectric material used in the industry nowadays involve high cost of material handling due to the fact that the dielectric material is hazardous. Thus, there is a need for exploring the potential of the new material to replace the current dielectric material used in the industry nowadays. In this study, a magnetorheological elastomer with different magnetic particle concentrations from 30 to 70% and different curing processes is proposed as a dielectric material. The MRE capacitor prototype was built by two non-magnetic layers, between there is a layer of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) as the dielectric. From the experimental result, the magnetic strength, magnetic particle concentration and curing process of the MRE influence the value of the capacitance. As a conclusion, the MRE material with high iron concentration and anisotropic type can be used as a dielectric to be applied in capacitor development.
Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Mohd Nor Hazwan Hadzir, Muhamad Termizi Muhamad

Effect of the Magnetic Field on Magnetic Particles in Magnetorheological Elastomer Layers

Abstract
A Magnetorheological Elastomer (MRE) can be categorized as a smart material as it can respond when it is subjected to a magnetic field against itself. Shrinking and changing shape in MRE is due to the displacement of magnetic particle in the MRE matrix. However, the lack of understanding of the magnetic flow through magnetic particle in the elastomer matrix causes difficulties to improve the best MRE matrix type and a magnetic circuit for use in MRE devices. In this paper, a finite element magnetic method (FEMM) software has been used to investigate and to study the effect of the magnetic flow when the angle of the magnetic particle in the MRE changed. The analysis was conducted in two-dimensional cross-section (axisymmetric type) with two magnetic particles in the elastomer matrix and the magnetic core. The result shows by changing the angle of the magnetic particle, the value of the magnetic flow and magnetic flux density also change. As a conclusion, the magnetic particle arrangement in the elastomer matrix plays a vital role in designing the MRE matrix layer and MRE device. By understanding the magnetic flow through the magnetic particle, one can improve the method in the preparation of MRE matrix and MRE magnetics circuit.
Mohd Nor Hazwan Hadzir, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Ishak Abdul Azid

Effects of the Coconut Pulp Fiber on the Mechanical Properties and Water Absorption of Reinforced Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer

Abstract
This study investigated the effect of Coconut Pulp (CP) fiber on the mechanical properties of Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM). CP filled EPDM composites were prepared by using a mixer and hot press. There are four types of the composition of CP, 10, 20, 30 and 40%. In this study, the tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, elongation at break and water absorption of the composites were evaluated. The tensile strength and elastic modulus decreased while elongation at break increased with the increasing of CP fiber. A lab microscope used to study the morphology of CP in EPDM. Four different types of water used in the water absorption test: Sea, swamp, well and pipe water.
Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Mohamad Taufiq, Nurulhuda Amri

Flow Analysis Inside Coated Porous Media

Abstract
A numerical study has been done to investigate the flow inside porous media (PM). Foam type PM used in the study have been classified into different porosity. The different porosity was due to the fabrication technique which involved the dip coating process. Coating technique is known as a method to increase the performance of PM when used as a medium of combustion. In this study, CFD analysis had been performed with 2D models to observe the flow across the PM. The result shows that the CFD model has the ability to predict the pressure drop caused by different porosities on selected coating materials.
Ahmad Kamal Ismail, Mohd. Zulkifly Abdullah, Abdul Rashid Jamaludin, Mohammed Zubair, Nor Haslina Ibrahim

Francis Turbine Analysis Between Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and Experimental Methods

Abstract
Hydroelectric power has become the most promising source in the power sector to sustain the growth of any nation. In any hydroelectric power plant, the hydraulic turbine plays a vital role which affects the overall performance of the plant and if utilized at suboptimal level, may lead to the loss of useful head. So, it becomes vital to predict the behavior of the hydro-turbine under actual working conditions. Francis turbines are the most well-known water turbines being used today. The Francis turbines works in water depths from 10 to 650 m (33–2133 ft) and are fundamentally utilized for electric power generation. This research consists of a simulation process and experimental research in order to compare both of the results. The geometry is modelled using the CATIA software and transferred into Ansys for the analysis. All the main parts that are included in the Francis turbine educational kit at the Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute such as the spiral casing, the runner blade, guide vane and the draft tube is constructed in the 3D model. The highest accuracy for the Francis turbine occurs at 1300 RPM and the highest inaccuracy percentage is within 30% and the lowest inaccuracy percentage is within 2%.
Muhammad Naim bin Md. Kamal, Khairul Shahril bin Shaffee, Mohamad Sabri bin Mohamad Sidik, Ahmad Razlee Ab. Kadir, Johan Ihsan bin Mahmood

