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Über dieses Buch

The theme of HumanCom and EMC is focused on the various aspects of human-centric computing for advances in computer science and its applications, embedded and multimedia computing and provides an opportunity for academic and industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of human-centric computing. And the theme of EMC (Advanced in Embedded and Multimedia Computing) is focused on the various aspects of embedded system, smart grid, cloud and multimedia computing, and it provides an opportunity for academic, industry professionals to discuss the latest issues and progress in the area of embedded and multimedia computing. Therefore this book will be include the various theories and practical applications in human-centric computing and embedded and multimedia computing.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

HumanCom

Frontmatter

An Interface for Reducing Errors in Intravenous Drug Administration

Input errors occur with drug infusion pumps when nurses or technicians incorrectly input the prescribed therapy through the control panel. Such number copying tasks are cognitively and visually demanding, errors are easily introduced and the process is often perceived as laborious. Stressful working conditions and poorly designed control panels will further add to the chance of error. An alternative scheme is proposed herein, termed intravenous prescription phrase, based on dictionary coding. Instead of copying number sequences the user copies sequences of familiar words such that the cognitive load on the user is reduced by a factor of five. The strategy is capable of detecting errors and is easy to implement.

Frode Eika Sandnes, Yo-Ping Huang

A Vocabulary Learning Game Using a Serious-Game Approach

It is always hard to keep motivated while doing something we must do but we do not want to. However, gamers put so much time into their favorite games, just because its fun. Games have many tricks to keep attracting people, and nowadays these gimmicks are included into education-games. However, not many of the education-games in the markets are fun enough to keep users motivated for playing. In this paper we address this conflict, propose a better education-game created based on a popular smartphone game, and evaluate the improvement of the motivation through playing the game we offer. As a conclusion, we discovered that the examinees are motivated through the experiment using the education-game we created; however, these motivations are passive as they are not actively willing to do, but rather not mind doing it. Supplementations to shift these passive motivations to active motivations are considered in our future work.

Kanako Nakajima, Tatsuo Nakajima

An Improved Method for Measurement of Gross National Happiness Using Social Network Services

Studies on the measurement of happiness have been utilized in a variety of areas; in particular, it has played an important role in the measurement of society stability. As the number of users of Social Network Services (SNSs) increase, efforts are being made to measure human well-being by analyzing user messages in SNSs. Most previous works mainly counted positive and negative words; they did not consider the grammar and emotion. In this paper, we reorganize the mechanism to harness the advantages of (a) Part-Of-Speech (POS) tagging for grammatical analysis, and (b) the SentiWordNet lexicon for the assignment of sentiment scores for emotion degree. We suggest a modified formula for calculating the Gross National Happiness (GNH). To verify the method, we gather a real-world dataset from 405,700 Twitter users, measure the GNH, and compare it with the Gallup well-being release. We demonstrate that the method has more precise computation ability for GNH.

Dongsheng Wang, Abdelilah Khiati, Jongsoo Sohn, Bok-Gyu Joo, In-Jeong Chung

Advanced Comb Filtering for Robust Speech Recognition

This paper proposes a speech enhancement scheme that leads to significant improvements in recognition performance when used in the Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) front-end. The proposed approach is based upon adaptive comb filtering. While adaptive comb filtering reduces noise components remarkably, it is rarely effective in reducing non-stationary noises due to its uniformly distributed frequency response. This paper proposes an advanced comb filtering technique that adjusts its spectral magnitude to the original speech, based on the gain modification function, an Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) estimator.

Jeong-Sik Park

Fall Detection by a SVM-Based Cloud System with Motion Sensors

Recently, fall detection has become a popular research topic to take care of the increasing aging population. Many previous works used cameras, accelerometers and gyroscopes as sensor devices to collect motion data of human beings and then to distinguish falls from other normal behaviors of human beings. However, these techniques encountered some challenges such as privacy, accuracy, convenience and data-processing time. In this paper, a motion sensor which can compress motion data into skeleton points effectively meanwhile providing privacy and convenience are chosen as the sensor devices for detecting falls. Furthermore, to achieve high accuracy of fall detection, support vector machine (SVM) is employed in the proposed cloud system. Experimental results show that, under the best setting, the accuracy of our fall-detection SVM model can be greater than 99.90 %. In addition, the detection time of falls only takes less than 10

−3

s. Therefore, the proposed SVM-based cloud system with motion sensors successfully enables fall detection at real time with high accuracy.

Chien-Hui (Christina) Liao, Kuan-Wei Lee, Ting-Hua Chen, Che-Chen Chang, Charles H.-P. Wen

A Study on Persuasive Effect of Preference of Virtual Agents

A virtual agent can have a graphical appearance and give users nonverbal information such as gestures and facial expressions. A computer system can construct intimate relationship with and credibility from users using virtual agents. Although related work have been discussing how to make users feel better about computers, a room for discussing effectiveness of letting users choose their favorite characters still exists. If a user’s favorite agent is more believable than not favorite one for him/her, the computer system can construct better relationship with the user through an agent. In this paper, we have examined an effect of making user’s favorite agent selectable on his/her behavior by conducting an experiment. We divided participants into four groups according to these conditions and ask them to have a conversation with an agent. As a result, we found a possibility of increasing credibility of an agent from users by letting them choose their favorite one.

