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Microsystems are an important success factor in the automobile industry. In order to fulfil the customers requests for safety convenience and vehicle economy, and to satisfy environmental requirements, microsystems are becoming indispensable. Thus a large number of microsystem applications came into the discussion. Some examples are sensors for engine management, exhaust and air quality control, immobilizers, ABS, anti skid (ASC) and vehicle dynamics control (VDC), smart airbag systems and other safety applications as obstacle detection and vision enhancement. With the international conference AMAA '98, VDI/VDE-IT provides a platform for the discussion of all MST relevant components for automotive applications. The conference proceedings gather the papers by authors from automobile suppliers and manufacturers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Oral presentations

A Sensor for Crash Severity and Side Impact Detection

This paper describes a crash detection sensor developed for use in two difficult crash discrimination situations: side impact and crash severity sensing. By changing the calibration of the unit during manufacturing, the unit can function as either a side or frontal impact sensor. Furthermore, the sensor can characterize the severity of the crash event and pass the information to a central restraint system control module. The entire sensor, which is composed of a micromachined accelerometer, a custom integrated circuit, and a microprocessor, is contained in a small, rugged module that is designed to be mounted near the impact zone.

D. Rich, W. Kosiak, G. Manlove, S. V. Potti, D. Schwarz

Peripheral Acceleration Sensor for Side Airbag

For a side airbag system it is necessary to measure the acceleration caused by a side crash within a time of less than 3 ms in order to inflate the side airbag in time.

G. Bischopink, B. Maihöfer, D. Ullmann, M. Schöfthaler, J. Seibold, J. Marek

Future Applications of Microsystem Technologies in Automotive Safety Systems

Since there is a strong demand for more intelligence in automotive safety systems, more information on additional parameters will be obtained by the electronics. This needs numerous electronic subsystems equipped with various kinds of sensors in order to obtain additional input on the crash environment. Microsystem technology will play an even more important role in the realization of these forthcoming tasks. The paper will present the application of advanced microsystems in future components of an entire airbag control system.

Peter Steiner, Stefan M. Schwehr

Situation Appropriate Airbag Deployment: Child Seat Presence and Orientation Detection (CPOD)

In the last years, the auto industry has grown increasingly aware of the potential dangers of passenger airbag deployments, especially for children placed in a child seat. As a solution to this problem, IEE has developped the CPOD system, based on its already hugely successful Passenger Presence Detection (PPD) sensor foil.IEE’s CPOD system is divided into two components: the transmitting and receiving antenna loops, integrated in the passenger seat, and a resonator circuit fitted in the socket of the child seat. The need for extremely low radiation and a cost-effective system has led to a very basic antenna structure, which consists of single-loop coils printed on the existing PPD sensor mat. Weak electromagnetic fields (emitted by the transmitting antenna) are used to establish a communication between the resonators and the processing electronics as well as to supply energy to the low-power resonator circuitry. Using both the information encoded in the received signals and their intensity, the processing electronics are able to take a decision on the presence, orientation and type of a child seat. Thanks to the redundancy and the multiple modulation of the transmitted information, the necessary reliability and interference immunity for a system which controls airbag deployment behaviour is obtained.Future developments will integrate an Occupant Classification into IEE’s sensor foil to offer even more parameters to modulate airbag deployment.

Thierry Goniva

Rollover Sensing (ROSE)

In order to prevent fatalities or serious injuries caused by rollover situations, Bosch has developed a system to detect these situations and initiate proper actions. To understand the need of this function, it is necessary to look at some statistical facts, which underline the importance of a rollover sensing device.Taking into account different rollover types, the question appears: What physical unit describes the roll motion best ? After careful considerations, Bosch made the conclusion to prefer the angular rate concept. The advantages and disadvantages are shown and the physical principle of the algorithm is explained.To compensate inaccuracies of angular rate sensors, acceleration sensors are implemented. They can take over, when the main sensors fail or do not show plausible results.For the simulation of different rollover scenarios Bosch applies the multibody method in an overall environment of modeling, verifying, validating and visualizing tools.

