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Über dieses Buch

This book is primarily intended to serve as a textbook and reference work for graduate and professional training coursework on solar desalination of water. The book begins with an introduction to the increasing demand for potable water, various types of water pollution and its impacts on human health, and goes on to cover basics of desalination technologies. It covers all aspects of solar-energy based distillation and desalination for producing potable water resources, including radiation and heat transfer concepts, a history of solar distillation systems, and background on solar collectors. The contents include thermal modeling and parametric study of solar distillation. Energy and exergy aspects are analyzed in detail, including energy matrices of solar distillation. A special chapter on exeroeconomics introduces fundamental equations which include the general balance equation, thermodynamic balance equations, and economic balance equations. A chapter on Economic Analysis of Solar Distillation completes the coverage. The book includes solved examples and end-of-chapter exercises in the form of both problems and objective-type questions. The contents of this book are useful to students, researchers, professionals, and policymakers looking for a comprehensive resource on solar desalination.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. General Introduction

Abstract
Potable water or drinking water is essential for all living organisms to survive on the Earth. Today, with the rapid growth in population and a decrement in limited water resources, the lack of potable water is the most frightening problem facing humankind. The Sun is the brightest and most ample energy resource available in the universe. Solar energy, or sunlight, acts as a driving force to accelerate life on Earth. For proper utilization of solar energy, it is essential to understand the basic science of solar energy. The main focus of the first chapter is to highlight some essential features of potable or drinking water such as the importance of water, water crisis, water pollution, and various simple and advanced techniques for water purification. Among all, we concentrate on explaining the basic theory and concept of solar-distillation systems for water purification.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 2. Solar Radiation and Heat Transfer

Abstract
Solar energy (i.e., from the Sun) is an ample source of energy in the universe. The Sun is responsible for all renewable energy sources to meet the need of all creatures (living organisms) such that their survival is not possible without solar energy reaching our planet. Solar radiation is the radiant energy emitted by the Sun (by way of nuclear fusion) that creates an electromagnetic wave with wavelength between \( 0. 30\mu m - 3\mu m \) as well as photons in visible wave length. In this chapter, the basic concepts of solar radiation and heat transfer are discussed.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 3. History of Passive Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
Deficiency of potable water has always been a problem given the population growth on the Earth. Solar distillation is the simplest environmentally friendly and economically viable technique for potable-water production; and this technique has been in continuous use during the past few centuries. In this chapter, various passive solar-distillation systems are discussed in detail.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 4. Solar Collectors

Abstract
Solar-thermal collectors are devices that absorb solar energy. These are of either concentrating or non-concentrating type. The collector and absorber area are the same in a non-concentrating type such that the whole panel absorbs solar energy, whereas a concentrating solar collectors have a larger interceptor compared with an absorber. A flat-plate collector (FPC) is at the heart of solar thermal devices with various applications in medium temperature ranges (≅100 °C) from domestic to pre-heating to industrial sectors. For the highest operating temperature range (≥300 °C) of solar thermal energy applications used in the industrial sector, concentrating systems can be used for power generation by using high-temperature boiling fluid as medium. For greater plant capacity (≥1 MW), solar-power generation is economical with grid power in a dust-free region (minimum cleaning of reflecting sheet). In contrast, evacuated tubular solar collectors (ETSC) are also used for thermal applications in temperature ranges between 100 and 300 °C. The ETSC can be used for the pre-heating of working fluid for power generation; for lower-capacity indirect space heating; and for crop drying by way of a heat exchanger.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 5. Thermal Modeling of Active Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
The coupling of a semi-transparent photovoltaic (PV) module with a conventional solar water collector in a single unit generates a new concept of PVT technology, and it can be considered a hybrid PVT concept. In this case, approximately 15–20% of the incident solar energy is converted into electrical energy, and the rest of the solar energy—approximately 80%—is absorbed by the PV module’s absorber plate, which generates thermal energy. Water as a thermal energy carrier is used for harvesting the generated thermal energy. The extraction of thermal energy using water or air as a medium in the system (by lowering the temperature) enhances the efficiency of the PV module. In active solar-distillation systems, this external thermal energy is transferred to the basin of the integrated solar still. The electrical energy of the PV module is used to run the mechanical water pump for circulation of the fluid in the forced mode of operation. In this chapter, thermal modelling of different active solar-distillation systems coupled with (a) N-flat plate collectors, (b) N-evacuated tubular collectors, and (c) N-compound parabolic concentrator collectors is discussed in detail.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 6. Parametric Study of Solar Distillation and Its Application

Abstract
Solar-distillation systems have many applications. Various parameters, i.e., inclination angle of the transparent-glass cover, orientation of the distillation unit, wind velocity, sky and ambient temperature, basin-water depth, scaling of basin liner, and bottom insulation, significantly influence the productivity of solar-distillation systems.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 7. Energy and Exergy Analysis of Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
The performance of any renewable-energy system (RES) depends on the availability of useful energy and exergy from the system, and the energy and exergy analysis of RES (optimization of the design and operating parameters) is essential for minimum use of fossil fuel in order to preserve them for future generations. In this chapter, the energy and exergy analyses of different passive and active solar-distillation systems are performed.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 8. Energy Matrices of Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
Quantity exergy is based on the concept of the second law of thermodynamics, and it measures the potential to convert energy into work; this potential to produce work is called “exergy” (i.e., maximum useful work). Exergy analysis of any system incorporates all of the irreversibilities and inefficiencies that lead to the destruction of exergy. Exergy analysis plays an important role in measuring the important parameters, e.g., energy matrices (energy-payback time, energy-production factor, and life cycle–conversion efficiency) and CO2 mitigation of the renewable-energy system.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 9. Exergoeconomic Analysis of Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
In exergoeconomic analysis, the mutual techniques of scientific disciplines (mainly thermodynamics) with economic disciplines (mainly cost accounting) are used in order to attain the overall optimal design of the renewable-energy system.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Chapter 10. Economic Analysis of Solar-Distillation Systems

Abstract
The basic pillar of any implemented technique is the life-cycle cost analysis (LCCA) of any system. It sets the constraints as well as gives an idea whether to approve or reject the system for the execution of technology. LCCA of any system should be carried on the basis of energy and exergy analysis.
G. N. Tiwari, Lovedeep Sahota

Backmatter

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