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This book focuses on industrial wastes that either join the streams or other natural water bodies directly, or are emptied into the municipal sewers, and their characteristics vary widely depending on the source of production and the raw material used by the industry, even during pre-industrial, industrial period and prospect of wastewater treatment for water resource conservation. The treatment of industrial wastewater can be done in part or as a whole either by the biological or chemical processes. Advanced treatment methods like membrane separation, ultra-filtration techniques and adsorption are elaborated. It would emphasize and facilitate a greater understanding of all existing available research, i.e., theoretical, methodological, well-established and validated empirical work, associated with the environment and climate change aspects.



Chapter 1. Industrial Wastewater: Characteristics, Treatment Techniques and Reclamation of Water

Industries become major consumers of water resources due to the increase in demand for products. The wastewater generated from the industries needs treatment for reuse or discharge in the environment to prevent pollution. Wastewater treatment techniques help in the protection of the health of the public and environment. The treatment techniques vary from one type of industry to other due to the quality of effluent discharge from operations, energy and chemical requirements, process flexibility, and residual disposal options. The chapter focuses on characteristics of wastewater from different industries, their treatment techniques such as preliminary, primary, secondary, and advanced treatment processes, and treatment effectiveness for reuse of the treated water. The chapter also focuses on the comparative study of different wastewater treatment techniques as one type of treatment method selected for the treatment of one type of industry may or may not be suitable for the other type of wastewater from another industry.
Shivani Garg

Chapter 2. Advanced Treatment Technologies for Industrial Wastewater

Exponential growth in industrial development has resulted in the generation of huge quantities of wastewater with a number of organic and inorganic pollutants. As the concentration of these pollutants is continuously increasing with the introduction of new recalcitrant pollutants, environmental statutory bodies are urging industries to move beyond the conventional method of wastewater treatment and orient towards more efficient and sustainable alternatives. Thus, there is an utmost need to shift towards the application of advanced treatment methods of wastewater treatment keeping in mind effluent quality, energy efficiency, economic viability, land availability, operational simplicity, and effluent quality. This chapter delineates advancements in wastewater treatment technologies including various membrane technologies, modifications in advanced oxidation processes, photo-aided treatment technologies, etc. The application of newer methods like forwarding osmosis and nanotechnology for the treatment of industrial wastewater has also been discussed. These technologies are not only promising to provide efficient treatment but also produce minimal after-treatment residue and have been implemented globally to meet environmental-based treatment standards. The chapter delves into detailing of basic principles, applications, merits, and demerits of the aforementioned technologies with their limitations and future research needs.
Alok Garg, Pratibha Gautamb, Darshan Salunkeb

Chapter 3. Advances & Trends in Advance Oxidation Processes and Their Applications

Exponential growth in industrialization, urbanization, and commercialization activities in last three decades have contributed to the increasing number of bio-refractory contaminants in the wastewater and this continuous admittance of toxic and persistent organic pollutants in the wastewater are imparting hazardous impacts on the environment. The conventional physical and biological treatment technologies are not very efficient in treating the wastewater having toxic and refractory pollutants and researchers worldwide are working to develop more efficient and sustainable technologies for the same. In recent years, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have emerged to be efficient, promising and environmental-friendly methods for the treatment of wastewater having high degree of pollution in comparison to conventional wastewater treatment methods. AOPs have appeared as an important avenue of technologies involving treatment of recalcitrant pollutants through different pathways such as “Enhanced Electrolysis”, “Ultraviolet radiation”, “Ozonation”, “Sonolysis”, etc. Many AOPs are based on the in-situ generation of strong oxidants like hydroxyl radicals which can completely mineralize or degrade the organic pollutants into harmless products. This chapter reports the details about various AOPs including theirbasic principle, mechanism, advantages, and limitations of each method to gain better scientific understanding of the most feasible approach to treat industrial wastewater. The authors have tried to summarize some recent AOPs too, which are being practiced seeing the disadvantages of the conventional AOPs. The contents will help to understand the future sustainable challenges for wastewater treatment (WWT).
Pratibha Gautam, Amishi Popat, Snehal Lokhandwala

Chapter 4. Microbial Aspect in Wastewater Management: Biofilm

Water, a universal solvent, is a significant component of biotic and abiotic factors. The increasing population is creating the advancement of industries and agriculture. But this advancement is also affecting the environment. Each sector needs to dispose of its waste product, and most of these are polluting surface and groundwater. The discharge includes hazardous pollutants, including heavy metals, radioactive elements, organic as well inorganic waste. This pollutant also causes eutrophication, inviting the growth of algae and bacteria in surface water, increasing the oxygen demand, and disturbing its physical and chemical properties. Water is also a natural habitat of many organisms and even supports life in the lithosphere—water pollution affects both animal and plant kingdom. Extra care is needed while purification of water by various chemical and physical methods.
Further, the chemicals may affect the microenvironment. Biodegradation can overcome the problem of pollution by chemicals. It is convenient as well as safer to use. Bioaugmentation is popularly used for decades to enhance the degradation procedure. The microbes metabolize the pollutant into a less toxic product. This chapter deals with these microbes and their mechanism involved in treating wastewater.
Rajani Sharma, Shubha Rani Sharma