Refining 5S Awareness Through an Interactive Game Board

Abstract
The practice of 5S is a world-class business improvement approach. It is widely used to increase organization performance to achieve market competitiveness. However, successful implementation of 5S is heavily depending on 5S training programs as well as other several factors. In this context, teaching and learning or training process of 5S using conventional methods, either through seminars or lectures, may reduce the tendency of some individuals to think creatively and critically and subsequently affect the success of the 5S implementation. This study proposes an alternative novel method of 5S teaching and learning through an interactive game board (IGB). The use of IBG could encourage players to think creatively based on real experience of 5S implementations. The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process. In this study, the construct of IGB which comprises of planning, implementation, auditing, and improvement activities has been built based on the concept of problem-based learning (PBL). A survey instrument is employed for quantitative data collection. Questionnaires are distributed to randomly selected university students and trainees as players or participants. The result shows that players who have undergone the teaching and learning process of 5S through IGB become more focused, creative, and reveal an improved understanding of the 5S practice.
Jumázulhisham Abdul Shukor, Rahim Jamian, Mohd Nizam Ab Rahman

Kinetic Modelling of a Particle Grinding Process in a Planetary Ball Mill Jar

Abstract
This work is related to the kinetic modelling of mechanical milling. Many attempts have been made to simulate the kinetics of the milling process regarding ball velocity, friction force, and kinetic energy transferred during milling. The goal of this project is to fabricate a planetary ball mill jar and to defined the optimum parameter of planetary ball mill jar for milling processes by utilizing finite element analysis. By improving the design of the cylindrical jar with adding poles inside the jar, the graph shows that the kinetic energy becomes stable and is maintained. This happens because of the ball mill always bounces inside the jar reflection of the pole and the jar rotating on planetary gear while the jar design without pole only bounces because of jar rotation on the planetary gear. From the observation, the result, the cylindrical jar design without pole lost the kinetic energy because it only depends on the torque of the rotation jar on the planetary gear of the ball mill machine. The milling process takes 4 h, and the speed of the cylindrical ball mill jar with the pole is 250 rpm. The other parameter that have been utilized in this analysis is 100-g raw carbon, 4 pieces of steel balls with the diameter of 24 mm, and six-piece steel ball with the diameter of 19 mm. The particle has been measured by utilizing a telescopic microscope. The size reduction of the powder particles for a jar with pole and jar without pole is 69%.
Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Ahmad-Fazireen Ahmad-Fauzi, Nor Liyana Maskuri

Large Eddy Simulation of Vehicle Aerodynamics Using Parallel Computational Fluids Dynamics

Abstract
Large eddy simulation (LES) is used to study the flow around a simplified car model. The model consists of one bluff body slanted at the back-end. The LES was made at the Reynolds number of 0.51 × 106 based on the height of the rear model and the inlet air velocity. Four variants of the model were studied, one where the simulation was conducted with a single processor until combined all four processors to compute. The results of the LES simulations were used to analyze the flow field around the body and the back-end. Large vortical structures around the front box and in the gap were identified. The flow field analysis showed how these large vortical structures are responsible for the difference in the accuracy of drag force for the model that arises when the number of processors increase from one to eight processors along with different decomposing techniques.
Abd-Munim Abd-Halim, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar

Performance Characteristics of a Small Engine Fueled by Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Abstract
This paper presents the results of an investigation on the performance characteristics of a small spark ignition (SI) engine fueled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to be compared with gasoline fueled. The LPG delivery systems used was fuel injection while carburetor was used for gasoline. In the experiment, wide open throttle (WOT) was run on a four stroke single cylinder engine that was coupled to a 20 kW generator dynamometer to measure the engine performance such as engine torque, and fuel consumption. Others parameters included are brake power (BP), brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and brake thermal efficiencies (BTH). The results were compared, analyzed and suggestions were made for modification for further improvement of using LPG in a small SI engine. It was found that the engine fueled by LPG had a lower performance compared to the gasoline fueled engine.
Mohamad Shukri bin Mohd Zain, Shahril Nizam bin Mohamed Soid, Mior Firdaus bin Mior Abd Majid, Mohd Nurhidayat bin Zahelem

