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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of five international workshops held in Thessaloniki, Greece, in conjunction with the 26th International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering, CAiSE 2014, in June 2014.

The 24 full and eight short papers were carefully selected from 63 submissions.

The five workshops were the First International Workshop on Advanced Probability and Statistics in Information Systems (APSIS), the First International Workshop on Advances in Services Design Based on the Notion of Capability, the Second International Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Information Systems Engineering (COGNISE), the Third Workshop on New Generation Enterprise and Business Innovation Systems (NGEBIS), and the 4th International Workshop on Information Systems Security Engineering (WISSE).



Analysis and Prediction of Design Model Evolution Using Time Series

Tools which support Model-Driven Engineering have to be evaluated and tested. In the domain of model differencing and model versioning, sequences of software models (model histories), in which a model is obtained from its immediate predecessor by some modification, are of special interest. Unfortunately, in this application domain adequate real test models are scarcely available and must be artificially created. To this end, model generators were proposed in recent years. Generally, such model generators should be configured in a way that the generated sequences of models are as realistic as possible, i.e. they should mimic the changes that happen in real software models. Hence, it is a necessary prerequisite to analyze and to stochastically model the evolution (changes) of real software systems at the abstraction level of models. In this paper, we present a new approach to statistically analyze the evolution of models. Our approach uses time series as a statistical method to capture the dynamics of the evolution. We applied this approach to several typical projects and we successfully modeled their evolutions. The time series models could predict the future changes of the next revisions of the systems with good accuracies. The obtained time series models are used to create more realistic model histories for model versioning and model differencing tools.

Hamed Shariat Yazdi, Mahnaz Mirbolouki, Pit Pietsch, Timo Kehrer, Udo Kelter

An Evolutionary Improvement of the Mahalanobis – Taguchi Strategy and Its Application to Intrusion Detection

The Mahalanobis - Taguchi (MT) strategy is a statistical methodology combining various mathematical concepts and is used for diagnosis and classification in multidimensional systems. MT is a very efficient method and has been applied to a wide range of disciplines so far. However, its feature selection phase, which uses experimental designs (orthogonal arrays), is susceptible to improvement. In this paper, we propose a methodology that incorporates MT and a Genetic Algorithm (MT-GA), with the latter being used both for optimizing the feature selection step of MT and for determining the most suitable training set. As an application domain for testing the proposed methodology, we utilized Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS). IDS play an increasingly important role in network security technology nowadays and more and more research is being directed towards building effective diagnostic models. We test the effectiveness of MT-GA by applying it to a well-known intrusion detection dataset and by comparing its performance to that of the typical MT strategy and of other classifiers. The results indicate the benefits of using MT-GA.

Dimitris Liparas, Evangelia Pantraki

Zero-Knowledge Private Computation of Node Bridgeness in Social Networks

We introduce a bridgeness measure to assess the influence of a node in the connectivity of two groups (communities) in a social network. In order to protect individual privacy upon possible release of such information, we propose privacy mechanisms using zero-knowledge privacy (ZKP), a recently proposed privacy scheme that provides stronger protection than differential privacy (DP) for social graph data. We present techniques to compute the parameters required to design ZKP methods and finally evaluate the practicality of the proposed methods.

Maryam Shoaran, Alex Thomo

Valuation and Selection of OSS with Real Options

The selection of Open Source Software (OSS) applications is a complex and difficult task. The evolving nature of OSS with constant updates, as well as the vast number of available projects hampers the selection process. Advancements in evaluation methods offer assistance in measuring various quality aspects, but do not examine the financial implications of risks and uncertainties imposed by the frequent updates/modifications and by the dynamics of the OSS communities. We perceive the OSS applications as assets capable of generating value upon selection. The objective is to discover the uncertainty factors affecting the overall value, to measure the quality evolution and finally to quantify the expected generated utility value of the OSS candidates.

Androklis Mavridis

State of the Art in Context Modelling – A Systematic Literature Review

Due to the dynamic changes in business environments enterprises adjust their business services and information technology systems. This is a prerequisite to deliver an enhanced business capability to the customers. Such needs address that the information systems should be aware of the context that they are operating in. This work explores context modelling research domain conducting a systematic literature review (SLR) in a limited time frame and literature resources. The work concludes that although the term context is widely used in computer sciences, there is no methodology or a common language to model context in identified articles.

