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Über dieses Buch

Focussing on the key technologies in developing robots for a wide range of medical rehabilitation activities – which will include robotics basics, modelling and control, biomechanics modelling, rehabilitation strategies, robot assistance, clinical setup/implementation as well as neural and muscular interfaces for rehabilitation robot control – this book is split into two parts; a review of the current state of the art, and recent advances in robotics for medical rehabilitation. Both parts will include five sections for the five key areas in rehabilitation robotics: (i) the upper limb; (ii) lower limb for gait rehabilitation (iii) hand, finger and wrist; (iv) ankle for strains and sprains; and (v) the use of EEG and EMG to create interfaces between the neurological and muscular functions of the patients and the rehabilitation robots.

Each chapter provides a description of the design of the device, the control system used, and the implementation and testing to show how it fulfils the needs of that specific area of rehabilitation. The book will detail new devices, some of which have never been published before in any journal or conference.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. Introduction

Abstract
Robots can be considered as reprogrammable devices which can be used to complete certain tasks in an autonomous manner. While robots have long been used for automation of industrial processes, there is a growing trend where robotic devices are used to provide services for end users.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 2. Literature Review

Abstract
A comprehensive literature review on rehabilitation robots is carried out to identify the key issues. The main design requirements and development complications are identified and the various approaches used in past robots are reviewed. It begins with a survey of existing human rehabilitation devices designed for use in human assistance and treatment. An overview of the kinematic and computational biomechanical models of the human limb is also provided. This is followed by a review of the state of the art of interaction control strategies, with primary focus on its application in rehabilitation robots. Finally, the reviewed materials are assimilated in a discussion that highlights issues in rehabilitation robots that require further development, and are hence the subject of investigation for this research.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 3. Physiological Model of the Masticatory System

Abstract
The purpose of the human masticatory system is to perform the initial breakdown of food via chewing and prepare it for swallowing. It includes the bones and soft structures, such as muscles, ligaments and tendons of the face and mouth, that are involved in mastication. There are multiple complex mechanisms involved in this process, including the secretion of saliva, manipulation of the chewed food into a bolus with the tongue and the muscular control of the mandible that produces chewing motions, which is the focus of this and following parts. This chapter introduced the masticatory system and its associated numerous complexities, and a new physiological model with two DOFs was developed for it.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 4. Modelling Human Shoulder and Elbow

Abstract
The human upper limb can be considered as a serial manipulator with three segments connected through three joints. The wrist joint connects the hand to the forearm, the elbow joint connects the forearm to the upper arm and the shoulder joint connects the upper arm to the torso.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 5. Upper Limb Exoskeleton Development

Abstract
This chapter discusses the optimisation of the 4R mechanism specifically for a shoulder exoskeleton. The goal of the optimisation was to find an optimal kinematic design of the 4R mechanism and identify the optimal joint configurations for this redundant 4R mechanism to operate. Algorithms are developed to evaluate the performance of a given 4R design in terms of joint velocities during transitions of the end-effector and proximity to singular configurations. The workspace of the human shoulder is considered and factors that can limit the workspace of the 4R are analysed. The concepts behind multi-objective optimisation and the NSGA II algorithm are presented. The optimisation problem is outlined, discussed and a set of optimisation variables and objectives are defined for the algorithm.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 6. Motion and Interactive Control for Upper Limb Exoskeleton

Abstract
This chapter presents the minimum jerk trajectory planner which is developed to generate smooth trajectories for the 5-DOF upper limb exoskeleton. The minimum jerk criterion is derived from observing normal human motion and is therefore very suitable for formulating the trajectories of a rehabilitation exoskeleton. The minimum jerk criterion is first introduced using a simple point-to-point trajectory for the 1-DOF elbow joint. For the multi-DOF shoulder joint, the minimum jerk trajectory of the shoulder movement is determined and then converted to their respective exoskeleton joint trajectories. This chapter presents force-based control strategies that allow the exoskeleton to interact with and respond to the unpredictable behaviour of the user’s limb. The concept of admittance and impedance interaction method is discussed and applied to the upper limb and exoskeleton system.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 7. Kinematic and Computational Model of Human Ankle

Abstract
Knowledge of ankle kinematics is a fundamental requirement when constructing a dynamic model of the human ankle since the kinematic constraints at the ankle–foot complex can be used to select suitable generalised coordinates to describe ankle–foot motion. A recursive algorithm was therefore developed in this research for the online identification of ankle kinematic parameters. This chapter presents a computational ankle model developed to facilitate controller development of the ankle rehabilitation robot and provides a description of the ankle mechanical characteristics through considerations of forces applied along anatomical elements around the ankle joint, which include ligaments and muscle–tendon units.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 8. Development of the Ankle Rehabilitation Robot

Abstract
This chapter begins with an overview of the design requirements of an ankle rehabilitation robot. A suitable kinematic structure of the robot is then proposed. Workspace, singularity and force analyses of mechanisms having this structure are then presented. This is followed by a description of the robot hardware and interface. Operation of the developed rehabilitation robot relies on implementation of a suitable interaction controller, and a force-based impedance control approach had been taken in this research, whereby the desired robot impedance is realised through actuator-level force control. This chapter details the development of the multi-input multi-output (MIMO) actuator force controller devised in this work.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 9. Adaptive Ankle Rehabilitation Robot Control Strategies

Abstract
The basic formulation of the outer impedance control loop used in this research is also presented in this chapter. In this work, the basic impedance control law had been extended to yield a more advanced interaction control scheme for passive range of motion and active assistive exercises. One of these extensions involves the incorporation of an impedance parameter adjustment module in the overall interaction control scheme. This chapter explores the use of an assistance adaptation scheme to achieve the above and presents the implementation of a control module to facilitate active user participation in the rehabilitation exercises. The proposed assistance adaptation scheme is also designed to reduce the amount of resistance applied by the robot when the user is moving ahead of the reference position.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Chapter 10. Conclusion and Future Work

Abstract
Various aspects including the design, modelling and control of the platform-based rehabilitation robots developed in this research had been discussed in previous chapters. This book has presented an approach towards developing a neuromuscular interface, which is required for the effective interfacing between human operators and robotic devices, such as exoskeletons and prostheses. This chapter seeks to summarise the main outcomes and conclusions of this research, as well as highlight the contributions made in this work. Lastly, this chapter also provides a discussion of future directions that can be explored to extend or advance the work presented in this book.
Shane (S.Q.) Xie

Backmatter

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