Machining Performance of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material in Milling Process Using Uncoated Insert

Abstract
This paper presents the machining performance of aluminum silicon alloy (AlSi) metal matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminum nitride (AlN) using the uncoated tool of inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to a fractional factorial array L9 of Taguchi method for both cutting tools. Statistical analysis including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance is applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut during the milling operation. The machining performances are observed through surface roughness, and tool wear and these measurements are analyzed using the Taguchi method. From the Taguchi analysis, it was found that cutting speed of 230 m/min, feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth, a depth of cut of 0.3 mm were the optimum machining parameters for surface roughness and tool wear, indicated that lower level for all machining parameters gave the best result in machining of AlSi/10%AlN metal matrix composite.
Nurul Na’imy Wan, Mohamad Sazali Said, Norzalina Othman, Ahmad Razlee Ab Kadir, Baizura Zubir

Numerical Investigation of Magneto-hydrodynamics in a Magnetic Peristaltic Pump

Abstract
This paper presents a finite element analysis and a two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation for a magnetic peristaltic pump. In this paper, we attempted to summarise the most important results, and the purpose of this study is to establish ideas on magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in flows of a magnetorheological (MR) fluid containing inside the tube of a magnetic peristaltic pump. A finite element method magnetics (FEMM) analysis was used as a tool to design the geometry in order to determine the magnetic fields occurred due to the different currents applied to the magnetic peristaltic pump. Moreover, the purpose of this study is to develop a numerical tool that is able to simulate MR fluid flow and determine the effect of the applied magnetic field effect on the flow velocities by using the Open Source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) software. The uniform transverse external magnetic fields are applied perpendicular to the flow direction. It was observed that an increase in the magnetic field leads to a decreased flow velocity. Results are obtained from the numerical study and are plotted graphically and disgusted in the present paper.
Faizah Osman, Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar

Parametric Study of the Two-Stage Pyrolysis Process for Activated Carbon Preparation from Pithecellobium Jiringa

Abstract
Activated carbon is a type of carbon processed to have small and low volume pores that improve the surface area available for chemical reactions. Currently, the cost of activated carbon is inefficient and it is difficult to obtain activated carbon. Pithecellobium jiringa (Jering) is an organic material that is potentially used as raw material for activated carbon. However, the use of Jering waste as activated carbon is new; the previous researchers never obtained data on the correlation between the parameters. The objective of the project is to design a two-stage pyrolysis process to evaluate the effect of hydroxide (KOH) on the conductivity of activated carbon and to evaluate the effect of ambient temperature on activated carbon. There are two stages in the pyrolysis process; to remove moisture and activate the carbon with KOH. The performance of the heating rate for this space is 5 °C per minute at 30 °C per minute. The highest temperature for this heating coil is 235 °C. The amounts, and molar volumes of KOH can affect the performance of the voltage.
Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Mohamad-Syafiq Mohd-Kamal, Mohd-Nazri Che-Adnan

Performance of a Small Engine Fueled by Methane Using a Simulation Tool

Abstract
Climate change and increased demands for energy, tends the researchers to search for environmental friendly resources of alternative fuels that can be used in internal combustion engines. There are many types of existing alternative fuels that can be used in internal combustion engines, but the fundamental information about their combustion process is still limited. This study focus on the performance of methane fueled engines in a small spark ignition gasoline engine. The engine performance was measured on the brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure (Bmep) and in-cylinder peak pressure. A Modenas Kriss 110cc gasoline engine was selected for experimentation and engine modelling. The 3D engine model was created using CATIA and the engine performance simulation was performed using GT-Suite v7.4.3. The engine performance results for the methane fueled engine were found to be lower at about 20.1% for engine torque, brake power and bmep and 12.0% for in-cylinder peak pressure when compared to the gasoline engine. From these results it can be concluded that the methane fuel can be used as an alternative fuel but it produces lower engine performance compared to a gasoline engine.
Shahril Nizam Mohamed Soid, Muhammad Najib Abdul Hamid, Mohd Suyerdi Omar, Muhammad Iqbal Ahmad