Akihito Yoshii, Tatsuo Nakajima

Human Computing for Business Modelling

The importance of linking information technology to business goals and objectives is addressed by the concept of BPR. However, many methodologies of BPR do not address the implementation issues of the information systems development and the combination of this with the implementation of BPR in detail. What we need is an effective method to analyse the dynamic behaviour of the organization and to evaluate the alternative choices of solutions to problems. In this paper, we introduce the concept of participative process modelling where we view system development and BPR as cooperative activities which involve different groups of people with different competencies, viewpoints and requirements. We will also describe a framework, based on the principles of Empirical Modelling, aims to give a comprehensive view of the real-world situations so as to allow all participants to experience what it is, or would be like, to work within such situations and therefore draw on their tacit and non-explicit knowledge and experience. We propose the application of EM to provide a practical way of implementing participative BPR.

Yih-Lang Chen, Yih-Chang Chen

Teaching and Learning Foreign Languages in a Digital Multimedia Environment

The paper describes the structure and functions of a digital multimedia environment as a means of teaching and studying foreign languages. The authors suggest an LMS-centered environment consisting of language labs, interactive whiteboard rooms, multimedia rooms, a videoconferencing hall, a webinar platform, and multimedia repositories, with all the components being linked together by an e-learning platform. The article is intended for experts in information technology and second language teaching methodology, as well as for all those interested in the problems of computer-assisted language learning.

Vladimir Kryukov, Alexey Gorin, Dmitry Mordvintsev

An Interactive Web-Based Navigation System for Learning Human Anatomy

This paper presents an interactive web-based anatomy navigation system based on the high-resolution Chinese Visible Human (CVH) dataset. Compared with previous anatomy learning software, there are three new features in our navigation system. First, we directly exploit the capabilities of graphics hardware to achieve real-time computation of large medical dataset on the web. In addition, various visualization effects are supplied to enhance the visual perception of human model. Second, to facilitate user interaction, we design a set of user-friendly interface by incorporating the Microsoft Kinect into the system, and the users can navigate the Visible Human with their hand gestures. Third, in order to eliminate the unreliable bottleneck: network transmission, we employ a progressive strategy to transmit the data between the server and the client. Experimental results validate the advantages of the proposed navigation system for learning human anatomy, indicating its great potential in clinical applications.

Haichao Zhu, Weiming Wang, Jingxian Sun, Qiang Meng, Jinze Yu, Jing Qin, Pheng-Ann Heng

Community Topical “Fingerprint” Analysis Based on Social Semantic Networks

Community analysis of social networks is a widely used technique in many fields. There have been many studies on community detection where the detected communities are attached to a single topic. However, an overall topical analysis for a community is required since community members are often concerned with multiple topics. In this paper, we propose a semantic method to analyze the topical community “fingerprint” in a social network. We represent the social network data as an ontology, and integrate with two other ontologies, creating a Social Semantic Network (SSN) context. Then, we take advantage of previous topological algorithms to detect the communities and retrieve the topical “fingerprint” using SPARQL. We extract about 210,000 Twitter profiles, detect the communities, and demonstrate the topical “fingerprint”. It shows human-friendly as well as machine-readable results, which can benefit us when retrieving and analyzing communities according to their interest degrees in various domains.

Dongsheng Wang, Kyunglag Kwon, Jongsoo Sohn, Bok-Gyu Joo, In-Jeong Chung

Content Recommendation Method Using FOAF and SNA

With the rapid growth of user-created contents and wide use of community-based websites, content recommendation systems have attracted the attention of users. However, most recommendation systems have limitations in properly reflecting each user’s characteristics, and difficulty in recommending appropriate contents to users. Therefore, we propose a content recommendation method using Friend-Of-A-Friend (FOAF) and Social Network Analysis (SNA). First, we extract user tags and characteristics using FOAF, and generate graphs with the collected data, with the method. Next, we extract common characteristics from the contents, and hot tags using SNA, and recommend the appropriate contents for users. For verification of the method, we analyzed an experimental social network with the method. From the experiments, we verified that the more users that are added into the social network, the higher the quality of recommendation increases, with comparison to an item-based method. Additionally, we can provide users with more relevant recommendation of contents.

Daehyun Kang, Kyunglag Kwon, Jongsoo Sohn, Bok-Gyu Joo, In-Jeong Chung

The Design of an Information Monitoring Platform Based on a WSN for a Metro Station

Due to the safety and comfort problems of subway stations, we propose a system that can monitor environmental information by constructing a fundamental information monitoring platform based on a WSN. The basic idea is to deploy a large number of sensor nodes with the ability of sensing, computing and communicating in the station to form a wireless network and the information collected by different nodes will be sent in real time to the backend database. Then, we can acquire all kinds of monitoring information from the platform after a series of processing steps conducted by the platform. If any abnormal data ware found, the corrective measures will be taken immediately. The main features of our proposed platform are the design of the system’s functional structure and the design of the software and hardware modules. Also, we propose to incorporate a dormancy mechanism to save energy.

Dong Chen, Zhen-Jiang Zhang, Yun Liu

An Improved Social Network Analysis Method for Social Networks

Recently, Social Network Service (SNS) users are rapidly increasing, and Social Network Analysis (SNA) methods are used to analyze the structure of user relationship or messages in many fields. However, the SNA methods based on the shortest distance among nodes is time-consuming in measuring computation time. In order to solve this problem, we present a heuristic method for the shortest path search using SNS user graphs. Our proposed method consists of three steps. First, it sets a start node and a goal node in the Social Network (SN), which is represented by trees. Second, the goal node sets a temporary node starting from a skewed tree, if there is a goal node on a leaf node of the skewed tree. Finally, the betweenness and closeness centralities are computed with the heuristic shortest path search. For verification of the proposed method, we demonstrate an experimental analysis of betweenness centrality and closeness centrality, with 164,910 real data in an SNS. In the experimental results, the method shows that the computation time of betweenness centrality and closeness centrality is faster than the traditional method. This heuristic method can be used to analyze social phenomena and trends in many fields.

