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Über dieses Buch

This book begins by introducing new and unique fabrication, micromachining, and integration manufacturing methods for MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems) and NEMS (Nano-Electro-Mechanical Systems) devices, as well as novel nanomaterials for sensor fabrications. The second section focuses on novel sensors based on these emerging MEMS/NEMS fabrication methods, and their related applications in industrial, biomedical, and environmental monitoring fields, which makes up the sensing layer (or perception layer) in IoT architecture. This authoritative guide offers graduate students, postgraduates, researchers, and practicing engineers with state-of-the-art processes and cutting-edge technologies on MEMS /NEMS, micro- and nanomachining, and microsensors, addressing progress in the field and prospects for future development.Presents latest international research on MEMS/NEMS fabrication technologies and novel micro/nano sensors;Covers a broad spectrum of sensor applications;Written by leading experts in the field.



Chapter 1. Tip-Based Nanofabrication for NEMS Devices

Nano-electro-mechanical systems (NEMS) have been extensively studied and widely used in a variety of fields, for its ultrasensitive performance and enabling cutting-edge researches at this minuscule scale. However, existing nanofabrication still suffers from high cost or the difficulty of scaling up. This chapter gives an overview of currently widely employed nanofabrication techniques and then highlights one promising nanofabrication method based on scanning probes—tip-based nanofabrication (TBN). Finally, we conclude on the three major trends of current TBN technology development.
Dong Pu, Huan Hu

Chapter 2. Dimensional-Nanopatterned Piezoresistive Silicon Microcantilever for Environmental Sensing

Microcantilevers are the most simplified microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based devices. Resonant piezoresistive silicon microcantilevers (PMCs) coated with sensitive materials, especially the PMCs patterned with sensing nanostructures of large surface area which work as analytical systems, offer great opportunity for the development and mass production of extremely sensitive sensors for real-time in situ detecting of many chemical and explosive gases, at room temperature. In this chapter, we introduce the figure of merit of PMC-based gas sensors, regarding their operation modes, signal transduction methods, and online tracking techniques. The dimensional nanopatterning of PMCs using different strategies, such as bottom-up methods, top-down methods, and the combination of both, is further and extensively presented and discussed. Examples of recent gas sensor applications using PMCs which are fabricated with nanopatterning on the basis of these aforementioned techniques are given in detail.
(Some figures in this article are in color only in the electronic version).
Jiushuai Xu, Erwin Peiner

Chapter 3. Micromachining Based on Mask-Free Direct Writing: An Advanced Approach to Innovative MEMS Gas Sensors

This chapter provides an overview of mask-free direct writing in the fabrication of advanced MEMS gas sensors. Two typical methods, namely, inkjet printing and femtosecond laser direct writing (FsLDW), are integrated in MEMS fabrication focusing on the preparation of materials. These materials include but do not limit to binary composite oxides, polymers, and carbon-based materials. Equipment, principle, standard process, and application examples of both inkjet printing and FsLDW are described in sequence. In these application examples, the significance of mask-free direct writing is demonstrated by the improvement of both fabrication quality and performance of devices. This chapter aims to provide a great guide for researchers to step forward in the way of advancing MEMS gas sensors from fabrication aspect.
Rui You, Wenshuai Lu, Dongdong Han, Yonglai Zhang

Chapter 4. Composite Micro-Machining Technology on the Non-Silicon MEMS

Diversified non-silicon-based micro/nano-fabrication technology (NSMFT/NSNFT), including a variety of high-performance materials, fabrication technologies, device design and test schemes, and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) devices, is promising in broadening the versatile applications, enhancing the performance, and reducing the process difficulty of MEMS. Therefore, NSMFT/NSNFT has spread widely and attracted worldwide attention. Moreover, NSMFT/NSNFT breaks through the limitation of the single silicon substrate on the design and fabrication of MEMS device. By introducing the diversified non-silicon materials into MEMS, the performance and application of the MEMS system are greatly enhanced and broadened. This review systematically presents the recent fabrication technology and non-silicon materials of NSMFT/NSNFT. Alongside, the design and fabrication of some representative non-silicon-based MEMS devices based on NSMFT/NSNFT are overviewed, and the related performance test systems are also discussed in detail.
Yunna Sun, Guifu Ding, Yan Wang, Zhuoqing Yang

Chapter 5. Nano-in-Nano Integration Technology for Advanced Fabrication of Functional Nanofluidic Devices

In this chapter, Nano-in-Nano Integration was introduced as the progress of functional nanofluidic devices. Most contemporary nanofluidic devices use bare nanochannels without functional components, which limits their nanofluidic application. Nano-in-Nano fabrication technologies have been proposed as a solution, which includes the subtractive method using the focus ion beam and the additive method using multiple electron beam lithography. Nanocomponents with different functions, such as arrays, valves, and electrodes, have been integrated into nanochannels, as proof-of-concept studies, which can be envisioned to offer a new angle for the advanced fabrication of functional nanofluidic devices.
Jinbin Yang, Yan Xu