Chapter 5. Heavy Metals Removal Techniques from Industrial Waste Water

Regarded as pollutants heavy metals like Arsenic (As), Hg (Mercury), Zn (Zinc), Cd (Cadmium), Thallium (Tl) and Pb (Lead) not only pose a serious threat on water ecosystem but also on human health owing to their highly toxic, non-biodegradable, and carcinogenic behavior. With industrial advancement it has become one of the foremost sources of heavy metals instigating it into different component of ecosystem air, water and soil. Various techniques are currently available which are used for the treatment of discharge of various industries often laden with noxious metal particles. This chapter discusses in brief current wastewater treatment procedures for removal of heavy metals.
Nimmy Srivastava, Jayeeta Chattopadhyay, Arushi Yashi, Trisha Rathore

Chapter 6. Application of Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) for the Treatment of Petrochemical Industry Wastewater

Petrochemicals are derived directly or indirectly from petroleum. During the production of petrochemicals, various refractory and toxic pollutants are generated, which are harmful to the aquatic system. These pollutants are genotoxic, carcinogenic, and teratogenic. Although these pollutants are harmful, only a limited number of studies have been performed on their removal or degradation. Conventional wastewater treatment techniques are not efficient in removing these pollutants from wastewater. Therefore, the scientific community is now putting up efforts to make the Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) more efficient. The main aim is to produce very reactive species (especially hydroxyl radicals, HO˙) in water by the AOPs. This leads to the degradation or transformation of the contaminants or pollutants, resulting in complete mineralization. The most studied AOPs for the degradation of petrochemical wastewater pollutants are photocatalytic oxidation (PCO), ozonation, catalytic oxidation, catalytic ozonation, and electrochemical advanced oxidation processes. This chapter specifically discusses the various AOPs used to remove specific pollutants and chemical oxygen demand (COD) from petrochemical wastewater treatment to meet discharge standards.
Shilpi Verma, Praveen Kumar, Vimal Chandra Srivastava, Urška Lavrenčič Štangar

Chapter 7. Removal of Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds by Wastewater Treatment

Endocrine disruptors are toxic substances having adverse effects on the endocrine system even in very fewer amounts which appeared to be a serious concern for human health and water quality. EDCs (Endocrine disrupting compounds) behave like natural hormones in human beings that cause an interruption in endogenous hormonal activities like decreased fertility, changed sexual behavior, inflate abnormalities, and cancers in humans or animals. There are growing concerns about the effects of EDCs on drinking water or human health which are the key environmental problems worldwide. They can be removed from wastewater by many methods such as absorption, adsorption, oxidation, chemical degradation, photocatalytic degradation, membrane separation, biological degradation, transformation, and volatilization. The toxic effect of some EDCs is not fully known and needs further investigations. Detailed treatment methodology for each process is discussed for a better understanding of the scientific community for mitigation and handling these EDCs. The effect of influential operational parameters on the eradication of EDCs from aqueous media via various processes has been highlighted. Finally, the future perspective of the various water treatment techniques along with the key challenges to be faced by the next generation researchers towards expulsion of EDCs is discussed.
Gargi Sinha Sarkar, Aanchal Rathi, Soumen Basu, R. K. Arya, G. N. Halder, Sanghamitra Barman

Chapter 8. Ballast Water System Treatment Techniques in Marine Transportation Industry: A Case Study of M/V LOCH MELFORT

The maritime industry plays a vital role in the national economies development. The rise of number of ships is bringing more and more the benefit for the national economics. In contrast, the sea environment is gradually influenced by the maritime economic development especial the ocean water environment. In this chapter, the authors propose some modern waste water treatment solutions to restrict the ocean water source from the maritime industry and shipbuilding. The research results are significant to the environmental science and earth in particular the maritime industry.
Tien Anh Tran

Chapter 9. Science and Technology Roadmap for Adsorption of Metallic Contaminants from Aqueous Effluents Using Biopolymers and Its’ Derivatives

Large amount of heavy metal pollutants are discharging by industries which are hazardous for environment. Several metallic pollutants like copper (II), nickel (II), lead (II), cadmium (II), and zinc (II) introduced in water can cause serious threat to aquatic environment. Biopolymers are promising candidate for elimination of heavy metals from waste stream. In this chapter, biopolymers based on polysaccharides can be classified into four sub-categories: homopolymers, blends of polysaccharide, copolymers, and functionalized polysaccharide or their composites. Natural biopolymers like alginate,chitosan, cellulose, chitin, and starch contain numerous surface active groups which can act as binding agent to eliminate heavy metals from water. Introduction of secondary functional groups with biopolymers enhances its’ mechanical strength which is essential for recyclability of the adsorbent to ensure economical application of biopolymers for industrial scale waste water treatment plant. This chapter provides the in-depth mechanism of heavy metal interactions with the bio-polymeric surface using π-π, dipole–dipole reaction. Furthermore, it can go for hydrogen network, or weak Van-der-walls attraction with the co-polymers, homo-polymer, blending of polymers, as well as biopolymer/composite matrix containing negative ions or electron-enriched groups. The concluding part of the chapter illustrates the adsorptive behavior of cations using kinetics and isotherms analysis of the equilibrium system for waste water treatment.
Ahmed Elsayid Ali, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Rahman F. Rafique, Rabia Ikram, Abu Nasser Mohammad Faisal, ShahJalal Shibly, Arnab Barua, Yasmin Abdul Wahab, Badrul Mohamed Jan

