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Über dieses Buch

Looking back 10 years when the International Forum on Advanced Microsystems for Automotive Application (AMAA) started, enormous progress has been made in reducing casualties, emissions and in increasing comfort and performance. Microsystems in many cases provided the key functions for this progress. Although the issues the event concentrated on didn’t change significantly (safety, powertrain, comfort, etc.), considerable shifts of technological paradigms and approaches can be stated.

The future of microsystems will consist of integrated smart systems which are able to diagnose a situation, to describe and to qualify it. They will be able to identify and mutually address each other. They will be predictive and therefore they will be able to decide and help to decide. Smart systems will enable the automobile to interact with the environment, they will perform multiple tasks and assist a variety of activities. Smart systems will be highly reliable, often networked and energy autonomous.

There is a coincidence of the AMAA objectives and those of EPoSS, the European Technology Platform on Smart Systems Integration, contributing intensively to the development of automotive-specific smart systems. You will find a series of the EPoSS items in the programme of the 10th AMAA, which continues to be a unique exchange forum for companies in the automotive value chain.

The publication in hand also reflects these issues. It is a cut-out of new technological priorities in the area of microsystems-based smart devices and opens up a mid-term perspective of future smart systems applications in automobiles.

Additional information is available on www.amaa.de

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Market

Frontmatter

Prospects for MST Sensors in Automotive Applications

The number of passenger vehicles on the world’s roads will reach an estimated 68 million light vehicles in 2008. Many vehicles will feature increasingly sophisticated safety and engine management systems as a result of the migration of sophisticated MST-based sensors from luxury into mid-range cars. The success of such sensors owes much to batch micromachining processes, which reduce component sizes and provide low power consumption devices that can be integrated with signal conditioning electronics into small packages that handle the harsh environments and deliver reliability extending over 10–15 years.

This paper examines existing and emerging markets for MST sensors deployed in airbags and vehicle dynamics, GPS navigation, and engine management. According to our estimates, the overall market for MST based automotive measurements will grow from around $1.3 billion in 2004 to nearly $2 billion in 2009. A particular emphasis of this article is the opportunity for inertial and pressure sensors.

Richard Dixon, Jérémie Bouchaud

Future Architecture for Inertial Sensors in Cars

In the analysis of the automotive MEMS inertial market, Yole found that on the 2005–2010 period the accelerometer automotive market would have a 2% CAGR starting from 286 M$ to 321M$. Gyroscopes are making good promise on these same period, with a 11% CAGR expectation to reach 598M$ in 2010. This year already the gyro-scope market overcomes the accelerometer one on a market valued at 355M$.

Two major trends that will modify the future architecture for inertia sensors are discussed in this article: the crash impact sound sensor technology is subject to change the airbag sensor market whereas the trends for integration will lead the path to future automotive IMUs.

J. C. Eloy, M. Potin, E. Mounier, P. Roussel

Safety

Frontmatter

Three-Dimensional CMOS Image Sensor for Pedestrian Protection and Collision Mitigation

Future car safety systems increasingly depend on the availability of robust sensors with vital improved technical perception output. For this objective, we develop a pulsed laser based time of flight range sensor in fully solid-state microsystems technology for more reliable detection and classification of road users, vehicles and traffic obstacles. The development aims on pedestrian protection and mitigation of collisions comprising the short distance around vehicle perception up to 25 m. The 3D sensor technology based on a chip design of 64×8 pixels and image repetition rates of up to 100 Hz will be presented and the performance of a first 3D line sensor prototype will be demonstrated for typical road test scenarios. Furthermore, an outlook on the final 3D array camera development for road safety applications will be given.