Gerhard Mehler, Bernhard Mattes, Michael Henne, Hans-Peter Lang, Walter Wottreng

Yaw Rate Sensor in Silicon Micromachining Technology for Automotive Applications

A new generation of yaw rate sensor with a linear acceleration sensor, both based on silicon micromachining, is presented. The sensor is designed for mass production and high performance applications like the Vehicle Dynamic Control System VDC. For the yaw rate sensor a combination of surface and bulk micromachining is used. The linear acceleration sensor is build in surface micromachining. Both measuring elements and the ASIC are assembled on a hybrid. This leads to an advantage in design, signal evaluation and packaging. The designs of the measuring elements, the assembly, the interface and the characterization results of the current device are presented.

W. Golderer, M. Lutz, J. Gerstenmeier, J. Marek, B. Maihöfer, S. Mahler, H. Münzel, U. Bischof

AWARE A Collision Warning and Avoidance Radar System

The project Anticollision, Warning and Avoidance Radar Equipment, AWARE, will develop a high performance on-board vehicle system for forward looking Collision Warning and Avoidance, CW/A.

Henrik Lind, Andrea Saroldi, Magnus Kamel, Gerard Delaval

Multifunctional Radar Sensor for Vehicle Dynamics Control Systems

Important aspects in future automotive concepts are comfort, reduced energy consumption and particularly improved safety. To optimize these points a precise sensing of the vehicle parameters and the environmental conditions is necessary. For example the velocity of a vehicle, the tilt angle, the height above ground and especially for active distance control and for autonomous driving the road condition have to be known. Well suited to carry out these tasks are radar sensors in the millimeter wave range. However, separate sensors for each purpose are uneconomic. Thus the merging of such sensor types to one multifunctional sensor system is needed. Fig. 1.1. illustrates the impact of the measured parameters on vehicular control systems.

M. Wollitzer, J. Büchler, J.-F. Luy, U. Siart, J. Detlefsen

Forward Looking 2- dimensional Laser Radar for ACC-Systems

In the adaptive cruise control system, the scanning laser radar is widely used to detect the preceding car even on the winding road. The conventional scanning laser radar scans only horizontally, utilizing a fan beam which is horizontally narrow and vertically wide. Since the conventional system scans only horizontally, it has the following drawback: To detect the preceding car even on the highway with up/down hill, it is necessary to utilize a vertically wide fan beam. Therefore, while the car is traveling on a flat road, the scanning laser radar may detect the objects above the road, such as traffic signs, guideboards and bridges etc., in stead of the preceding cars.To overcome this drawback, we have developed 2-dimensional laser beam scanner with a rotating polygon mirror. Using this laser beam scanner, we have realized the new 2-dimensional scanning laser radar system characterized in that it has six lines raster scan by vertically and horizontally narrow beam.By this system, it is made possible to differentiate the preceding cars from the objects above the road as well as to detect the preceding car even on the highway with up/down hill.

Takeshi Matsui

Surface Micromachined Sensors for Vehicle Navigation Systems

Today, most vehicle navigation systems use a GPS receiver as the primary source of information to calculate position. While the systems have become increasingly accurate in generating coordinates under ideal conditions of operation, it is a widely acknowledged fact, and studies have shown, that such systems can become highly unreliable in urban environments. Recently, much work has been accomplished and many solutions have been proposed to improve accuracy and minimize problems associated with poor signal reception. Nevertheless, dead reckoning relying on inertial navigation has become the de facto back up method to generate position in the absence of GPS signals. Together with gyroscopes which are an intrinsic part of such inertial navigation systems, accelerometers are now being considered for the function of measuring velocity, one of the requirements of dead reckoning. Recent progress in the development of Integrated MicroElectro Mechanical Systems (iMEMS) using surface micromachining technology are now enabling new form factors and price points for this function. In this paper, we introduce the concept of dead reckoning and its requirements, describe the process of surface micromachining and propose a cost effective solution for velocity measurement in an inertial navigation system with the use of the ADXL202, a low-cost, low-g dual axis accelerometer from Analog Devices.

Christophe Lemaire, Bob Sulouff

MEMS: The New Challenge for the Electronic Design Automation Vendors

Mechanical and electronic designs are very tightly linked in the automotive world. Each electronic device is a part of an electrical-mechanical system or sub-system. Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) bring this link to the integration scale. The use of MEMS has the potential of a significative cost reduction, which, together with increased performance requirements and possible new function capabilities, is at the source of the current interest on their increasing use in the automotive industry.

