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2022 | Buch

Advanced Oxidation Processes in Dye-Containing Wastewater

Volume 1

herausgegeben von: Dr. Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu, Dr. Ali Khadir

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Buchreihe: Sustainable Textiles: Production, Processing, Manufacturing & Chemistry


Über dieses Buch

Among various industries releasing wastewater into the environment, printing, dyeing and textile industries are of great importance as they frequently contain high amounts of colorful compounds having high chemical and biological oxygen demands. Health related effects of colorants are extensively reported; which necessitates the seriousness of dye removal from water and wastewater. The utilization of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) in dye degradation has gained considerable attention recently due to the release of high energetic radicals as oxidants that are capable of removing dye compounds. This Volume 1 presents versatile applications of AOPs in dye removal. Accordingly, processes such as Ozone-based AOPs, UV irradiation, catalytic AOPs, etc are discussed with the aim of dye removal under different operational parameters. The role of different nanoparticles is also investigated. By presenting the fundamentals of AOPs as well as recent advances, this book is useful for environmental engineers and chemists who are concerned with wastewater pollution and treatment.


Fundamental of Advanced Oxidation Processes
Today’s most concerning situation is wastewater releasing from printing, dyeing, and textile industries. It contains reactive dye residuals, harmful chemicals, and many inorganic and organic pollutants. Pre-treatment of these pollutants is very important before release. For the treatment of these pollutants, the use of biotechnology with highly concentrated organic and inorganic chemicals is more difficult. So, there is a need for an alternative for it, which has the ability to degrade this non-biodegradable pollutant. The application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) is a sustainable solution. In AOPs, there is the formation of radical specifically hydroxyl radical (OH) which is an excellent oxidant. Nowadays, the use of AOPs is started in many places for the treatment of wastewater. In this chapter, there is detailed information on all AOPs.
Pallavi Jain, Prashant Singh, Madhur Babu Singh
Fenton Processes in Dye Removal
Dye wastewater comprises contaminants that are difficult to degrade. When released into water bodies without proper treatment, it can cause a variety of problems for human health and aquatic ecosystems. Among several alternatives for treating wastewater contaminated by dyes, the Fenton process is an option with many advantages. The Fenton process involves the formation of the hydroxyl (HO) and hydroperoxyl (HO2) radicals through the oxidation of Fe2+ (Fe2+ + H2O2 → Fe3+ + HO + HO). It is an advanced oxidative process that involves easily accessible reagents, is low-cost, and the conditions, such as pH range, temperature, and concentration ratio, are well established in the literature. The Fenton process can proceed in a homogeneous or heterogeneous manner, and through both pathways, total mineralization through oxidation can be achieved. Methods that cannot achieve total mineralization can be coupled with the Fenton process to achieve greater efficiency, and in some cases, reduced consumption of the hydrogen peroxide oxidizer. The Fenton process has high applicability in environmental fields, mostly because its mechanism involves the total destruction of the contaminant. However, the degradation process often results in the formation of new toxic by-products, which means that the end product remains toxic.
Helhe Daiany Cabral Silva Pimentel, Lívia Fernandes da Silva, Anna Karla dos Santos Pereira, Grasiele Soares Cavallini, Douglas Henrique Pereira
Treatment of Textile Industrial Dyes Using Natural Sunlight-Driven Methods
Textile industry is one of the seven major polluting industries and large amounts of different dyes and colorants are released into the environment through the effluents. Industrial dyes and colorants are very complex in structure and toxic and they need to be removed to prevent ecological damages. Due to the drawbacks in the existing conventional wastewater treatment methods and complexity of dye molecules, it is required to find an alternative method for potential treatment of dyes in the effluents. Among the wastewater treatment techniques, photocatalysis-based advanced oxidation processes have potential to remove diversified dyes and colorants in industrial wastewater. Moreover, photocatalysis applications in treatment of industrial dyes in wastewater are eco-friendly and not produce any secondary pollutants. This chapter highlights photocatalytic treatment of various industrial dyes and its advantages.
Thinley Tenzin, Shivamurthy Ravindra Yashas, Harikaranahalli Puttaiah Shivaraju
Solar Photocatalytic Treatment of Dye Removal