P. Mengel, L. Listl, B. König, C. Toepfer, M. Pellkofer, W. Brockherde, B. Hosticka, O. Elkhalili, O. Schrey, W. Ulfig

EVENT-ONLINE — A Service Concept for large scale Events based on FCD Technology

Floating Car Data is a well known technology used in traffic science to detect travel time, average speed and disturbances with the help of probe cars moving as mobile sensors in a road network of interest. As GPS and GSM is available all over Europe, it is nowadays possible to generate FCD data with a simple software implementation on mobile devices such as PDA’s, MDA’s or navigation systems connected to a GSM module. After the generation of FCD based traffic data it can be sent to a service centre and help to improve fleet and traffic management. Results from field trials in Berlin, Hanover and Athens will be presented.

Ralf Willenbrock, F. Steinert, Klaus Graze, Werner Schönewolf

Advanced Pressure Sensors with high Flexibility for Side Crash Detection

The implementation of advanced regulations for side impact crash tests require an improved and faster detection method for side impact crashes. Therefore the sensing principle must recognize the severeness of an accident with highest possible confidence and within shortest time. The use of pressure sensors inside a door cavity enables the system supplier to develop solutions to fulfill these requirements. Infineons 3

rd

generation of pressure sensors for side crash detection offers a high flexibility to implement customer specific communication protocols. Furthermore, proven diagnosis functionality as well as additionally new features are integrated to guarantee a high reliability of the sensors for this special safety application. All active components for the entire pressure satellite could be integrated within the sensor.

Michael Brauer, Kay Krupka

Detection of Road Users in Fused Sensor Data Streams for Collision Mitigation

This paper deals with a novel sensor fusion approach to detect and track cars and pedestrians to facilitate a collision mitigation application for vehicles. Robust collision mitigation requires a perception performance of an unprecedented degree of reliability, since an erroneous application of emergency braking caused by false alarms would greatly impede road safety improvement not lastly due to the major setback such an incident would represent for driver acceptance. However, current off-the-shelf single sensor approaches can hardly fulfil the challenging demands. Accordingly, we develop a multi-sensor recognition system. It is composed of a far infrared imaging device, a laser scanner and several radar sensors, which operate integrated into a BMW sedan.

L. Walchshäusl, R. Lindl, K. Vogel, T. Tatschke

Dynamic Pass Prediction — A New Driver Assistance System for Superior and Safe Overtaking

The paper introduces a new driver assistance system within the BMW ConnectedDrive concept. Based on the driving dynamics and navigation data, the Dynamic Pass Prediction (DPP) indicates road sections that are not safe for overtaking. By reducing the enormous driver workload before overtaking situations a safer and more comfortable driving is achieved without losing driving pleasure. This example shows how driver assistance systems can take advantage of navigation data especially if it contains curve and sign information. With the quality of navigation data available today the DPP function is feasible. Taking driving parameters into account, a situation adaptive recommendation provides even more benefit for the customer.

Jan Loewenau, K. Gresser, D. Wisselmann, W. Richter, D. Rabel, S. Durekovic

Requirement Engineering for Active Safety Pedestrian Protection Systems based on Accident Research

The possibility to assess active safety measures for pedestrian protection is a prerequisite for the definition of reasonable driver assistance systems and their sensor need. The Verps+-index combines In-Depth accident data, driver models and vehicle tests in a new way. As an example, different brake assist strategies are analysed regarding their safety benefit for pedestrian protection. Additionally, requirements for the sensor system will be defined. Different sensing principles can be rated regarding their compliance to these requirements. It can be shown that by use of environmental sensors a brake assist strategy which keeps the driver in the loop already obtains remarkable safety benefits for pedestrians, while more advanced autonomous emergency braking strategies retrieve only limited additional performance. This means that mayor benefits in pedestrian protection can already be obtained by using “simpler” environmental sensors with reduced pedestrian recognition capabilities.