J. M. Karam, J. Oudinot, Dirk Backhaus, Ariel Cao, Joël Alanis Rodriguez

The Smart Image Sensor Toolbox for Automotive Vision Applications

Advances in semiconductor fabrication technology have made it possible to co-integrate analog and digital circuitry in each “smart” pixel of an image sensor. As a consequence, a wide range of functionality modules can be realized. Their collection represents the smart image sensor toolbox, with which custom image sensors can be tailored to an application. Many types of automotive imaging and vision problems can be solved successfully with the smart image sensor toolbox, among them high-dynamic-range imaging, low-cost color imaging, range or 3D imaging, high-speed imaging, as well as low-cost single-chip vision systems.

Peter Seitz

A Low Cost Image Processing Device for Blind Spot Monitoring

Preventive safety is a topic where car manufacturers will spend a great amount of research effort in the next years. In the Vision Laboratory of FIAT Research Centre a specific sensor has been developed to cope with this argument in an innovative manner. The device, named Blind Spot Monitoring Sensor, is based on a CCD micro-camera and on a very compact image processing unit; the provided support function consists on the activation of a suitable warning indication when overtaking vehicles, moving in the “blind zone”, are detected by the system. The described sensor, that improves significantly safety and comfort during overtaking manoeuvres, shows two fundamental characteristics for an automotive device: high performance and low cost. The processing unit of the system has been specifically designed and developed; it is based on a single electronic board, with a PCB size of 80 × 40 mm. and uses, as “core processor”, a popular (and inexpensive) MCU. Blind Spot Monitoring Sensor has been installed on different prototype vehicles; the paper describes the developed sensor and some functional evaluations, performed in real traffic and weather conditions, using the equipped vehicles.

G. Burzio, G. Vivo, E. Lupo

Continuous Parallel Analogue Image Processing Using Time Discrete Sampling

Image processing systems for special purposes gain high performance by executing standardised operations such as filtering or edge extraction on specific chips. The architecture of the presented chip set is the starting point for a massively parallel image processing directly coupled to the image acquisition in space as well as in time domain. The presented architecture reduces the necessary bandwidth for signal transmission and allows a small and power saving module to be integrated in the camera system without the heavy power and chip size load associated with fully focal plane integrated approaches [1,2].

U. Apel, H.-G. Graf, B. Höfflinger, U. Regensburger, U. Seger

High Dynamic Range Image Sensors in Thin Film on ASIC Technology for Automotive Applications

TFA (Thin Film on ASIC) image sensors consist of an amorphous silicon based optical detector on top of an ASIC which performs signal readout and signal processing. In this paper recent results on TFA prototypes are presented. The detector multilayer was deposited by PECVD (Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition) in a cluster deposition system, whereas for the ASIC a standard 0.7 μm CMOS process was employed. Focus is put on two locally adaptive sensor arrays that allow the control of sensitivity for each pixel individually. These types of sensors are ideally suited for automotive vision systems, since they do not exhibit certain disadvantages inherent to devices using logarithmic data compression or global sensitivity control and image fusion. Moreover, the reduced chip size of vertically integrated TFA devices leads to a significant reduction of manufacturing costs in comparison to CMOS imagers. In addition to the locally adaptive arrays simpler devices with global sensitivity control and a concept for color recognition in TFA devices are discussed.

M. Böhm, F. Blecher, A. Eckhardt, B. Schneider, S. Benthien, H. Keller, T. Lulé, P. Rieve, M. Sommer, R. C. Lind, L. Humm, M. Daniels, N. Wu, H. Yen, U. Efron

A Wide Dynamic Range CMOS Stereo Camera

Novel automotive applications, like automatic car park systems, time-to-crash sensors or autonomous driving systems require an accurate measurement of the environment around the vehicle. Distances to other vehicles and objects have to be known precisely. Stereo vision systems can be used to solve these problems. But high requirements are posted to the stereo camera as well as to the image processing unit. The image sensor has to deal with large variations in operation conditions, like illumination and temperature. The image processing unit needs a lot of computing power: a lot of correlation calculations are necessary to solve the two-dimensional matching problem between both images.

Guy Meynants, Bart Dierickx, Danny Scheffer, Jan Vlummens

Computer Vision Suitable for Vehicle Applications

This paper presents hard- and software components for robust environment acquisition and interpretation for vehicle applications. In particular a high dynamic range CMOS image sensor was designed. For the consecutive processing, analogue image preprocessing units were developed. In addition an image generating radar was realised and evaluated. It is based on the frequency of 77GHz. The above introduced sensors serve as a basis for further environment analysis. Different approaches for object detection and tracking based on radar, grey-scale and colour images are presented. All these methods were developed with a potential analogue implementation in mind. A fusion of video and radar information was performed to increase the reliability of object recognition. The feasibility of the vision sensor suitable for vehicle applications was successfully demonstrated within the application ‘truck platooning’.