Jongsoo Sohn, Daehyun Kang, Hansaem Park, Bok-Gyu Joo, In-Jeong Chung

Special Session

Frontmatter

Power-Saving Scheduling Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

Due to advances in communications technology in recent years, prompting more extensive application of wireless sensor networks. Such sensors are limited in battery energy supply and produce the energy hole problem, this even causes paralysis of part of the system. In the cluster architecture, burden of the cluster head is bound to become the energy consumption of the maximum point, so our method is focused on reducing energy consumption of the cluster head. To this end, we propose a new scheduling mechanism based on cluster architecture. In this mechanism, we use the “polling” method to make the cluster head have an absolutely effective data receiving. In addition, we also introduced the “sleeping” mechanism to ensure that the cluster head can achieve power saving under the premise of the most effective data receiving.

Ting-Chu Chi, Pin-Jui Chen, Wei-Yuan Chang, Kai-Chien Yang, Der-Jiunn Deng

Localization Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks

In recent years, many localization algorithms are proposed for wireless sensor networks because that is crucial to identifying the accurate positions of sensor nodes. This study proposes an analytic localization algorithm by utilizing radical centers. Assume that a target node can measure its distances to four or more anchor nodes. By picking four distance measurements to four anchor nodes, a radical center is computed and treated as the target node location. To further improve and fuse these estimations, effective filtering mechanisms are then proposed to filter out the improper estimations. Afterwards, the remaining radical centers are averaged, and the solution is the final estimation of the target node location. The location errors of the proposed method and the conventional Minimum Mean Square Error method (MMSE) are analytically compared. Extensive computer simulations were carried out and the results verify the advantage of the proposed location algorithm over the MMSE approach.

Yin-Chun Chen, Der-Jiunn Deng, Yeong-Sheng Chen

Exploring Community Structures by Comparing Group Characteristics

In recent years, more and more researchers devoted to identifying community structure in social networks. The characteristics of the social network are analyzed by clustering the social network users according to user’s relationships. However, the users of current popular social networks such as LiveJournal and Flickr, can join to or create the communities according to their interests. Instead of grouping the users according to the cluster strategies which are wildly used in previous works, the purpose of the paper is to explore the structures and characteristics of the social networks according to the community the users actually joined. Moreover, we experiment on four real datasets, LiveJournal, Flickr, Orkut and Youtube, to analyze the characteristics hidden behind the social networks.

Guanling Lee, Chia-Jung Chang, Sheng-Lung Peng

Emergency Broadcast in VANET by Considering Human Satisfaction

The emergency broadcast is an important service in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network (VANET) for the safety of vehicle drivers. The design of a broadcast scheme in a city environment becomes challenging. In this paper, we extend our previous work of using the concept of water wave propagation by further considering human satisfaction. As long as the drivers have sufficient time to react to an emergency event, a lazy rebroadcast approach is applied to significantly reduce rebroadcast times and network traffic.

Yu-Shou Chang, Shou-Chih Lo, Sheng-Lung Peng

The Comparative Study for Cloud-Game-Based Learning from Primary and Secondary School Education Between Taiwan and America

A new way of learning has been introduced and it is here to stay: e-learning. E-learning stands for electronic learning and includes m-learning (mobile learning), u-learning (ubiquitous learning), computer-based learning, web-based learning and cloud-game-based Learning. The aim of this paper is to study cloud-game-based Learning in Taiwan and the United States of America through primary and secondary education and explore the fundamental differences between these countries. The most important ambition is to reach collaborative learning, or providing an environment where both teachers and students can debate and achieve synergy so that it is necessary to stimulate interest, improve children’s performance and increase efficiency through games, problem solving and teamwork. This new learning paradigm seems to be vastly popular because it completely integrates people into learning, no matter what socioeconomic status or urban/rural area; the only two things that are significant are the willingness to learn and the teacher’s effort. The paper is divided into the follows sections, including the section covers the purpose and relevance of this study supported by a review of recent e-learning and cloud-game-based Learning research; the section contains the analysis of cloud-game-based Learning in primary and secondary schools in Taiwan; the section examines cloud-game-based Learning in primary and secondary schools in the USA; the section compares cloud-game-based Learning in primary and secondary schools in Taiwan and USA. Finally, the last section covers the conclusion and suggestions.

Hsing-Wen Wang, Claudia Pong

The New Imperative for Creating and Profiting from Network Technology Under Open Innovation: Evidences from Taiwan and USA

In the rapidly changing Web 2.0 era innovation has become a key focus in organizations around the world. Innovation can be described as the creation of new products that take advantage of changing markets and improved technology, but innovation also means the ability to adapt to new technologies and create new networks. In this paper we focus on organizations in different fields that attempt to adapt to advances in network technology. The fields we examine are online web stores. With regards to social media, we will examine how the design and allowance of user feedback affects the success of E-stores. In addition we also compare the studies done on these fields from Taiwan and America in order to understand how regional cultural biases affect research style and direction. This paper will study the effects of being innovative in the three fields described above as well as the different views of being innovative in America and Taiwan.