Textile industries are one of the major causes of water pollution due to large amount of effluent produced. Solar photocatalytic treatment of dye could be considered as a green and sustainable method to degrade and mineralize dye to harmless products. This is in line with the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), i.e. goal 6: Clean water and sanitation and goal 14: Life below water. The major influencing factors on the solar photocatalytic treatment of dye wastewater include light source and intensity, functional groups of the dye molecules, pH, aeration, initial dye concentrations, photocatalyst loading, physical properties of photocatalyst (band gap, surface area, crystalline phase). Higher light intensity could enhance photocatalytic activity. Functional groups of the dye molecules are crucial in dye degradation mechanisms. Solar photocatalytic degradation of dye is more favorable at slightly acidic and alkaline condition at pH 5–9. The presence of aeration facilitates the dye removal efficiency with the formation of superoxide radicals. Excess dosage of photocatalyst hinders light penetration and reduces photodegradation efficiency. Narrow band gap leads to recombination of the electron–hole pairs. Larger specific surface area enhances the photocatalytic activity. Different crystalline phases of the semiconductor photocatalyst yield different photocatalytic efficiencies.
Li-Ngee Ho, Wan Fadhilah Khalik
Photo (Catalytic) Oxidation Processes for the Removal of Dye: Focusing on TiO2 Performance
Production, exploitation and discharge of a wide variety of organic dyes by different industrial houses have thrown a critical challenge to maintain the effluent quality. Industrial reluctance in third world countries made significant deterioration of ground and fresh water quality and overall environment. Though different technological approaches were forwarded, but photon induced catalytic decay of organic dye particles by titanium dioxide (TiO2) has opened up newer possibilities to the global scientific communities due to its diversified utilization. In-fact, TiO2 is a preferred photocatalytic-oxidative agent due to the salient features of its excellent photocatalysis activity such as its narrow band gap with high thermo-chemical stability. Moreover, its water insolubility, environmentally non-toxic and non-reactive nature, less energy intake during reaction with room temperature operating conditions, made it a highly preferential amongst other photocatalysts. Such heterogeneous catalytic activity is activated by the ultraviolet radiation on the TiO2 particles while contact with pollutants present in waste effluent stream. After several researches, integrated photo(catalytic) oxidation is being slowly implemented for degradation of dyes in waste water in some of the developed countries. A number of diversified methods could be adopted to modify the structure of TiO2 integrated nano-composite photocatalyst by varying the dopant, particle size and irradiation, which can improve the photo-oxidative performance. The chapter contains the comprehensive and fundamental aspects with thorough scrutiny of recent researches regarding the photo-oxidation of organic dye compounds by titanium-di-oxide nanoparticles which paves the pathway towards the use of such photo-oxidative catalysts more anticipated and conducive in imminent R&D and commercial applications.
Jayato Nayak
Ozone-Based Processes in Dye Removal
The general practice carried out by the textile industry in treating its wastewater is chemically, physically, biologically or a combination of the three. As a case study that occurred in Indonesia, regulations regarding color parameters were not regulated until 2019. To cope with the new and more stringent regulatory threshold values, many textile industries have to modify or even rebuild their existing wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) by adapting the latest wastewater treatment technologies. One promising alternative that can be added and/or modified to the existing WWTP is advanced oxidation using ozone. The use of ozone in textile wastewater treatment applications has several advantages including having a very large oxidation power so that it only requires a relatively short contact time (CT) to oxidize impurities contained in wastewater in the order of minutes. This chapter will discuss a brief history of ozone use in water and wastewater treatment, its chemistry and generation methods, degradation process, mechanisms, and factors affecting dye removal using ozone, also its practical application and integration with the existing WWTP process.
Qomarudin Helmy, I Wayan Koko Suryawan, Suprihanto Notodarmojo
Nanomaterials in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) in Anionic Dye Removal
Water, popularly known as Universal Solvent, plays a vital role for surviving in this environment. Over a decade, water bodies are being polluted in several ways (wastewaters, chemicals, dyes, papers, etc.). Out of these pollutants, dyes are relatively more toxic. Dyes are the pigment used in textile industries. The dye waste from the industries is likely to pollute the water. For the degradation of dyes from water, different methods were introduced. Advanced oxidation processes are one of the prominent methods. In this process, there are physical, chemical as well as biological methods involved. This chapter coveys a detailed description of water pollution, how dyes are affecting the quality of the water, advanced oxidation process, and the nanomaterials used in the advanced oxidation process.