U. Regensburger, R. Ott, W. Platz, G. Wanielik, N. Appenrodt

Optical Detector System for Water, Sludge and Ice

Precise knowledge of the current road conditions concerning water, sludge and ice would improve overall vehicle safety considerably. Furthermore it will improve the performance of several systems as ABS, anti skid (ASC) and vehicle dynamics control (VDC). For adaptive cruise control (ACC) it even might turn out to be crucial.

T. W. Huth-Fehre, F. Kowol, M. Bläsner

Engine Management System for Direct Injection Gasoline Engine

The need to protect the earth’s environment has created a strong trend to improve fuel economy in automobiles. A promising technique to increase engine output while improving fuel economy in gasoline engines is the use of direct injection technology. Due to lean combustion, direct injection engines have less pumping and heat losses. This increases the engine’s efficiency and thus improves the fuel economy. The use of direct injection technology also makes it possible to increase the engine’s specific power output. This can be achieved, because the low charge temperature improves both volumetric and anti-knocking performance.

Hideyuki Tamura

Integration of Electronic Control Units in Modern Transmission Systems

This paper intends to highlight the difficulties and marginal conditions that have to be considered, when electronic control units are to be integrated into a modern transmission system. It discusses the environmental conditions inside an automatic transmission and shows how they, along with other aspects, influence the decision of where to locate a mechatronic module. The paper also illustrates an application of modern assembly and connection technologies for integrating sensors and actuators into a module on a macro level. The implementation of a testing and calibration procedure into the production process is outlined. Finally, the need for new development techniques and for new forms of cooperation is explained.

R. Ingenbleek, G. Birkenmaier, G. Horsak

New High-Temperature Sensors for Innovative Engine Management

Requirements on future vehicles are reduction of energy consumption and emissions. To fulfil these, an optimization of the combustion process including all relevant parameters is necessary and therefore parameter field based control systems have to be replaced by closed loop regulating circuits. To realize the latter in series applications, new types of sensors designed for high temperatures and harsh environments have to be developed. The present paper describes the development of a combustion pressure sensor based on cubic Silicon Carbide (β-SiC) layers on Silicon. Results of in-cylinder measurements will be given in comparison to a Kistler reference sensor. SiC technology based on the hexagonal 4H and 6H polytypes we are developing for integrated signal electronics. The latter is needed for smart sensors and independently operating modules, applied in harsh environments. JFET transistors, which are the basis for monolithic circuit design, will be described and I-V-characteristics measured at elevated temperatures up to 400°C will be given.

G. Krötz, W. Wondrak, M. Eickhoff, V. Lauer, E. Obermeier, G. Cavalloni

Automotive High-Pressure Sensor

Recently, a need for detecting high pressure range in electrical automotive systems using oil air and refrigerant media has increased. A high-pressure sensor with simple structure and high reliability is desired.This report describes the development of simple high- pressure sensor which has new structure fitting up oil in the pressure detecting part and oil sealing approach using resin and plastic instead of metal and glass. In additional, using metal diaphragm in the surface of pressure media this sensor can apply to various pressure media and electrical automotive systems. And integrating a pressure sensing element and electric parts for example amplifier, into one chip semiconductor element, the high reliability was achieved.

Takeshi Matsui

A New Sensor for Continuous Measurement of Fuel Injection Rate and Quantity During Diesel Engine Operation

For further improvement of emissions and performance of diesel engines, it is necessary to improve the control of the injection system. It is particularly desirable to control injection rate, injection quantity and injection timing during each working cycle of a cylinder. In present conventional fuel injection systems [1] the control of injection quantity and timing depends on the mechanical setting of the fuel injection pump. This method, however, lacks control accuracy, since there is no feedback signal that allows to account for system operation variations due to tolerances and wear of the involved mechanical parts.