Hsing-Wen Wang, Raymond Liu, Natalie Chang, Jason Chang

Exploration of Scientific Evidence on Affective Learning

Frontmatter

What is Affective Learning?

Affective computing can be used to evaluate human psychological reactions after using affective equipment. And, learners produce intrinsic and extrinsic affective reactions in the learning process called as affective learning. However, some work evaluates affective learning through non-computing method as compared to computing one. Based on the survey, this work demonstrates two examples that used different methods to evaluate affective learning. In addition, the characteristics of the methods have been discussed and explored to understand affective learning further.

Wen-Yen Wang, Ling-Chin Ko, Yueh-Min Huang, Yao-Ren Liu, Shen-Mao Lin

The Influences of Emotional Reactions on Learning Gains During a Computerized Self-Assessment Test

This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions by receiving applause during computerized self-assessment testing for elementary school students. The participants were asked to solve mathematics problems in a computer-assisted self-assessment system with or without pre-recorded applause as emotional feedback while EEG measurements were taken. The results of this study provide support for the belief that it is useful to improve students’ learning achievement by using emotional reactions such as applause during computer-assisted self-assessment testing, especially for male students. It is suggested that teachers may create such a positive emotional self-assessment learning environment as encourage students to learn by themselves more efficiently.

Yueh-Min Huang, Chin-Fei Huang, Ming-Chi Liu, Chang-Tzuoh Wu

A Conceptual Framework for Using the Affective Computing Techniques to Evaluate the Outcome of Digital Game-Based Learning

That’s an interesting issue for how the outcome that educators use angry bird to teach projectile motion physics theorem. For verifying the possibility of playing angry bird to learn the projectile motion physics problem, this study design an experiment that include two different learning methods. One is the tradition learning method, and the other one is to learn the projectile motion using Angry Bird. When student learning, their eye movement data, brain wave and heart beat will be measured for analyzing their attention, emotion and the strategy of solving problem. After learning, they take a posttest to prove the digital game-based learning method can help student learning.

Chih-Hung Wu, Yi-Lin Tzeng, Ray Yueh Min Huang

Adopt Technology Acceptance Model to Analyze Factors Influencing Students’ Intention on Using a Disaster Prevention Education System

This paper explores the potential of geographic information system (GIS) in disaster prevention education. Open source GIS is applied to build a disaster prevention education system used to assist students in strengthening their knowledge of typhoon prevention and enhancing awareness of typhoon disaster. An experiment which the technology acceptance model was applied as the theoretical fundamental was designed to investigate students’ intention on using the system. A total of 34 university students participated in using the proposed system. Results show that (1) perceived ease of use has a positive and significant influence on attitude toward use and perceived usefulness; (2) perceived usefulness has a positive and significant influence on attitude toward use and behavioral intentions; (3) attitude toward usage does not have a significant influence on the students’ intention to use the system.

Yong-Ming Huang, Chien-Hung Liu, Yueh-Min Huang, Yung-Hsin Yeh

Designing an Interactive RFID Game System for Improving Students’ Motivation in Mathematical Learning

Game-based learning becomes a critical issue in the e-learning field. Many instructors want to make their students can do the studying with fun and their interest activities. For this reason, this paper designs an interactive RFID learning system for improving learners’ motivation and performance by adopting game-based learning. There are several advantages for using this RFID learning system while learners behave well, such as learners will not feel they are engaging in a traditional learning environment when playing the RFID learning system. The purpose of this research was to develop an interactive RFID learning device and competitive learning environment for enhancing students’ learning motivation and number sense in mathematics subject. The research is to investigate whether and how this RFID learning system can be developed to help users learn mathematics with enjoyment. This study considers ideas in game design, motivation issues, and mathematics learning to develop a strategy to engage users with the interactive RFID system. In this research, the learners can do the synchronic learning with other classmates outside of the classroom. Moreover, instructors can evaluate the individual’s learning levels in mathematics in this research by analyzing the database of the game-based RFID learning system.

Ho-Yuan Chen, Ding-Chau Wang, Chao-Chun Chen, Chien-Hung Liu

Multimedia Technology for Education

Frontmatter

Design and Development of an Innovation Product Engineering Process Curriculum at Peking University

Over the past decade, the elements of innovative wisdom are not only a business organization to survive in the dangerous environment, school organizations to enhance the quality of education to meet the needs of the community. For the succession challenge in the continuous impact, an innovation level of a top university covered the administration, curriculum, teaching, equipment, environment and so on is quite extensive. This paper overviews a novel curriculum at Peking University, called Innovation Product Engineering Process, established by six interdisciplinary teachers for school students in various professional fields. The curriculum aims at inspiring students to break through professional limitations for experiencing the innovation process from idea into product. The students are self-organized as a team and construct a prototype collaboratively. Instructors from industrial give a practical perspective lesson and provide market information, funding and technical support. Students in the course are fostered six expected abilities, including creativity, practical, engineering process, team-working, communication and expressiveness. Ideas from students become the topic of a project after competing in three eliminating rounds. All competitions are graded and ranked by the participators (teachers, students, instructors from academic and industry). Finally, six ideas having the opportunity to become prototypes are developed successfully with various properties. Most of students indicated that the curriculum provided them a new training experience, interesting learning style and useful content of courses.