Chapter 6. NEMS Sensors Based on Novel Nanomaterials

This chapter provides an overview of NEMS sensors based on novel nanomaterials. Specifically, we have discussed silicon nanowires, carbon nanotubes, and piezoelectric and 2D materials which enable unique functionalities to NEMS. For each of these nanomaterials, we have briefly described their unique properties and their advantages for NEMS sensors. Further, popular fabrication methods and detection schemes have been discussed for each of these technologies. Also, applications pertaining to physical, gas, chemical, and biomolecular sensing have been discussed. This chapter is aimed to serve as a reference for researchers to keep themselves updated with the recent updates in nanomaterial-based NEMS and their usage for numerous sensing applications.
Shubham Yadav, Soumya Tripathy, Deblina Sarkar

Chapter 7. Evolution of Wafer Bonding Technology and Applications from Wafer-Level Packaging to Micro/Nanofluidics-Enhanced Sensing

In this chapter, we outline the revolution of wafer bonding technologies in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) packaging and their applications in the emerging field of micro/nanofluidics-enhanced sensing. With the rapid development of device miniaturization, high-density assembly technologies have become one of the most important research topics in three-dimensional (3D) integration. The role of packaging has also shifted from initial physical protection and electrical interconnection to a multifunctional platform and/or interfaces. Hence, wafer bonding-based packaging technologies also benefit from diversified applications, e.g., micro/nanofluidics, optoelectronic integration, and biological/chemical sensing. Based on the aforementioned aspects, we summarize the development of wafer bonding technology to enable researchers to know the recent progress of homo−/heterogeneous integration.
Jikai Xu, Zhihao Ren, Bowei Dong, Chenxi Wang, Yanhong Tian, Chengkuo Lee

Chapter 8. MOEMS-Enabled Miniaturized Biomedical Sensing and Imaging System

Micro-system plays an important role in the miniaturization of the biomedical sensing and imaging instrumentation. The advanced sensors and actuators have already been widely applied to the biomedical devices for basic biological studies on preclinical small animal models and translational medicine on human patients in the clinics. Superior spatiotemporal resolution, broader field-of-view, and deeper penetration in the turbid tissue specimens have been achieved by the state-of-the-art fiber optics, opto-electronics, opto-mechanical packages and the micro-system development. In this chapter, representative micro-system enabled implantable, portable, and endoscopic system will be introduced.
Bo Li, Lin Huang, Zhen Qiu

Chapter 9. Bio-Inspired Flexible Sensors for Flow Field Detection

Flow field detection plays a crucial role in flying and swimming robots by providing information for navigation, active flow control, and disturbance rejection in complex fluid environments. Nature creatures have evolved flow receptors with extreme sensing performances such as fish lateral line system and sensory hairs of insects, which inspire engineers to develop artificial flow sensors. With the introduction to the high-sensitive mechanisms in fish lateral line and sensory hairs, we focus on recent progress on bio-inspired flexible sensors, which can be mounted on curved surfaces for flow field detection and analysis. The engineered sensors have reached the detection limit comparable to that of the biological receptors, which is a great breakthrough for bio-inspired sensors.
Yonggang Jiang, Zhiqiang Ma, Dawei Shen

Chapter 10. Optofluidic Devices for Bioanalytical Applications

Optofluidics, nominally merging micro-optics and microfluidic technologies, is a relatively new research field, and it has begun to draw large attentions in the last decade. Given its abilities to manipulate both optic and fluidic functions/elements in the micro−/nano-meter regime, optofluidics shows great potential in bioanalytical applications. This chapter provides an overview of optofluidic systems for tackling a variety of analytical tasks, including chemical analysis, nucleic acid and protein detection, and cell biology applications. The chapter starts with an introduction of microfluidic and optic technologies, continues with emphasis on the realization of different optofluidic systems and their applications, and concludes by giving our perspectives on optofluidic systems for bioanalytical applications in the near future.
Hui Yang, Martin A. M. Gijs

Chapter 11. Wearable MEMS Sensor Nodes for Animal Health Monitoring System

In this chapter, we will describe wireless wearable sensor nodes for animal health monitoring system. Wireless sensor nodes use MEMS sensors or MEMS technology in the manufacturing process. We fabricated wearable sensor nodes and attached them to animals (chickens, cows, and giraffes). As a result, either sensor nodes were broken or useful measurement data were obtained. In this chapter, we aim to provide a useful guide for researchers to step forward in the realization of application of wearable sensor nodes for animal health monitoring system on the basis of experiences of both success and failure.
Hirofumi Nogami, Hironao Okada, Seiichi Takamatsu, Narifumi Kawano, Takeshi Kobayashi, Ryutaro Maeda, Toshihiro Itoh


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