Hasan Koç, Erik Hennig, Stefan Jastram, Christoph Starke

On the Applicability of Concepts from Variability Modelling in Capability Modelling: Experiences from a Case in Business Process Outsourcing

Efficient and effective value creation and service delivery processes are considered as the key factor to competitiveness in a globalized market environment. Capability management contributes to this goal by considering an integrated view of the ability to deliver a certain service with the capacity to do so. In this paper, we focus on the aspect of variability in capabilities. Starting from an industrial case from business process outsourcing, we propose to introduce concepts from variability modelling, i.e. variation points and variation aspects, into modelling and representation of capabilities. The main contributions of this paper are the introduction of variability points into capability modelling, a proposal for further formalizing the term capability, and an industrial case showing the use of variability points.

Kurt Sandkuhl, Hasan Koc

Capability Sourcing Modeling

A High-Level Conceptualization Based on Service-Dominant Logic

Companies need to acquire the right capabilities from the right source, and the right shore, at the right cost to improve their competitive position. Capability sourcing is an organizing process to gain access to best-in-class capabilities for all activities in a firm’s value chain to ensure long-term competitive advantage. In this paper, capability sourcing modeling is introduced as a technique to create sourcing alternative solutions to facilitate strategic sourcing decision making. Our approach is applying conceptual models as intermediate artifacts which are schematic descriptions of sourcing alternatives based on organization’s capabilities. Therefore, a high-level conceptualization based on Service-Dominant Logic (S-D Logic) is proposed as a language to create capability sourcing conceptual models.

Laleh Rafati, Geert Poels

Capability-Based Business Model Transformation

Any organization in subject of changes in the environment, or having the desire to improve, needs to change their processes, personnel and their use of resources. Changes, may they be called for by external threats or opportunities or internal strengths or weaknesses, take their departure in an organizations existing capabilities. To support change, there is thus a fundamental need to understand and analyse an organizations capabilities in order to perform changes. In this paper we present an approach to support organizational change by the use of a capability based recursive analysis, and a set of improvement patterns. The recursive analysis is based on resource types, and capability sub-types. We illustrate the approach by using several examples taken from the industry.

Martin Henkel, Ilia Bider, Erik Perjons

Capability-Driven Development of a SOA Platform: A Case Study

Capability-driven development (CDD) is a novel paradigm for organisational modelling and information technology development. Its cornerstones are capability modelling (including goals, context, processes), pattern-based design, and runtime context awareness and service delivery adjustment. There is a lack of empirical studies regarding the industrial application of CDD. This paper reports on a case study that focuses on capability modelling within a service-oriented architecture development project. We have collected lessons learned, as well as open challenges to feedback the improvement of the CDD methodology.

Sergio España, Tania González, Jānis Grabis, Lauma Jokste, Raúl Juanes, Francisco Valverde

Modeling Enterprise Capabilities with i*: Reasoning on Alternatives

In a dynamic world, information technology (IT) systems are expected to provide capabilities that can be used to address evolving needs. Recent work has adopted notions of capability to model how IT systems meet enterprise goals. In this paper we draw upon theories of dynamic capabilities from strategic management to model enterprise capabilities, reason on their development choices, orchestration alternatives and deployment configurations. The modeling approach builds upon


and proposes to model capabilities as actors.


modeling supports reasoning about intangible and tangible requirements of capabilities and trade-offs among alternatives. We illustrate with examples from the insurance industry. The examples show how social and non-functional dependencies among capabilities affect decisions about development, orchestration and configuration alternatives.

Mohammad Hossein Danesh, Eric Yu

Service Functioning Mode in Variability Model

Recently variability handling has become a very important research topic due to necessity to provide higher flexibility in business and software operations. Usually variability is discussed either at business operations level or at software operations level. However, often both types of operations must be taken into consideration, especially in information intensive tasks, where human actors as well as computer systems are handling the information. Information intensive tasks are common in information service systems. Therefore description and use of variability from information handling perspective is important when designing and implementing this type of systems. In the paper we consider variability in the context of information services and information service systems. The paper proposes extended feature model based approach for capturing key variability facets in information service systems. Practical application of the approach is illustrated by the education demand and offer monitoring service system.