Win-Bin Huang, Junjie Shang, Jiang Chen, Yanyi Huang, Ge Li, Haixia Zhang

The Design of an Educational Game for Mobile Devices

The importance of computing education is well known across different fields from STEM to Computer Science, from Humanities to Social Science. Educating the younger generation to 21st century skills is advocated by many international organizations since these skills can be used across several disciplines. Shifting from educating students to be user of a software tool to be designer of customization of existing tool to their needs or even creators of software artifacts designed around specific needs is deemed the major challenge that educators are facing. This paper describes an educational game that by using modern and appealing technologies such as smartphones and mobile devices presents a game that interleaves ludic and educational aspects. The paper describes the main design goals of an educational game as well as the educational design of the learning path centered around a set of topics organized in different levels. The levels are designed in accordance with the Bloom taxonomy and each level has different stages with increasing grade of difficulties.

Daniela Giordano, Francesco Maiorana

Activating Natural Science Learning by Augmented Reality and Indoor Positioning Technology

In recent years, with the rapid development of information technology, educational technologies have been used successfully in enriching learning content and improve learning efficiency. This study attempts to develop an assisted learning system for increasing students’ motivation by creating flexible learning path. The purpose of the designed system is to bridging the gap between formal and informal learning on natural science subject. Augmented reality and indoor positioning technologies have been implemented in the system to guide learners to construct their knowledge in the informal learning environment, National Museum of Natural Science. Learners can not only receive virtual information left by other learners in such space, but also leave their own learning experience and share with others. Additionally, the system also analyzes individualized learning subject. By doing so, other learners who have the same interests could find an efficient way to learn.

Tien-Chi Huang, Yu-Wen Chou, Yu Shu, Ting-Chieh Yeh

Using Particle Swarm Method to Optimize the Proportion of Class Label for Prototype Generation in Nearest Neighbor Classification

Nearest classification with prototype generation methods would be successful on classification in data mining. In this paper, we modify the encoded form of the individual to combine with the proportion for each class label as the extra attributes in each individual solution, besides the use of the PSO algorithm with the Pittsburgh’s encoding method that include the attributes of all of the prototypes and get the perfect accuracy, and then to raise up the rate of prediction accuracy.

Jui-Le Chen, Shih-Pang Tseng, Chu-Sing Yang

A Novel Genetic Algorithm for Test Sheet Assembling Problem in Learning Cloud

The assessment is the most effectively tool for the teachers to realized the learning status of the learners. The test sheet assembling is an important job in the E-learning. In the future learning cloud environment, the large amount of items would be aggregated into the itembank from various sources. The test sheet assembling algorithm should be with the ability of abstract the needed information directly from the items. This paper proposed an effective method based on genetic algorithm to solve the test sheet assembling problem. The experimental result shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Shih-Pang Tseng, Long-Yeu Chung, Po-Lin Huang, Ming-Chao Chiang, Chu-Sing Yang

Modern Learning Technologies and Applications with Smart Mobile Devices

Frontmatter

Investigation of Google+ with Mobile Device Implement into Public Health Nursing Practice Course

In recent years, mobile device assisted clinical practice learning is popular for the nursing school students. The introduction of mobile devices not only saves manpower and avoids the errors, but also enhances nursing school students’ professional knowledge and skills. In order to respond to the demands of different learning strategies and reinforce the maintenance of learning system, new Cloud Learning is gradually introduced to instructional environment. This study introduces mobile devices and Cloud Learning in public health nursing practice with their advantages and adopts Google+ integrating different application tools as the learning platform. The users can save and use the data by all devices with wireless internet. According to findings of this study, learning effectiveness of the learners adopting Google+ is higher than that in traditional learning. Most of the students and nursing educator have positive attitude and are satisfied with the innovative learning method.

Ting-Ting Wu, Shu-Hsien Huang

Cognitive Diffusion Model with User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning to Promote High Level Cognitive Processes

This study proposed Cognitive Diffusion Model to investigate the diffusion and transition of students’ cognitive processes in different learning periods (i.e. pre-schooling, after-schooling, crossing the chasm, and high cognitive processes). In order to enable majority of students crossing the chasm, i.e. bridge lower and higher levels of cognitive processes such as from understanding the knowledge that students learn in class to applying it to solve daily-life problems, this study proposes User-Oriented Context-to-Text Recognition for Learning (U-CTRL). Students participating at learning activities can capture learning objects and then recognize them into text by using U-CTRL. Finally, this study presents a case that shows how to facilitate students’ cognition in English through applying the knowledge to solve daily-life problems with U-CTRL and how to evaluate the case.

Wu-Yuin Hwang, Rustam Shadiev, Yueh-Min Huang

A Study of the Reader Recommendation Service Based on Learning Commons for Satisfaction of ePortfolio Users

This study implements co-interest recommending service embedded in ePortfolio for managing and sharing reader reading book experience from library records. We also propose five hypotheses based on proposed research model. Two hundred eleven Taiwanese graduate and undergraduate students participated in this research. The experimental results have shown that five hypotheses were supported.

Yu-Qing Huang, Cheng-Hsu Huang, Jen-Hua Yang, Tien-Wen Sung

A Study of the Wikipedia Knowledge Recommendation Service for Satisfaction of ePortfolio Users

This study extended a conventional ePortfolio by proposed Wikipedia knowledge recommendation service (WKRS). Participants included 100 students taking courses at National Central University which were divided into experimental group and control group. The control group students and experimental group students have created their learning portfilios by using ePortfolio with WKRS and conventional ePortfolio without WKRS, respectively. The data for this study was collected over 3 months. The experimental results have shown that the learners’ satisfaction, system use, system quality and information/knowledge quality of experimental group students have significant progress than control group students.