Oliver Berberig, Kay Nottmeyer, Takao Iwasaki, Hayato Maehara, Takashi Kobayashi

Measurement of Physical Parameters of Car Tires Using Passive SAW Sensors

A new type of sensors based on surface acoustic wave devices are introduced. The sensor elements are totally passive and are only connected to an antenna. The readout is performed wirelessly via a radio link. The sensors are characterized by high thermal, mechanical and electromagnetic loadability and nearly unlimited lifetime. Affecting the sensors with the measurand a lot of physical parameters can be measured without wired connection. The application of these new elements for measurements in cars focused to the tires are discussed. The hardware required and examples for application in automotive industry are presented.

Alfred Pohl, Leonhard Reindl

A Rotary Position Sensor System for Automotive Applications

Electronic components have been playing an important role in motor vehicle applications for already more than two decades, with growing demands on system components like high resolution position sensors over the last several years. This paper will give an example from a sensor supplier’s point of view, depicting a non-contacting rotary position sensor concept which will replace some of the standard, resistor based potentiometric sensors in future applications. Starting with a brief look at the conventional potentiometer, the paper will bridge the gap to a modern sensor system. It is based on a magnetoresistive microsensor front-end, combined with a special two-dimensional signal evaluation. This non-contacting sensor is destined for motor vehicle applications, designed to meet improved specifications in terms of performance, reliability and cost.

Dieter Schödlbauer

Saw and IDC Devices as Oil Quality Sensors

Mechanical machinery has to be lubricated by oil. Lubricating oil loses its capability of protecting the metal surface during its application. This will lead to failures like wear, stiction, seizure, erosion and corrosion. To maintain for example a combustion engine of a car in good condition an oil change is necessary after a given number of kilometers. But maybe at that time the lubricating oil is still able to protect the engine and a change just means an additional economical and ecological load. Or even worse it is too late for the oil change and the engine is damaged seriously. To avoid both cases you have to perform oil analysis.

Anton Leidl, Bernhard Mader, Stephan Drost

Poster Presentations

A New Silicon Rate Gyroscope with Decoupled Oscillation Modes

HSG-IMIT is developing a new silicon rate gyroscope of very small size, low cost, and high performance. The device is called MARS-RR, which means Micromachined Angular Rate Sensor with twoRotary oscillation modes. First prototypes, MARS-RR1 yielded random walk and bias stability as low as 0.27 deg/✓h and 65 deg/h, respectively. The noise equivalent rate (3 σ) corresponds to a resolution of 0.096 deg/s in a 50 Hz bandwidth.

W. Geiger, B. Folkmer, M. Kieninger, J. Merz, H. Förstermann, H. Sandmaier, W. Lang

Miniaturized Crash Test System

Kayser-Threde has been manufacturing crash test data acquisition systems since 1976. The demands on such systems have steadily risen over the years, especially on the number of channels available. The Kayser-Threde engineers have continuously implemented state-of-the-art technology to increase, initially, the number of channels for measuring systems from 32 to 78, and then, at the end of the Eighties, to over 100 without modifying the size (approx. 430 × 150 × 150 [mm]) or weight (approx. 20 kg). These measuring units, models K3600 and MDS-64, can only be extended by combining several basic systems. The problem is that all automobile companies now offer compact, maneuverable town cars with limited trunk space which restricts the usage of existing measuring systems. Apart from that, the trunk space is often filled with actual luggage during many research and development tests in order to simulate real conditions and this space is then no longer available for measuring equipment.

Gerhard Haas

Microelectronic Technologies for Automotives

Microelectronic modules for the automotive industry have to adhere to stringent requirements in terms of resistance to various climatic conditions. This results in certain conditions that have to be met by the packaging and interconnection technology as an important interdisciplinary part of the microsystems. To fulfill the ever more stringent quality requirements, the trend is towards modules linked up in networks. The demand for higher reliability, functionality, performance, and miniaturization with a concurrent reduction in costs requires a new type of integration, which can be achieved by the combination of mechanical and electronic components into one unit. At the same time there is an integration of electronics, actuators, sensors, switches and controllers into sub-systems, which are connected to control units for engines, transmission, brakes, etc. These trends have important implications for the packaging and interconnection technologies for microelectronic modules for automotive applications. Thick-film or hybrid circuit consist of screen printed layers of conductive, dielectric, or resistive materials on an alumina substrate. These layers are applied in form of an ink or paste, are subsequently dried and sintered at high temperatures, where they form a strong bond with the alumina substrate. Thus a double-sided substrate with multilayers and integrated resistors is obtained, to which housed components can be soldered and naked dice can be bonded. These dice are covered by epoxy adhesive, or a so-called glob top, to avoid damage to the dice or bond wires.