Peteris Rudzajs, Marite Kirikova

Towards a Computer-Aided Problem-Oriented Variability Requirements Engineering Method

In theory, software product lines are planned in advance, using established engineering methods. However, there are cases where commonalities and variabilities between several systems are only discovered after they have been developed individually as single systems. In retrospect, this leads to the hindsight that these systems should have been developed as a software product line from the beginning to reduce costs and effort. To cope with the challenge of detecting variability early on, we propose the PREVISE method, covering domain and application engineering. Domain engineering is concerned with exploring the variability caused by entities in the environment of the software and the variability in functional and quality requirements. In application engineering, the configuration for a concrete product is selected, and subsequently, a requirement model for a concrete product is derived.

Azadeh Alebrahim, Stephan Faßbender, Martin Filipczyk, Michael Goedicke, Maritta Heisel, Marco Konersmann

An Outlook on Patterns as an Aid for Business and IT Alignment with Capabilities

Patterns have established themselves as a useful and practicable instrument for capturing reusable solutions to reoccurring problems in a multitude of domains. This paper discusses three cases of pattern application – at Riga City Council, Kongsberg Automotive, and Proton Engineering, An outlook on how pattern based approaches should be developed to support business and IT alignment and the concept of capability as means to deliver context dependent organizational solutions is also presented.

Janis Stirna, Kurt Sandkuhl

Low–Cost Eye–Trackers: Useful for Information Systems Research?

Research investigating cognitive aspects of information systems is often dependent on detail–rich data. Eye–trackers promise to provide respective data, but the associated costs are often beyond the researchers’ budget. Recently, eye–trackers have entered the market that promise eye–tracking support at a reasonable price. In this work, we explore whether such eye–trackers are of use for information systems research and explore the accuracy of a low–cost eye–tracker (Gazepoint GP3) in an empirical study. The results show that Gazepoint GP3 is well suited for respective research, given that experimental material acknowledges the limits of the eye–tracker. To foster replication and comparison of results, all data, experimental material as well as the source code developed for this study are made available online.

Stefan Zugal, Jakob Pinggera

Supporting BPMN Model Creation with Routing Patterns

Business process modelers often struggle with appropriately representing routing situations in a model. In particular, difficulties may be encountered when using BPMN, due to its large number of constructs and the lack of ontological clarity of this language.

The paper proposes routing patterns combined with a decision guidance tool to support BPMN model creation. The use of patterns is proposed based on cognitive considerations, which are explained to provide justification to the proposed support. The set of patterns builds on an existing set of routing behaviors and operationalizes these behaviors by providing their BPMN representations. The effect of this support is tested in a study, whose findings indicate a significant effect on the quality of the produced models. The findings also indicate that the use of the guided routing patterns leads to a longer time required for modeling as compared to unsupported modeling.

Idan Wolf, Pnina Soffer

Coupling Elements of a Framework for Cognitive Matchmaking with Enterprise Models

Actors working in knowledge intensive organizations have to cope with an increased cognitive load by increasing complexity of knowledge intensive tasks that these actors have to fulfill. This is caused by developments such as: Globalization, growing product and service complexity, customers that become more and more powerful, outsourcing, and inter-organizational alliances that cause organizations to grow more rapidly. Excessive cognitive load negatively influences the quality of knowledge intensive task fulfillment. It is discussed how elements from a cognitive matchmaking framework can be coupled with an example enterprise model to partly provide a solution for avoiding cognitive load of actors in becoming too excessive. This exercise enables to achieve a better understanding of the cognitive fit of actor types and knowledge intensive task types they have to fulfill.

Sietse Overbeek

Investigating Differences between Graphical and Textual Declarative Process Models

Declarative approaches to business process modeling are regarded as well suited for highly volatile environments, as they enable a high degree of flexibility. However, problems in understanding declarative process models often impede their adoption. Particularly, a study revealed that aspects that are present in both imperative and declarative process modeling languages at a graphical level—while having different semantics—cause considerable troubles. In this work we investigate whether a notation that does not contain graphical lookalikes, i.e., a textual notation, can help to avoid this problem. Even though a textual representation does not suffer from lookalikes, in our empirical study it performed worse in terms of error rate, duration and mental effort, as the textual representation forces the reader to mentally merge the textual information. Likewise, subjects themselves expressed that the graphical representation is easier to understand.