Simulation Analysis on the Performance of a Hydrogen Port Fuel Injection Engine

Abstract
Over the past few years, many researchers have conducted experimental and simulation studies using alternative fuels for internal combustion engines. Selected fuels should contain less or no carbon products from combustion process and eventually decrease the primary energy usage. Hydrogen has been taken into consideration. Previous researchers found that hydrogen can be used in spark ignition internal combustion engines. However, the optimum performance of an engine could not be achieved due to some limitations in regards the configurations of the air fuel ratio and compression ratio. In this work hydrogen fuel was tested in a single cylinder port fuel injection engine as the preliminary study in optimizing the engine performance. The engine performance study was based on the brake torque, brake power, brake mean effective pressure (Bmep) and peak pressure. The engine model was developed based on the Modenas Kriss 110 cc 4-stroke single cylinder gasoline engine. The CATIA software was used in developing the 3D engine model and followed by utilization of GT-Suite software in analyzing the engine performance. From the analysis, it was found that the performance of the hydrogen fueled engine is lower compared to the gasoline engine.
Shahril Nizam Mohamed Soid, Surenthar Magalinggam, Muhammad Iqbal Ahmad

Simulation of Flange Modeling by Using the Finite Element Method

Abstract
This project focuses on studying an existing off-road buggy component which is a flange. The study includes modeling the flange using a solid model as references to an existing part used for an off-road buggy using the CATIA software. Stress analysis was conducted using the finite element method in the ABAQUS software. The performance of proposed design was compared to the existing part of the flange. A buggy is an automobile with wheels that project beyond the vehicle body. In European countries, a dune buggy is a recreational vehicle with large wheels and wide tires, designed for use on sand dunes or beaches. From the result in running the first analysis of the design datum analysis, it was found that the von Misses stress had maximum values compared with new design of the flange.
Khairul Shahril Shaffee, Khairulanwar Haris, Khairul Akmal Shamsuddin, Mohamad Sabri Mohamad Sidik, Megat Mohd Amzari Megat Mohd Aris

Material Removal Rate and Cutting Force of AlSi/10%AlN Metal Matrix Composite Material in Milling Process Using Uncoated Inserts

Abstract
A machining process has been conducted to study the machining performance of aluminum silicon alloy (AlSi) metal matrix composite which has been reinforced with aluminum nitride (AlN) using the uncoated tool of inserts. Experiments were conducted at various cutting speeds, feed rates, and depths of cut, according to a fractional factorial array L9 of the Taguchi method. Statistical analysis including the signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio and analysis of variance was applied to study the characteristic performance of cutting speeds, feed rates and depths of cut during the milling operation. The machining performances were observed through material removal rate and cutting force, and these measurements were analyzed using the Taguchi method. From the Taguchi analysis, it was found that a cutting speed of 300 m/min; feed rate of 0.8 mm/tooth and depth of cut of 0.4 mm were the optimum machining parameters for the material removal rate, while the cutting speed of 370 m/min; feed rate of 0.4 mm/tooth and depth of cut of 0.3 mm were the optimum machining parameters for the cutting force.
Mohamad Sazali Said, Nurul Na’imy Wan, Norzalina Othman, Ahmad Razlee Ab Kadir, Baizura Zubir

Synthesis of Polypropylene Solid State Electrolytes for Batteries Using a Polymerization Heat Chamber

Abstract
Polypropylene solid-state electrolytes are a material of solid electrolytes. The solid electrolytes were prepared by mixing a hydroxide solution and polypropylene. However, the electrolyte is very sensitive to the temperature change. Temperature is an essential factor in producing an optimal cheap solid-state electrolyte. This study aimed at determining the temperature effect on the solid state electrolyte polymerization. The different solid-state electrolyte were synthesized by varying the number of molarity of the potassium hydroxide, the weight of the polypropylene and the temperature that was used to heat the polypropylene. The solution molarities that were used are 1, 2, and 3 M and the propylene weight was 5, 10 and 15 g and the six temperature levels were used, i.e. 160, 170, 180, 190, 200, and 210 °C. As a result, the voltage is 1.1 V for 2 M of KOH, and the temperature is 180 for the highest voltage production. As a conclusion, with the increase of the molarity of KOH the voltage also increases. A specific temperature needs to be determined to ensure that the maximum voltage is produced by the battery with the solid-state electrolyte. This temperature and molar configuration is important to search a better solid state electrolyte for the battery.
Muhamad Husaini Abu Bakar, Kartina Farah Hana