Daniel J. Jendritza, Jürgen Engbring, Peter Sommerfeld

Europractice Competence Center No 1 Microsystems for Automotive Applications and Physical Measurement Systems

Microsystems are today key components for many industrial, consumer and medical products and systems, and their necessesity for the realisation of competetive products in various market segments is growing continously. MST or MEMS is on the way to be a multi-billion ECU world activity. But R&D and production in Microsystem technology (MST) or MEMS, especially the set up of qualified fabrication processes is costly and time consuming.

W. Riethmüller, B. Wenk, R. Dudde, J. F. Clerc

Microtechnologies - The Alternative for Automotive Applications Concerning Economic, Technical and Quality Aspects

Especially in automotive industries information systems grow up. In former times speed, perhaps temperature and concerning only sport cars revolution measurement were of interest for the driver. Nowadays, the driver is the chief of (self working) Management Systems like ABS, ASR, ESP or Air-Bag. Motor Management, Climate control and Navigation systems are the challenges for the next years. The new technological trends in measurement techniques concerning chip and sensor technologies are well suited for automotive applications with their specific requirements as low material costhigh productivityhigh automatic productionhigh level of quality control.

Johannes Herrnsdorf, Dirk Enderlein

Technology and Process Approval Cut Down the Costs for Semiconductor in the Automotive Environment - ES 59001 the Brandnew European Specification for Semiconductors for Automotive Applications

The object of the CENELEC Electronic Components Comitee (CECC) is the System for electronic components of assessed quality and provides European Standards for electronic components which are used all over the world. With the new specification ES 59001 “Approval scheme for automotive oriented applications within the electronic components industry - Semiconductor stress test qualification” most advanced quality assessment procedures have been established by the Automotive User Group of CECC for all kind of semiconductor devices for the automotive environment. Members of the Automotive User Group are the European Car Manufacturer and their major suppliers. This new specification combines “Technology Approval” the most advanced quality assessment procedure worldwide with the specific automotive oriented requirements.

Arno Bergmann

Application of Gas Sensor for Air Damper Control Systems in Automobiles

Recently, the demand for the application of an Automatic Air Damper Control System in automobiles has been expanding. In this system; composed of one or two gas sensors and a signal processing software, it is important to detect incoming gasoline and diesel exhaust gases from other cars sensibly and reliably. However, conventionally used tin oxide (SnO2) based semiconductor gas sensors have high sensitivity to reducing gases (e.g. CO, HC) but are effected by the presence of oxidizing gases (e.g. NOX). Since the contents of reducing gas in diesel exhaust is relatively lower compared with gasoline exhaust, it is more difficult to detect diesel exhaust from low concentration ranges.

Nobuaki Murakami, Mitsuharu Kira

Protectionsystems for Car Passengers by Surveillance of the Airquality

The increasing air-pollution through traffic makes it neccessary to develop new, reliable airconditioning systems for the in-car air-cleaning. Therefore it’s not only important to regulate the air insight a car, but also to control the air-supply from the outside. A conventional type of SnO2 gassensor can detect the unburned components of gasoline, but doesn’t respond to exhaust from diesel-engines, which are usually most disturbing for humans. The evaluation of many different materials has shown, that WO3-gassensors are most effective for the detection of diesel-exhaust. Systems using this sensor are currently tested in various studies. The signal-characteristics are in good relationship with the estimated concentrations of diesel-exhaust and can be calculated with various algorhythms. Systems using a combination of SnO2 and WO3 sensors can reliably detect pollutions and supply a signal for closing the damper-flap of the air-inlet.

Christian Voit

Emerging Assembly Technology for Automotive Applications

Emerging assembly technology include both flip chip and chip scale packaging. Both of them provide excellent capabilities to fulfill the needs of today’s and tomorrow’s requirements in automotive applications. These products must withstand high temperature, vibrations, wear and abuse.

Katrin Heinricht, Joachim Kloeser, Kai Kutzner, Liane Lauter, Rolf Aschenbrenner, Herbert Reichl

Surveillance of the Air-Quality in the Passenger Cabin of Cars

Beside measuring the environmental air-quality for the autodamper-control of a car, the inside air-quality in the passenger cabin can be measured as well by using gassensors. With this information, appropriate filters and air-supply from the outside, a good inside air-quality can be ensured.

Christian Voit

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