Cornelia Haisjackl, Stefan Zugal

Reducing Technical Debt: Using Persuasive Technology for Encouraging Software Developers to Document Code

(Position Paper)

Technical debt is a metaphor for the gap between the current state of a software system and its hypothesized ‘ideal’ state. One of the significant and under-investigated elements of technical debt is documentation debt, which may occur when code is created without supporting internal documentation, such as code comments. Studies have shown that outdated or lacking documentation is a considerable contributor to increased costs of software systems maintenance. The importance of comments is often overlooked by software developers, resulting in a notably slower growth rate of comments compared to the growth rate of code in software projects. This research aims to explore and better understand developers’ reluctance to document code, and accordingly to propose efficient ways of using persuasive technology to encourage programmers to document their code. The results may assist software practitioners and project managers to control and reduce documentation debt.

Yulia Shmerlin, Doron Kliger, Hayim Makabee

Conceptual Understanding of Conceptual Modeling Concepts: A Longitudinal Study among Students Learning to Model

We discuss our investigation into the conceptual understanding that students have of common concepts used for conceptual modeling (e.g., actors, processes, goals). We studied if and how those understandings may change over time during a student’s progress through their academic curriculum. To do so, we performed a longitudinal study with a group of students starting computing and information science studies at Radboud University Nijmegen. We followed them from the beginning of their studies as they learned new theories, techniques, and languages for modeling. We focused on investigating whether their conceptual understandings changed as they became acquainted with new languages and techniques, and whether there were correlations between the introduction of such educational stimuli and changes in their conceptual understanding. We discuss the seeming lack of connection between these stimuli and such changes, and reflect on what this means for the training of people in conceptual modeling.

Dirk van der Linden, Henderik A. Proper, Stijn J. B. A. Hoppenbrouwers

What Do Software Architects Think They (Should) Do?

Research in Progress

Software architecture is an integral part of software development, and has become more complex, with the transition from traditional to agile development methods. Hence, the architect’s tasks in the software development project must be well defined. Though there was some amount of empirical research addressing architects‘ perceptions, most of the research in the area of software architecture addressed this topic theoretically. Perception, being a part of, and having an effect on, cognitive processes and decision making, is explored in this research in order to gain a deeper understanding of what tasks architects find to be included in their role and responsibility. Thus far, 8 in-depth interviews were conducted in various hi-tech firms, followed by distributing an on-line questionnaire, with the response of 12 architects. The obtained results demonstrate several differences between the role of the architect, as defined in literature, and the way architects perceive their role.

Sofia Sherman, Naomi Unkelos-Shpigel

Towards Semantic Collective Awareness Platforms for Business Innovation

Innovation represents the main driver for enterprises to evolve, and very often to survive in the globalized market. In the last decades, innovation in enterprise contexts has seen the introduction of new paradigms leveraging the so-called collective intelligence. Such paradigms have gained momentum thanks to the diffusion of the Internet, and the Web 2.0 in particular, and many supporting platforms have been developed. A critical aspect here regards the availability of tools able to manage the knowledge flow across the whole innovation lifecycle (problem awareness, idea generation, solution implementation), overcoming the fragmentation and heterogeneity of the informative resources of the involved players. With this respect, we propose a Semantics-based Collective Awareness Platform for supporting business innovation activities, in which semantic facilities are provided for a smarter knowledge acquisition and sharing, as well as for supporting solutions to complex problems.

Fabrizio Smith, Emanuele Storti, Francesco Taglino

Leveraging User Inspiration with Microblogging-Driven Exploratory Search

In creative tasks, the user expects to acquire holistic information, to explore the space of available information and to come up with diverse views before converging to a solution for the creative task. We hypothesize that the implicit use of social chatter in information seeking activities can enhance the potential for novel, diverse and unexpected encounters which can in turn inspire users. We present an interactive exploratory search tool that combines diversification of content and sources with a user interface design that visualises cues from the social chatter generated with microblogging services such as Twitter and lets users interactively explore the available information space. A task-based user study comparing our system to a query-based baseline indicates that our system significantly improves inspirational discoveries by providing access to more interesting, novel and unexpected information.