Robert Fröming, Matthias Kühn, Volker Schindler

Biologically Inspired Multi-Sensor Fusion for Adaptive Camera Stabilization in Driver-Assistance Systems

The enhancement of comfort and safety is of major importance in today’s research on automotive applications. Since visual information and image processing can significantly improve driver assistance systems, cameras are increasingly becoming an integral part of these systems. This paper presents an inertially stabilized camera platform for target tracking. The key point is the use of biomimetic algorithms for adaptive compensation of manufacturing tolerances. Therefore low-cost components can be used which make the system affordable in a wide range of vehicles. Initial road trials have shown the clear advantage of a stabilized camera over conventional carfixed settings and demonstrated the usability of the proposed algorithms.

W. Günthner, S. Glasauer, Ph. Wagner, H. Ulbrich

Low Speed Collision Avoidance System

Most collisions occur with ahead driving vehicles or at speed below 30 km/h, respectively. Driving in columns is tiring and can lead to inattention and distraction and is therefore one of the main sources of accidents. A Low Speed Collision Avoidance System can help the driver avoiding these kinds of accidents.

Jörg Kibbel, H. Salow, M. Dittmer

Laserscanner for Multiple Applications in Passenger Cars and Trucks

Driver assistance systems for both passenger cars and commercial vehicles have made much progress throughout the past few years. Laserscanners have proven to meet the requirements for serving as their sensor backbone. This article focusses on the potential of auto-motive laserscanners supporting advanced driver assistance systems on passenger cars and trucks.

Roland Schulz, Kay Fürstenberg

A new Approach for Obstacle Detection Based on Dynamic Vehicle Behaviour

Inter-vehicle communication has been one of the most emerging fields of interest in the automobile industry during the past few years. It is considered as one key enabler for active safety and fore-sighted driving assistance services. A very prominent example is a local danger warning service. Vehicles instantaneously inform others about critical situations like aquaplaning, accidents or obstacles on the road. The detection of such environmental conditions should be accomplished by means of already available and widely deployed onboard sensors. In this paper we present a new efficient and light-weight approach to estimate the existence of an obstacle, based only on the vehicles’ driving dynamics. The approach is evaluated in terms of contribution to the application domain, operability and reliability. A prototype implementation is described and first results from real track driving tests are presented.

Markus Straßberger, Robert Lasowski

Far Infrared Detection Algorithms for Vulnerable Road Users Protection

Far Infrared (FIR) technology was originated a few decades ago in the military domain for its ability to detect any dissipation of heat, as this reveals not only the presence of moving threats or vehicles, but also of living creatures, including human beings, in a passive way, by daytime or night time, even in adverse conditions. More recently, FIR was found a valuable sensor to detect Vulnerable Road Users (VRU) in the automotive safety domain. After a first adaptation to VRU detection of typical FIR detection techniques used in the military domain, where most applications tend to rather concentrate on small objects at a great distance, we have also investigated more recent theoretical schemes, applying them to Far Infrared images. Candidate schemes include various learning methods, such as neural networks, support vector machine, boosting.

Y. Le Guilloux, R. Moreira, S. Khaskelman, J. Lonnoy

iBolt Technology — A Weight Sensing System for Advanced Passenger Safety

In 2004 the NHTSA FMVSS-208 ruling became effective, to avoid injuries of children by unwanted deployment of the passenger airbag. To fulfil the requirements of this law, several technical principles are under development or had a first product launch recently. The key technologies are weight sensing by measuring strain or displacement or mat solutions either fluid filled or as pattern recognition. This paper presents the Bosch iBolt technology, a direct weight measuring system, which is an integrated and therefore functional part of a seat. The advantages and properties of this technology will be described depending on the main questions, like insensitivity against lateral forces and moments, temperature behaviour and packaging issues both on component and seat level. The weight sensing iBolts are installed directly into the seat frame, replacing existing bolts, so no H-point shift is caused by integrating the iBolts sensors.