Cheng-Hsu Huang, Yu-Qing Huang, Jen-Hua Yang, Wen-Yen Wang

Using Personal Smart Devices as User Clients in a Classroom Response System

This study proposed a classroom response system (CRS) different from existing commercial product. Modern and widespread used personal smart devices are utilized as the teacher-side controller and student-side response devices in the CRS instead of early infrared or radio frequency-based remote control. A prototype was developed for the proposed CRS, and it will be kept developing for further full functionality in CRS with the advantages and features of smart devices and modern network technologies.

Tien-Wen Sung, Chu-Sing Yang, Ting-Ting Wu

Embedded Computing

Frontmatter

3D Bidirectional-Channel Routing Algorithm for Network-Based Many-Core Embedded Systems

Network-on-Chip (NoC) is an emerging technology designed for the communication of IPs in an embedded system. This paper proposes a 3D (Three-Dimensional) model for a Bi-directional NoC (BiNoC). This three-dimensional model inspires the development of a new routing algorithm for BiNoC, called Bidirectional Routing (Bi-Routing). Bi-Routing is a fully adaptive routing algorithm using different layers in the proposed three-dimensional model to avoid deadlock without prohibiting the use of any path. As such, Bi-Routing can improve the load balance and reduce the packet latency of an NoC. Experimental simulation results demonstrated superior performance compared with existing routing methods.

Wen-Chung Tsai, Yi-Yao Weng, Chun-Jen Wei, Sao-Jie Chen, Yu-Hen Hu

An Energy-Aware Routing Protocol Using Cat Swarm Optimization for Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, we propose an energy-aware routing protocol for wireless sensor networks. Our design is based on the ladder diffusion algorithm and cat swarm optimization algorithm. With the properties of ladder diffusion algorithm, our protocol can avoid the generation of circle routes and provide the backup routes. Besides, integrating cat swarm optimization can effectively provide better efficiency than previous works. Experimental results demonstrate that our design reduces the execution time for finding the routing path by 57.88 % compared with a very recent research named LD.

Lingping Kong, Chien-Ming Chen, Hong-Chi Shih, Chun-Wei Lin, Bing-Zhe He, Jeng-Shyang Pan

Software Baseband Optimization Except Channel Decoding for PC-Based DVB-T Software Radio Receiver

The software radio has the advantages of flexibility, low cost and multimode ability, but the major disadvantage is the slower speed. To increase the speed of PC-based software DVB-T receiver, we need implement the baseband signal processing algorithms much faster. In this thesis, we discuss faster implementation of (1) 16QAM de-mapper to bits, (2) expanding_channel coefficient value in Viterbi decoder, and (3) inner de-interleaver and depuncturer. The speed of these three blocks is 6.64x, 0.57x and 0.88x faster.

Shu-Ming Tseng, Yao-Teng Hsu, Yen-Yu Chang, Tseng-Chun Lee

In-Time Transaction Accelerator Architecture for RDBMS

In this paper, we propose a hardware architecture for in-time transaction accelerator that reduces the bottlenecks between the DB server and the DB storage in margin FX trading system’s RDBMS (Relational Database Management System). In-time transaction accelerator located between the DB server and the DB storage analyzes and processes the queries used for margin FX trading system by co-processing of the CPU and the FPGA. The accelerator analyzes the patterns and the consistency of the queries to reduce the total database access in order to increase the RDBMS’s throughput.

Su Jin Kim, Seong Mo Lee, Ji Hoon Jang, Yeong Seob Jeong, Sang Don Kim, Seung Eun Lee

Intra-Body Communication for Personal Area Network

The intra-body communication uses the human body as a conducting wire, providing the simplicity and the security. Although the communication distance is limited within a body-area, it is useful on the construction of personal area network. In this paper, we introduce our prototype intra-body communication module using the FPGA. The proposed system has the FSK modulator and the demodulator. These modulation methods are chosen after body-channel analysis. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our intra-body communication module for establishing the PAN (Personal Area Network).

Sang Don Kim, Ju Seong Lee, Yeong Seob Jeong, Ji Hoon Jang, Seung Eun Lee

mrGlove: FPGA-Based Data Glove for Heterogeneous Devices

In this paper, we propose a glove based equipment (mrGlove) for a user interface that controls a device through hand motion recognition. The mrGlove provides more user experience compared to conventional devices such as a keyboard and a touchscreen. Our mrGlove is able to control a heterogeneous device (Windows or Android) that offers more convenience and user experience. Experimental results prove the feasibility of our proposal for enhancing convenience and user experience by obtaining control of an object through motion recognition in the PC and the smartphone.

Seong Mo Lee, Ji Hoon Jang, Dae Young Park, Sang Don Kim, Ju Seong Lee, Seon Kyeong Kim, Seung Eun Lee

A Novel Wireless Context-Aware Network of Service Robot

With the improvement of sensors, intelligence and wireless communication technologies, the service robot is faced with a new rapid development opportunity, which can utilize pervasive computing of wireless network to sensing everything happened in whole context. This paper presents a novel service robot global context-aware network, and puts emphasis on four key issues, such as ultra wideband radio, wireless positioning technology, wireless body area network and dynamic Bayesian network.