The Effect of Cutting Fluid Condition on Surface Roughness in Turning of Alloy Steel

Abstract
During machining processes heat is generated. The use of a cutting fluid provides lubrication and cooling effects which improve the final quality of the workpiece. Nevertheless, cutting fluid application provides some problems involving costs, environmental and health issues. In this paper, the relationship between the cutting lubricant and the surface roughness of 4340 alloy steel using three different lubricant conditions; i.e. dry machining, minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and wet machining, is investigated. The turning parameters include the cutting speed, feed rate, cutting depth and time were considered using a carbide insert (CNMG 12 04 08-QM) H13A for light and medium turning. Then, the effects of these parameters on the surface roughness were studied. The results shows that the surface roughness is the best when using MQL on the light turning followed by wet and dry machining. Meanwhile for medium turning, the preferred condition is wet machining compared to MQL and dry machining.
Baizura Zubir, Mohd Zaki Abdul Razak, Ahmad Fauzie Abd Rahman, Mohamad Sazali Said

Thermal Analysis of a Cylindrical Sintered Wick Heat Pipe

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to present approaches undertaken in analysing the thermal performance of a cylindrical heat pipe with copper-sintered wick. The approaches employed are the thermal resistance network, the lumped capacitance method (LCM) and two-dimensional numerical CFD simulation. The predicted variation of the evaporator temperature with different heat inputs were compared against experimental data. The accuracy of the prediction was also determined by finding the percentage difference of the calculated results with that from the experiments. All methods have shown to produce results that are in good agreement with the experimental works. The best method is the LCM, giving predictions that deviate from experimental data by as much as 3.9%, followed by the thermal resistance network and the numerical simulation with maximum percentage differences of 4.6 and 9.8%, respectively.
Faiza Mohamed Nasir, Mohd. Zulkifly Abdullah, Fairosidi Idrus

Three Point Bending Analysis on the Side Impact Beam of a Perodua Kancil

Abstract
FMVSS 214 (“Side Impact Protection”) that introduced in 1970 by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) specifies performance requirements for the protection of occupants in side impact crashes, in order to reduce the risk of serious and fatal injury to occupants. With FMVSS 214, every car was installed with a side impact beam which was a passive safety device inside the door. Usually steel is used as the material for the side impact beam but it has disadvantages of having heavy weight. The objective of this study is to analyse the side impact beam of a Perodua Kancil with different material that could replace steel due to it’s heavy weight by using three point bending analysis. In this study, the side impact beam was analyzed under three point bending with a crash load due to different types of materials, i.e. steel, stainless steel and an aluminium alloy. A finite element model of the side impact beam from the Perodua Kancil was created and analyzed by the finite element analysis software ANSYS. The result from the finite element simulation shows that one of the suggested materials, i.e. the aluminium alloy, gives better result to deflect and resist the impact force.
Fazidah Saad, Zainal Nazri Mohd Yusuf, Zulkarnain Abdul Latiff, Norhisham Ismail

Time Optimization Implementation in Conventional Lathe Machining Operations

Abstract
A study of time optimization in conventional lathe machining operations of the higher technical learning institutions in Malaysia was performed. This is to ensure that the students may complete a project within 30 contact hours. Based on previous experiences, almost 50% projects may not be able to completed on time. Time optimization is a process to increase productivity of machinists while reducing wastes. Three objectives were identified in this study, focused to identify time waste, simulate and suggest methods of the improvement. A few quantitative methods to identify the problem, i.e. the experimenting samples method, simulate and verification were used. As a result, time taken for machinist’s movement, inspections and storage were improved and this contributes to the highest improvement. Hence, the idle time has been minimized. The enhancement of standard operating procedure, audio-visual learning and layout design in the study played significant roles in completing the study. The movement and storage times were suggested for enhancement to reduces the issue of productivity.
Jumázulhisham Abdul Shukor, Syed Ahmad Faiz Syed Mohd, Mozaimi Mohamad
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    Die im Laufe eines Jahres in der „adhäsion“ veröffentlichten Marktübersichten helfen Anwendern verschiedenster Branchen, sich einen gezielten Überblick über Lieferantenangebote zu verschaffen. 

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