Maria Taramigkou, Fotis Paraskevopoulos, Efthimios Bothos, Dimitris Apostolou, Gregoris Mentzas

System Architecture of the BIVEE Platform for Innovation and Production Improvement

The BIVEE acronym stands for Business Innovation and Virtual Enterprise Environment. The ICT outcome of the BIVEE Project is the BIVEE System: an integrated solution enabling business innovation in virtual factories and enterprises. In line with the Future Internet vision, the BIVEE System is delivered as a set of modular applications deployed on top of a commodity, cloud-ready service platform, This service platform, named

BIVEE Platform

, provides a base layer of data, knowledge, services and capabilities. This paper briefly describes the BIVEE Platform, from both the conceptual and the technical point of view.

Mauro Isaja

Cooperative Decision Making in Virtual Enterprises

Virtual enterprises provide an environment where flexible production and corresponding service delivery is cooperatively and efficiently carried out by involved stakeholders focused on utilizing their core competences. This unarguably promising approach raises many challenges – in this paper we focus on two. First we investigate how hybrid modelling approach can be applied to design amalgamated meta models covering artefacts required by the stakeholders within such a distributed environment – e.g. to design a distributed value chain. Second we propose how insights from other domains such as eHealth can be applied to solve the cooperative decision making challenge – e.g. fundamental due to having more than one process owner. We elaborate on three possible realization scenarios and select one to investigate how the previously designed meta model has to be extended to apply the proposed solution.

Nesat Efendioglu, Vedran Hrgovcic, Ronald Quirchmayr, Robert Woitsch

A Methodology for the Set-Up of a Virtual Innovation Factory Platform

BIVEE project will enhance a new point of view on the latest generation methods and on the industrial systems oriented to promoting and managing innovation. A new ICT platform able to manage the innovation process has been developed and installed in one of the end-user of BIVEE project. During the validation and comparison activities, end users and related stakeholders are called to provide feedbacks regarding any issues detected in the BIVEE Platform. Based on these feedbacks, a series of actions has been implemented on the BIVEE Platform. In this context the support of technical partners in order to map the requirements of the actual architecture of BIVEE is a fundamental aspect. This paper will present the set up procedure needed in order to test the effectiveness of BIVEE proposed approach.

Cristina Cristalli, Daniela Isidori

Data Mart Reconciliation in Virtual Innovation Factories

The present paper deals with the problem of collaboration at strategic level in innovation-oriented Virtual Enterprises. The problem is taken from the perspective of sharing a special kind of data, Key Performance Indicators, that are measures adopted to monitor the achievement of certain strategic goals. We discuss the main conflicts that can arise in measures coming from autonomous enterprises, adopting the conceptual multidimensional cube model. Then we propose a novel semantic model to deal with conflicts related to the structure of a measure, that arise when the “same” KPI is calculated in different ways by different enterprises. Finally, conflict reconciliation strategies enabled by the semantic model are discussed.

Claudia Diamantini, Domenico Potena, Emanuele Storti

Requirements Refinement and Exploration of Architecture for Security and Other NFRs

Earlier software architecture design is essential particularly when it comes to security concerns, since security risks, requirements and architectures are all closely interrelated and interacting. We have proposed the security driven twin peaks method with a mutual refinement of the requirements, and architectures. However, there are multiple alternatives to an architecture design for initial requirements, and their choices depend on non-functional requirements (NFRs), such as security, performance, and costs which have a big impact on the quality of the software. We propose a new method called TPM-SA2 to avoid any back-track in refinement. Each architectural alternative in TPM-SA2 is refined so that it aligns with the requirements. For each refinement, the requirements can be updated vice versa. TPM-SA2 enables us to predict the impacts on the NFRs by each candidate for the architecture, and choose the most appropriate one with respect to the impact. As a result, we can define the requirements and architectures, and estimated the development costs earlier than ever.