Klaus Kasten, A. Stratmann, M. Munz, K. Dirscherl, S. Lamers

Object Classification exploiting High Level Maps of Intersections

An object classification system is introduced. The system observes the vehicle’s environment with a laser scanner. Preprocessing and object tracking algorithms are applied. The object classification combines a pattern classifier with rule based a priori knowledge and high level map information. The pattern classifier uses significant features to calculate membership values for each class. These membership values are verified and corrected by a priori knowledge. Furthermore, a precise position of the test vehicle is estimated. The positions of observed objects in the high level map can be determined exploiting this information. As the object position is restricted for some object classes, this knowledge can be used in the classification, which significantly improves its performance. Finally, the system is evaluated with labeled test data of several sequences at different intersections.

Stefan Wender, Thorsten Weiss, Klaus C. J. Dietmayer, Kay Fürstenberg

Performance of a Time-of-Flight Range Camera for Intelligent Vehicle Safety Applications

A variety of safety-enhancing automobile features can be enabled by microsystems that can sense and analyze the dynamic 3D environment inside and outside the vehicle. It is desirable to directly sense the 3D shape of the scene, since the appearance of objects in a 2D image is confounded by illumination conditions, surface materials, and object orientation. To overcome the disadvantages of 3D sensing methods such as stereovision, radar, ultrasound, or scanning LADAR, we present Electronic Perception Technology, an advanced range camera module based on measuring the time delay of modulated infrared light from an active emitter, using a single detector chip fabricated on standard CMOS process. This paper overviews several safety applications and their sensor performance requirements, describes the principles of operation of the range camera, and characterizes its performance as configured for airbag deployment occupant sensing and backup obstacle warning applications.

Stephen Hsu, Sunil Acharya, Abbas Rafii, Richard New

Powertrain

Frontmatter

Coordinated Cylinder Pressure Based Control for Reducing Diesel Emissions Dispersion

Future demands for very low emissions from diesel engines, without compromising fuel economy or driveability, require Engine Management Systems (EMS) capable of compensating for emissions dispersion caused by production tolerances and component ageing. This paper describes a collaborative project between Ricardo and General Motors (GM), aimed at reducing engine-out emissions dispersion and enabling alternative combustion modes, such as Ricardo’s Highly Premixed Cool Combustion (HPCC), in real-world scenarios. Cylinder pressure based control is a key technology enabler for achieving the necessary high-level coordination of fuel, air and EGR in order to meet the conflicting performance requirements of current and future diesel engines. The paper describes the background to the project, the development toolchain using production intent sensors, control strategies developed for both testbed and vehicle application and preliminary results obtained.

M. G. Beasley, R. C. E. Cornwell, M. A. Egginton, P. M. Fussey, R. King, A. D. Noble, T. Salamon, A. J. Truscott, G. Landsmann

A High Temperature Floating Gate MOSFET Driver for on the Engine Injector Control

This paper presents a High Temperature Floating Gate MOSFET Driver ASIC for on-the-engine Injector Control. The circuit was specifically designed for this harsh environment and has been realized using Silicon-on-Insulator (SOI) Technology. The first section describes the operation of the system sub-blocks: low- and high-side drivers, the current sense and the fault detector. In the second section, measurements show the proper operation of the circuit up to 225°C.

P. Delatte, V. Dessard, G. Picún, O. Stevens, L. Demeûs

Comfort and HMI

Frontmatter

Distributed Pressure Sensor Based on Electroactive Materials for Automotive Application

The development of distributed pressure sensors based on conducting polymers for automotive application is described. These pressure sensors can be placed on large surfaces due to its flexibility and low cost. As a consequence, pressure data are obtained not only from some discrete points but also from continuous surface points. 256 of these sensors have been placed on an automotive seat, giving the so-called “smart automotive seat”. These sensors are able to provide information about the person on the seat (adult, child, size, weight, etc.). This information can be used by the central electronic system in the vehicle for activation and modulation (or deactivate if necessary) of security systems (airbag, seat belt’s prestress system, etc.). Response time is lower than 2 milliseconds, and it works in pressure ranges of 0.05–10 kg/cm

2

, showing a lifetime of more than 10 millions of actuations.