Aiswarya Thekkedath, Samuel Sugaraj, Karthiyayini Sridharan
Sustainable Development of Nanomaterials for Removal of Dyes from Water and Wastewater
Human beings will experience water scarcity in the future, which has become a prime threat to human life in recent years all over the world. For industry and our daily life, we need clean water. Due to the increase in the human population, urbanization, and industrialization, the water resources are contaminated. So, we need a reliable technique to purify wastewater. Due to this, dyes cause various harm to human beings as well as aquatic life. Recent studies show that dyes are carcinogenic to human beings. With the help of conventional methods, it is not possible to provide clean water to everyone, so we need an alternative, sustainable technique. Nanomaterials have special properties like large surface area and high surface reactivity, which help in the degradation of water contamination. In this chapter, the deletion of dyes from water effluents with the help of nanotechnology has been discussed thoroughly. There are various procedures through which we could remove harmful dyes from the waste, like photocatalysis, adsorption phenomena, etc.
Gaurav Yadav, Md. Ahmaruzzaman
Textile Wastewater Treatment Using Sustainable Technologies: Advanced Oxidation and Degradation Using Metal Ions and Polymeric Materials
Textile industries are considered as one of the major contributors for water pollution. Textile wastewater primarily contains organic dye molecules along with heavy metal ions and some polymeric waste material which causes adverse effects on aquatic system and human health. Insufficient and incomplete treatment of textile wastewater is a major concern especially when it is discharged directly into the water bodies. Removal of dye molecules from wastewater has been addressed by several researchers using various physical, chemical, and biological processes. This chapter highlights applications and challenges with conventional and advanced treatment processes. Advanced oxidation process using various combinations of oxidants and energy sources has emerged as a significant technique. Applications of nanomaterials and polymers have also been explored significantly for the degradation of pollutants present in textile wastewater. Integration of suitable technologies is proposed to achieve complete degradation of pollutants discharged in textile wastewater.
Megha Bansal
Multiphase Reactors in Photocatalytic Treatment of Dye Wastewaters: Design and Scale-Up Considerations
Treatment of dye wastewaters is important to recover and reuse the water in order to mitigate the impending freshwater crisis precipitated by a growing population, industrialization and declining freshwater reserves. Photocatalysis is very effective in complete mineralization of the different pollutants present, but the complex design, construction and scale-up of photocatalytic reactors for industrial-scale applications is still an open problem. Among the different configurations of reactors studied, the work on multiphase photocatalytic reactors is comparatively less. In this chapter, after a brief look at the basic fundamentals, a comprehensive review of the different multiphase photocatalytic reactors is presented with the aim of showing why this type could be a better option for the degradation of toxic dyes. The important operational parameters are discussed followed by an overview of the issues encountered in scale-up. Finally, the future aspects concerning the use of multiphase reactors for photocatalytic treatment of dye wastewaters are given.
Suman Das, Hari Mahalingam
Enhanced Methylene Blue Degradation onto Fenton-Like Catalysts Based on g-C3N4-MgFe2O4 Composites
The development of new effective Fenton-like catalysts is of interest for solving a wide range of problems related to toxic organic pollutants’ destruction in aqueous media. In this chapter, an attempt was made to obtain g-C3N4-MgFe2O4 composites of various structures and morphologies, as well as to justify their effectiveness as Fenton-like catalysts. The prepared composites were characterized by XRD, FTIR, and SEM-EDX methods. It was shown that all composites were characterized by the formation of g-C3N4 with the s-heptazine structure and a different ratio of g-C3N4 and MgFe2O4 on the surface. The catalytic properties of g-C3N4-MgFe2O4 composites in the degradation reaction of the thiazine dye Methylene Blue under various conditions (dark-, visible-, and UV-driven processes), as well as under multiply catalytic cycles, were studied. The most effective sample of composite I under UV irradiation provided 99% Methylene Blue degradation efficiency for 20 min at four cycles. The mechanism of catalytic destruction of Methylene Blue mainly due to the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the reaction mixture was proposed.