Jianqi Liu, Qinruo Wang, Hehua Yan, Bi Zeng, Caifeng Zou

Architecture of Desktop as a Service Supported by Cloud Computing

Traditional desktop virtualization assumed the communication between client and cloud server happened on high-speed network, but as popularization of multimedia application, a large amount of data result in network congestion. With the development of cloud computing, desktop as a service is emerged as a new service for desktop delivery. This paper presents a new architecture of DaaS supported by client and protocol co-designed method, which deploys hardware microprocessor to encode and decode the channel data in client, and decreases the transmission data over the network by compression algorithm and protocol optimization.

Jianqi Liu, Hehua Yan, Caifeng Zou, Hui Suo

Lattice Boltzmann Method for the Velocity Analysis of Polymer Melt in Vane Extruder

After

s

ome mixed methods in polymer processing are summarized, the new equipment is introduced which is called vane plasticizing extruder with elongational flow field. Then the unit of vane geometry is analyzed, and the analysis method of vane extruder conveying state is put forward by using the lattice Boltzmann method. On this base, physical model and mathematical model are established. Calculation of velocity distribution and quantitative description of the elongational deformation rate shows there has elongational rheological in the vane plasticizing extruder. Periodic extensional flow field has very good mixing effect in polymer processing.

Jianbo Li, Jinping Qu, Xiaoqiang Zhao, Guizhen Zhang

Integrated Approach for Modeling Cyber Physical Systems

Cyber physical systems contain three parts: control part, communication part and physical part. In this paper, we propose an integrated approach for modeling cyber physical systems. Differential Dynamic Logic is used for modeling control part, Communicating Sequential Process (CSP) is applied to specify communication part, and Modelica is used for modeling physical part of cyber physical systems. The proposed approach is illustrated by a case study of the one-street style of vehicles on the street.

Shuguang Feng, Lichen Zhang

Specification of Railway Cyber Physical Systems Using AADL

Railway cyber physical systems involve interactions between software controllers, communication networks, and physical devices. These systems are among the most complex cyber physical systems being designed by humans, but the complexities of railway cyber physical systems make their development a significant technical challenge. Various development technologies are now indispensable for quickly developing safe and reliable transportation systems. In this paper, we apply AADL to specify railway cyber physical systems and give a detailed analysis and design of the CBTC system. The CBTC system is split into four subsystems and makes friendly communication between the other three subsystems connecting to the data communication subsystem. We apply AADL to model each subsystem and give a detailed analysis and modeling, and make an effective integration of all subsystems together to form a complete CBTC system finally.

Lichen Zhang

Formal Specification of Railway Control Systems

Train control systems must provide a high level of safety as they are a very important component and responsible for the safe operation of a train. To meet safety and reliability requirements, formal techniques must be used to specify train control systems. In this paper, we uses CSP, Object-Z and Clock to specify the Railway Control System concerning both the linear track and crossing area, especially the time delay between any two aspects of the railway system.

Bingqing Xu, Lichen Zhang

A Clock Based Approach to the Formal Specification of Cyber Physical Systems

Many cyber-physical systems are under real-time constraints, and thus a critical research challenge is how to ensure time predictability of cyber physical systems. The paper describes the case studies in applying clock theory to the industrial problems. The clock theory described is very simple, in that it models clocks as potentially infinite lists of reals. Xeno’s paradox and similar problems are avoided by specifying limits on clock rates, which effectively means that the model sits somewhere between a discrete synchronous model and a fully dense continuous time model as assumed by some other formalisms. Case studies show that using clock theory to specify cyber physical systems can give a more detailed description of the every subsystem and give a much more considerate observation of the time line and sequence of every event.

Bingqing Xu, Lichen Zhang

A Genetic-Based Load Balancing Algorithm in OpenFlow Network

Load balancing service is essential for distributing workload across server farms or data centers and mainly provided by dedicated hardware. In recent years, the concept of Software-Defined Networking (SDN) has been applied successfully in the real network environment, especially by OpenFlow designs. This paper presents an OpenFlow-based load balancing system with the genetic algorithm. This system can distribute large data from clients to different servers more efficiently according to load balancing policies. Furthermore, with the pre-configured flow table entries, each flow can be directed in advance. Once the traffic burst or server loading increased suddenly, the proposed genetic algorithm can help balance workload of server farms. The experiments demonstrate the better performance of the proposed method compared to other approaches.

Li-Der Chou, Yao-Tsung Yang, Yuan-Mao Hong, Jhih-Kai Hu, Bill Jean

QoS Modeling of Cyber Physical Systems by the Integration of AADL and Aspect-Oriented Methods

This paper proposes an aspect-oriented QoS modeling method based on AADL. Aspect-Oriented development method can decrease the complexity of models by separating its different concerns. In model-based development of cyber physical systems this separation of concerns is more important given the QoS concerns addressed by Cyber physical Systems. These concerns can include timeliness, fault-tolerance, and security Architecture Analysis and Design Language (AADL) is a standard architecture description language to design and evaluate software architectures for embedded systems already in use by a number of organizations around the world. In this paper, we present our current effort to extend AADL to include new features for separation of concerns., we make a in-depth study of AADL extension for QoS. Finally, we illustrate QoS aspect-oriented modeling via an example of transportation cyber physical system.