E. Ochoteco, J. A. Pomposo, H. Grande, F. Martinez, G. Obieta, J. Lezama, J.M. Iriondo

Intelligent Infrared Comfort Sensors for the Automotive Environment

We will discuss the advantages of contact-less infrared thermometers as main sensor in automotive climate control systems and address the practical considerations one should take into account when developing such a system. In order to offer a price competitive solution with the more commonly known aspirated thermistor sensor, Melexis developed an integrated infrared thermometer targeted at size reduction, improved ease of installation, multi zone temperature control and cost improvement. The features of this new product are highlighted. Furthermore we discuss the functional and reliability requirements that have to be met by automotive infrared sensors and how these requirements are met in a modern sensor design. Finally, we show the results of the development of low cost infrared array sensors for next generation air-conditioning systems in combination with safety applications.

Luc Buydens, Victor Kassovsky, Roger Diels

Gesture Recognition Using Novel Efficient and Robust 3D Image Processing

Hand gestures as a natural form for communication have attracted many research efforts. In this paper we present a hand-gesture control system for drivers or passengers based on a new generation of a 3D imaging sensor, which generates both a grey image and a range image of the scene. In this gesture recognition system, we take the hand as one entity, and only the 3D position or the trajectory of the hand centroid is interesting for the system. The advantages of the proposed system over other gesture recognition techniques are its robust and real-time recognition, effective suppression of background illumination, and no need of additional devices or markers to be attached. As a driver assistance system, the proposed gesture-recognition system is natural, robust, efficient and practical.

B. Liu, T. Sünkel, O. Jesorsky, R. Kompe, J. Hornegger

Network of Excellence HUMANIST - Human Centred Design for Information Society Technologies INRETS & ERT

HUMANIST in a Network of Excellence gathering the main research institutions from 15 European countries. The partners involved in this network are working in the area of new technologies in Transport:, with a specific concern on human centred design, to ensure matching between provided systems and services, and users needs and requirements, in addition to concern with road safety improvement.

Annie Pauzié

Networked Vehicle

Frontmatter

High Speed 1Gbit/s Video Transmission with Fiber Optic Technology

We demonstrate a 1 Gbit/s video transmission over up to 15 m of polymer cladded silica (PCS) optical fiber using high speed fiber optic transceiver (FOT) technology. The video link consists of a camera with an electrical S800 LVDS interface and a high resolution monitor. A pair of fiber optic cable connects the two ports replacing and extending the regular electrical cable. In contrast to the electrical cable the optical fiber is thin, light weight, and highly flexible. The high power budget margin of the link allows 3 in-line connectors for the 10–15 m link length. For other applications a longer link length is feasible using higher bandwidth optical fiber.

Torsten Wipiejewski, F. Ho, W. Hung, S. Cheng, E. Wong, St. Ng, W. Ma, Th. Choi, G. Egnisaban, K. Yau, T. Mangente

Components and Generic Sensor Technologies

Frontmatter

Integrated Giant Magneto Resistors — a new Sensor Technology for Automotive Applications

The paper will give an introduction to the principle of the giant magneto resistive — GMR — effect and the silicon system integration of GMR sensors. The two main applications of a GMR are as a magnetic field strength sensor and as an angular field direction sensor. They will be discussed under consideration of automotive requirements.

The typical applications of a magnetic field strength GMR sensor in incremental position and speed sensing and those of GMR angular field sensors in position sensing will be summarized. Finally advantages of GMR in those applications will be discussed and conclusions on the use of GMR in automotive sensing will be drawn.

Werner Rössler, Jürgen Zimmer, Thomas Bever, Klemens Prügl, Wolfgang Granig, Dirk Hammerschmidt, E. Katzmaier

Simulating Microsystems in the Context of an Automotive Drive Application

The opportunities to integrate more and more functionality into a (micro)system-in-a-package (SiP) heavily call for advanced methodologies in modeling and simulation for complete systems. For a microelectronics company like Infineon Technologies, the top-level simulation of our products, i.e. the above microsystems, is not a niceto-have feature — it is a must! Iterating on the fabrication runs for design debugging simply is not feasible. Extending these simulations to application level can be accomplished and this paper shows how. An automotive drive application will serve as a demonstrator for that.