Andrei Ivanets, Vladimir Prozorovich, Valentin Sarkisov
Metal Oxide Heterostructured Nanocomposites for Wastewater Treatment
Over the past few decades, nanocrystalline metal oxide semiconductor-based photocatalytic technology has drawn significant attention for reducing the recent energy crisis by converting solar energy into potential energies and remediating environmental pollution. Two traditional semiconductors, TiO2 and ZnO, have been widely investigated as a photocatalyst for water purification among several metal oxide semiconductors. However, the photocatalytic performance of the above-mentioned metal oxide-based photocatalysts has yet to reach the target based on efficiency and stability due to the larger bandgap, inadequate adsorption capacity, insufficient charge carrier generation and transportation, and electron–hole pair recombination, which are some of the significant issues associated with metal oxide photocatalysts. So efforts are given for the synthesis of metal oxide-based heterostructured nanocomposites for wastewater treatment. With this perspective, the present chapter highlights the studies of heterogeneous photocatalysis for better performance. This chapter also deals with the synthesis, structure and microstructure characterization of as-synthesized nanocomposites by analyzing XRD profiles using the Rietveld analysis, TEM and SEM images. Photocatalytic degradation efficiency has been investigated under visible light illumination with RhB as an organic model dye pollutant. The dye degradation kinetics has been correlated with the Urbach energy.
M. Mondal, M. Ghosh, H. Dutta, S. K. Pradhan
Electrocoagulation Technology for Wastewater Treatment: Mechanism and Applications
Electrocoagulation (EC) is an excellent and promising technology in wastewater treatment, as it combines the benefits of coagulation, flotation, and electrochemistry. EC is an efficient process to remove both organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater. During the last decade, extensive research has focused on the treatment of several types of industrial wastewater using electrocoagulation. EC is a popular technique, which is being applied for the treatment of varieties of wastewater, because of its several advantages like compact, cost-effective, efficient, low sludge production, it’s automation conveniences, high efficiency, and eco-friendliness. This chapter highlights the EC working principle, mechanism, factors affecting EC process, design aspects, and its application in various industrial effluents. The studies on treatment of various industrial wastewater by global researchers are critically reviewed. The capability of employing this technology in combined systems with other conventional methods to eliminate contaminants from wastewater is reviewed also. The core findings proved the capability of this technique in wastewater treatment whether it is performed alone or combined with other technologies providing many pros, such as the decrement of the operation cost and the sludge formation.
Prashant Basavaraj Bhagawati, Forat Yasir AlJaberi, Shaymaa A. Ahmed, Abudukeremu Kadier, Hameed Hussein Alwan, Sata Kathum Ajjam, Chandrashekhar Basayya Shivayogimath, B. Ramesh Babu
Carbonaceous-TiO2 Photocatalyst for Treatment of Textile Dye-Contaminated Wastewater
The rising quantity and toxicity of dye-enriched industrial effluents due to rapid industrialization is a foremost and emerging concern throughout the world. The presence of dyes in the waterbodies possesses a threat to aquatic life and can annihilate the environment and human health. Therefore, before discharge, the treatment of dye-contaminated industrial effluents is of paramount importance. Heterogeneous photocatalysis, an advanced oxidation process (AOP), is a sustainable and effective treatment approach that has a greater potential for the catalytic eradication of dyes by generating highly reactive radicals. In general, titanium dioxide (TiO2) semiconductor photocatalyst is extensively used for the photocatalytic degradation of dyes. However, owing to various drawbacks associated with TiO2 photocatalysts such as higher electronhole pair recombination and larger bandgap, the TiO2 photocatalyst is modified by coupling with carbonaceous materials for higher photocatalytic activity and visible light-harvesting ability. Therefore, this chapter briefly describes the mechanism involved in the photocatalytic degradation of dye and elucidates the different methods for synthesizing carbonaceous-based TiO2 composites comprising activated carbon, graphene derivatives, carbon doping, and carbon nanotubes for dye removal. Also, the chapter precisely focuses on the existing and recent studies on dye removal using carbonaceous-based TiO2 materials. Therefore, this study will be useful for engineers and researchers working in the domain of industrial wastewater treatment.
Ayushman Bhattacharya, Ambika Selvaraj
Advanced Oxidation Processes in Dye-Containing Wastewater
herausgegeben von
Dr. Subramanian Senthilkannan Muthu
Dr. Ali Khadir
Springer Nature Singapore
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