Takao Okubo, Nobukazu Yoshioka, Haruhiko Kaiya

Cloud Forensics Solutions: A Review

Cloud computing technology attracted many Internet users and organizations the past few years and has become one of the hottest topics in IT. However, due to the newly appeared threats and challenges arisen in cloud computing, current methodologies and techniques are not designed for assisting the respective forensic processes in cloud environments. Challenges and issues introduced, require new solutions in cloud forensics. To date, the research conducted in this area concerns mostly the identification of the major challenges in cloud forensics. This paper focuses on the identification of the available technical solutions addressed in the respective literature that have an applicability on cloud computing. Furthermore it matches the identified solutions with the respective challenges already mentioned in the respective literature. Specifically, it summarizes the methods and the proposed solutions used to conduct an investigation, in comparison to the respective cloud challenges and finally it highlights the open problems in the area of cloud forensics.

Stavros Simou, Christos Kalloniatis, Evangelia Kavakli, Stefanos Gritzalis

Resolving Policy Conflicts - Integrating Policies from Multiple Authors

In this paper we show that the static conflict resolution strategy of XACML is not always sufficient to satisfy the policy needs of an organisation where multiple parties provide their own individual policies. Different conflict resolution strategies are often required for different situations. Thus combining one or more sets of policies into a single XACML ‘super policy’ that is evaluated by a single policy decision point (PDP), cannot always provide the correct authorisation decision, due to the static conflict resolution algorithms that have to be built in. We therefore propose a dynamic conflict resolution strategy that chooses different conflict resolution algorithms based on the authorisation request context. The proposed system receives individual and independent policies, as well as conflict resolution rules, from different policy authors, but instead of combining these into one super policy with static conflict resolution rules, each policy is evaluated separately and the conflicts among their authorisation decisions is dynamically resolved using the conflict resolution algorithm that best matches the authorisation decision request. It further combines the obligations of independent policies returning similar decisions which XACML can’t do while keeping each author’s policy intact.

Kaniz Fatema, David Chadwick

Evolving Computational Intelligence System for Malware Detection

Recent malware developments have the ability to remain hidden during infection and operation. They prevent analysis and removal, using various techniques, namely: obscure filenames, modification of file attributes, or operation under the pretense of legitimate programs and services. Also, the malware might attempt to subvert modern detection software, by hiding running processes, network connections and strings with malicious URLs or registry keys. The malware can go a step further and obfuscate the entire file with a packer, which is special software that takes the original malware file and compresses it, thus making all the original code and data unreadable. This paper proposes a novel approach, which uses minimum computational power and resources, to indentify Packed Executable (PEX), so as to spot the existence of malware software. It is an Evolving Computational Intelligence System for Malware Detection (ECISMD) which performs classification by Evolving Spiking Neural Networks (eSNN), in order to properly label a packed executable. On the other hand, it uses an Evolving Classification Function (ECF) for the detection of malwares and applies Genetic Algorithms to achieve ECF Optimization.

Konstantinos Demertzis, Lazaros Iliadis

Lightweight Formal Verification in Real World, A Case Study

To security oriented large-scale projects, formal verification is widely used to assure the satisfaction of claimed security properties. Although complete formal verification and validation requires a great amount of time and resources, applying lightweight formal methods to partial specifications reduces the required efforts to a convenient amount, while can still uncover sensitive software design problems. This paper describes our experience of applying lightweight formal verification to the authentication system of


, a substantial cross-device software infrastructure developed in a large scale EU funded project. The paper details the approach, the properties analysed, the lessons learned and concludes with possible recommendations for practitioners and designers about how to use lightweight formal verification in real world projects.

Andrea Atzeni, Tao Su, Teodoro Montanaro

Security Requirements Analysis Using Knowledge in CAPEC

Because all the requirements analysts are not the experts of security, providing security knowledge automatically is one of the effective means for supporting security requirements elicitation. We propose a method for eliciting security requirements on the basis of Common Attack Patterns Enumeration and Classification (CAPEC). A requirements analyst can automatically acquire the candidates of attacks against a functional requirement with the help of our method. Because technical terms are mainly used in the descriptions in CAPEC and usual phrases are used in the requirements descriptions, there are gaps between them. To bridge the gaps, our method contains a mapping between technical terms and noun phrases called term maps.

Haruhiko Kaiya, Sho Kono, Shinpei Ogata, Takao Okubo, Nobukazu Yoshioka, Hironori Washizaki, Kenji Kaijiri


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