Georg Pelz, Christian Decker, Dieter Metzner, Dirk Dammers, Lars M. Voßkämper

Miniaturized Wireless Sensors for Automotive Applications

Innovative packaging technologies and power aware design enable system shrinking considering automotive requirements. During the design process the coupling of very narrow positioned components and the interdependence of hardware, software, and packaging have to be considered. The relevant miniaturisation aspects are discussed on the exemplary application of a tire pressure monitoring system.

R. Thomasius, D. D. Polityko, H. Reichl, M. Niedermayer, S. Grundmann, S. Guttowski, R. Achterholt

3D-MID — Multifunctional Packages for Sensors in Automotive Applications

The MID (molded interconnect devices) technology provides selective metallization in three dimensions on injection molded thermoplastic substrates and housings. Different technologies can be used to metallize plastic parts. Automotive applications for MID technology are pressure and flow sensors for engine management, air conditioning and crash detection. MR (magnetoresistive) sensors precisely positioned in MID packages are used for motion and position detection. MID provides 3D-positioning of laser diodes and LED’s (light emitting diodes) for applications varying from lighting to “adaptive cruise control”. Tip switches e.g. for steering wheel can be realized on 3D-MID structures. They require reduced space and allow therefore the integration of more electronic functions.

David Moser, Jens Krause

PReVENT

Frontmatter

Towards the Automotive HMI of the Future: Mid-Term Results of the AIDE Project

AIDE is an integrated project funded by the EC in the 6

th

Framework Programme. The project, which involves 30 partners including all major European vehicle manufacturers, deals with behavioural and technical issues related to automotive human-machine interface (HMI) design, with a particular focus on HMI integration and adaptation. The project involves tightly integrated empirical research, driver behaviour modelling and methodological- as well technological development. This paper provides an overview of the mid-term results achieved about half-way through the four-year project.

Johan Engström, Jan Arfwidsson, Angelos Amditis, Luisa Andreone, Klaus Bengler, Pietro Carlo Cacciabue, Wiel Janssen, Holger Kußmann, Florence Nathan

Accidentology as a Basis for Requirements and System Architecture of Preventive Safety Applications

PReVENT takes a first comprehensive step towards realising the vision of a safety zone around vehicles by means of complementary safety functions. The most critical accident scenarios are covered by the applications developed. The integration aspects of the project demonstrate a number of different applications on one platform and making a seamless time to collision horizon from tens of seconds down to zero. Due to the multi-causal nature of accidents and a certain randomness, safety systems with continuous alert and early warning are needed. The foundation for requirements are laid in the analysis of driver behaviour and accidents, followed by a definition of functions needed from a vehicle to prevent the accident from happening or mitigating its consequences. The requirements database was created and requirements were classified into six main categories. A common PReVENT architecture is presented and highlighted with a detailed description of a sub-project focusing on lateral safety applications.

Matthias Schulze, Joachim Irion, Tapani Mäkinen, Maxime Flament

ADAS Horizon — How Digital Maps can contribute to Road Safety

The paper introduces the ADAS Horizon concept and the first results from MAPS&ADAS project (PReVENT IP) of a standardized interface between ADAS applications and digital map data. As a predictive sensor called ADAS Horizon, in-vehicle digital maps are an important source of information providing look-ahead capability for ADAS applications and providing further information for on-board sensors to enhance environment perception. Therefore digital maps have large potential for road safety to enhance or enable preventive and active safety applications by extending driver horizon.

Vincent Blervaque, K. Mezger, L. Beuk, J. Loewenau

Intersection Safety — the EC Project INTERSAFE

In the 6

th

Framework Program of the European Commission, the Integrated Project PReVENT includes Intersection Safety. The INTERSAFE project was created to generate a European Approach to increase the safety at intersections. The project started on the 1st of February 2004 and will end in January 2007.