Chapter 10. Impact of Industrial Wastewater on Environment and Human Health

The wastewater generated from different industries is discharged into adjoining environment and water body. Sometimes this wastewater discharged untreated or partially treated. Due to the industrialization in recent years, the environment deterioration is the major issues for consideration in different countries. Wastewater also contains several microorganisms such as virus, bacteria, protozoans, algae that have major public health concerns as these are cause of many waters borne diseases. The untreated wastewaters affect the quality of water in water bodies and human health to entering into trophic levels of food chain. The wastewater effluent may contain certain type of emerging contaminants that have the endocrine disruptive characteristics. Sometimes the discharged water contains certain contaminants which are not removed by the techniques used in that industry also cause harm to environment and public health. The chapter focuses on the impact of industrial wastewater on environment and human health with details.
Shivani Garg, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Abu Nasser Mohammad Faisal, Nelson Pynadathu Rumjit, Paul Thomas

Chapter 11. Fundamentals of Adsorption Process onto Carbon, Integration with Biological Process for Treating Industrial Waste Water: Future Perspectives and Challenges

Presence of various types of micro-pollutants in domestic, industrial and municipal wastewater and landfill leachates are hazardous for living organisms. Thus, industries need to follow stringent requirements for discharging the chemicals in aquatic system. Organic pollutants, including dyes, hormones, phenols, pharmaceuticals, aromatic compounds, dyes, herbicides, pesticides, bromine containing retardants, industrial by-products, domestic products, sterilisers, and antiseptics, are referred as xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs). Traditional treatment techniques used for organic pollutant removal is not sufficient. The porous carbonaceous structure of granular (GAC) and powdered (PAC) activate carbon can adsorb targeted pollutants from water. The surface area of activated carbon can be varied from (500–1500 m2g−1). The first part of the chapter illustrated the basic mechanism for adsorptive removal of contaminants over powdered and granular activated carbon (PAC or GAC). Now a days, adsorption onto activated carbon is integrated with biological process for treating industrial effluents. Adsorption integrated with biological treatment of waste water can be carried out using powdered activated carbon membrane bioreactor (PAC-MBR) and biological activated carbon reactor (BAC). The fundamentals of using activated carbon adsorption process integrated with biological treatment is discussed in the subsequent section of the chapter.
Arnab Barua, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Ahmed Elsayid Ali, Rabia Ikram, Abu Nasser Mohammad Faisal, Shah Jalal Mohammad Shibly, Rahman F. Rafique, Rafie Bin Johan, Suresh K. Bhargava

Chapter 12. Thermochemical Conversion of Biomass Waste to Amorphous Phase Carbon for Treating Industrial Waste Water

The Economic growth and industrial development of a country is leading to enhanced usage of chemicals and disposal of industrial and agricultural wastes to aquatic environment. This causes eco-toxicological hazards for environment. The ratio between fresh water to saline water in our planet is very low. Furthermore the pollution of fresh water is making the situation more critical. Water pollution needs to be addressed carefully to find out eco-friendly approach to purify the contaminated stream. Functionalized ligno-cellulosic fibre and its’ derivatives can eliminate pollutant using biosorption mechanism, Biochar and activated carbon which is porous and amorphous can be considered as one of the best option to treat waste water. Activated carbon has suitable porosities with enlarged surface area and functional groups which helps them to entrap organic and inorganic pollutants from water. Activated carbon can be produced from low cost lingo-cellulosic waste using different types of thermochemical process to ensure targeted contaminants removal from waste water. The first part of the chapter overviews the recent advances in thermochemical processes; used to produce functionalized lingo-cellulosic fiber, biochar and activated carbon for water treatmentwhich can strengthen sustainable circular economy. The recycling and regeneration strategies with challenges and future prospects of these sorbents are illustrated in the concluding part of the chapter. Thus the ecosystem can be protected by usage of lingo-cellulosic waste in multidimensional direction by purifying the waste water which can aid in solid biomass waste management up to a greater extent.
Shajalal Md Shibly, Zaira Zaman Chowdhury, Abu Nasser Mohammad Faisal, Ahmed Elsayid Ali, Arnab Barua, Rahman F. Rafique, Rabia Ikram, Rafie Bin Johan, Seeram Ramakrishnan


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