The main objective of the INTERSAFE project is to

improve safety and to reduce (in the long term avoid) fatal collisions at Intersections

In order to identify the most relevant scenarios for accident prevention, a detailed accident analysis was carried out. Based on the scenarios and the driver mistakes derived from the accident analysis a basic functionality is described. It considers for example the time budget, which is available in order to warn the driver.

The importance of these accidents leads to a deeper analysis of the scenarios. An in depth analysis of available data from reconstructed accidents in France and Germany show the central position of especially two accident types:

Collisions with oncoming traffic while turning left and

Collisions with crossing traffic while turning into or straight crossing an intersection.

Additionally the importance of the actual right of way regulati0References leads to the consideration of traffic light controlled intersections. The specification of the key technology components like sensors and communication technologies will be derived from the given requirements. Altogether, about 60% — 72% of all accidents in intersections are covered directly by the selection of these three scenarios. The possible coverage of other comparable accidents needs further investigations. This paper will describe the INTERSAFE approach of intersection safety and discuss the functionality to avoid fatal accidents at intersections for the chosen scenarios in detail.

Bernd Rössler, Kay Fuerstenberg, U. Lages

ProFusion2 — towards a Modular, Robust and Reliable Fusion Architecture for Automotive Environment Perception

This publication focuses on a modular architecture for sensor data fusion regarding to research work of common interest related to sensors and sensor data fusion. This architecture will be based on an extended environment model and representation, consisting of a set of common data structures for sensor, object and situation refinement data and algorithms as well as the corresponding models. The aim of such research is to contribute to a measurable enhancement of the output performance provided by multi-sensor systems in terms of actual availability, reliability, accuracy and precision of the perception results. In this connection, investigations towards fusion concepts and paradigms, such as ‘redundant’ and ‘complementary’, as well as ‘early’ and track-based sensor data fusion approaches, are conducted, in order to significantly enhance the overall performance of the perception system.

Thomas Tatschke, Su-Birm Park, Angelos Amditis, Aristomenis Polychronopoulos, Ullrich Scheunert, Olivier Aycard

Integrating Lateral and Longitudinal Active and Preventive Safety Functions

Automotive safety functions are divided, on one hand, into passive and active safety according to a time factor before an accident or a critical situation could occur; on the other hand, they focus on single slices around the intelligent vehicle, even if more and more sensors are added to improve system accuracy. The paper proposes new integrated functions under INSAFES sub-project of PReVENT merging and harmonizing lateral and longitudinal support functions, collision mitigation protective functions and road users’ protection systems. The advantage of INSAFES that is shown in the paper is that all functions share the same system resources — sensors and perception units — and trigger a given set of actuators and HMI controllers in order to communicate with the driver or intervene. The proposed system will be integrated and demonstrated in a passenger car and a truck.

A. Amditis, A. Polychronopoulos, A. Sjögren, A. Beutner, M. Miglietta, A. Saroldi

Lane Detection for a Situation Adaptive Lane keeping Support System, the SAFELANE System

The goal of the SAFELANE project is to develop a situation-adaptive system for enhanced lane keeping support. A prerequisite for lane keeping is reliable information of the vehicle environment. Especially the vehicle position within the lane and the course of the road ahead is important. This information is provided by the lane detection component. The lane tracker is mainly vision based but it is also supplemented by map, positioning and vehicle data. A high dynamic range camera provides the processing unit with image data. Measurement points of lane borders, calculated by a robust edge detection algorithm, are used to estimate a 3D clothoid model of the lane. A new approach for getting an initial lane model is introduced which can be dynamically adapted from map and positioning data. The detection is extended to the neighbour lanes and a lane markings type classifying component is added.

Nikolaus Möhler, Dietrich John, Marina Voigtländer

Backmatter

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