Lichen Zhang

Assessment of Performance in Data Center Network Based on Maximum Flow

Recently, data center networks (DCN) have received significant attention from the academic and industry. However, researches of DCN are mainly concentrated on the improvement of network architectures and the design of routing protocols, or the performance evaluation from the perspective of node importance. In contrast to existing solutions, in this paper, we propose using maximum-flow theory to assess the network performance. Firstly, we abstract two kinds of typical DCN architectures and then formulate and convert the performance analysis of those architectures into a maximum-flow problem including a supersource and a supersink. Secondly, we get the value of maximum-flow by using Edmonds and Goldberg algorithm. Last but not the least, based on the theory of maximum-flow and Minimal cut sets, we get the critical edges for each architecture. Extended experiments and analysis show that our method is effective and indeed introduce low overhead on computation. In addition, the method and issues observed in this paper is generic and can be widely used in newly proposed DCN architectures.

Kai Peng, Rongheng Lin, Binbin Huang, Hua Zou, Fangchun Yang

A Situation-Oriented IoT Middleware for Resolution of Conflict Contexts Based on Combination of Priorities

Situation-aware service is recognized as an emerging research issue in ubiquitous computing. It becomes more important and significant with the recent progress in IoT (Internet of Things), since the situations considered in IoT are more complex, become global, and cause more conflict. In this paper, a middleware for management conflict situations was designed, to prompt the development of context-aware services. It is characterized by its ability of situation-oriented, paying attention to relations among users (and situations as well) and smart objects around. Eventually, following issues were solved: (a) a method for detecting (i.e., being aware of) a specific situation, and triggering corresponding service; and (b) an algorithm for conflict situations/contexts management. A diagram of situation state transition (DSST) was proposed to specify states of a situation. A set of situation-oriented ECA rules are presented to reason the situations’ states based on sensed data. Policies based on DSST for resolving conflicts were also given. The experiment results demonstrate the feasibility of proposed method, and the performance of proposed situation-oriented policies.

Z. Cheng, J. Wang, T. Huang, P. Li, N. Yen, J. Tsai, Y. Zhou, L. Jing

Data Transmission Mechanism in Cluster-Based Wireless Sensor Networks with Mobile Sink

In traditional wireless sensor networks, the sensed data will be forwarded to sink by multi-hop, so that the hot spot problem will happen on the nodes near the sink. The power consumption of these nodes is higher than others, these nodes will be dead sooner. It leads to the network lifetime decreasing. We proposed a data transmission mechanism using mobile sink to solve this problem. We use two threshold values to prevent data overflow. If the data buffer of cluster head exceed to 1st threshold, the node will call sink to come and transmit data. If the sink didn’t arrive the transmission range of the node, and the data buffer exceed to 2nd threshold. Instead of forwarding data to sink directly by multi-hop, we use forwarding data to cluster head of neighboring cluster to help buffer the exceeded data. It can decrease the number of node which has to help to help to forward data, so that it can decrease the power consumption of network, and prolong the network lifetime.

Ying-Hong Wang, Yu-Jie Lin, Shao-Wei Tsao

Border Detection of Skin Lesions on a Single System on Chip

High speed image processing is becoming increasingly important in medical imaging. Using the state-of-the-art ZYNQ-7000 system on chip (SoC) has made it possible to design powerful vision systems running software on an ARM processor and accelerating it from hardware resources on a single chip. In this paper, we take the advantage of accelerating an embedded system design on a single SoC, which offers the required features for real-time processing of skin cancer images. Different edge detection approaches such as Sobel, Kirsch, Canny and LoG have been implemented on ZYNQ-7000 for border detection of skin lesions, which can be used in early diagnosis of melanoma. The results show that the extended 5 × 5 canny edge detection implemented on the proposed embedded platform has better performance in compare with other reported methods. The performance evaluation of this approach has shown good processing time of 60 fps for real time applications.

Peyman Sabouri, Hamid GholamHosseini, John Collins

A New Computer Based Differential Relay Framework for Power Transformer

A differential relay that is very sensitive relay operating even at its limits may be used for protecting a power transformer. However, this characteristic may lead to unnecessary tripping due to transient currents. In order to avoid this unnecessary tripping, estimated harmonics of these currents may be required which need great computation efforts. In this paper, a new frame work is proposed using PC interfaced with a data acquisition card AD622, which acquires real-time signals of the currents, process them numerically in the computer and outputs tripping signal to the circuit breaker. All algorithms of differential protection function and blocking techniques have been implemented using the Simulink/Matlab. To validate the present work, the performance of developed relay is tested by signals generated by Simulink/MATLAB simulator under different conditions. The test results show that this proposed scheme provides good discrimination between the transient currents and the internal fault currents.

Rachid Bouderbala, Hamid Bentarzi

A New Computer Based Quadrilateral Distance Relay Framework for Power Transmission Lines

In conventional transmission line protection, a three–zone stepped directional distance scheme is used to provide the primary as well as remote backup protection. The voltage and current phasors are needed by the distance relay for determining the impedance. In this paper, a new frame work is proposed using Data Acquisition Card, which acquires real-time signals of the voltages and currents, processes numerically them in PC and outputs tripping signal to the circuit breaker. Algorithm of quadrilateral distance protection has been implemented using the Simulink/Matlab. To validate the present work, the performance of developed relay is tested by signals generated by Simulink/MATLAB simulator under different conditions. The obtained simulation results are satisfactory.

Abderrahmane Ouadi, Hamid Bentarzi

A Study for a Low-Power Way Predictor for Embedded Data Caches

This paper introduces an enhanced predictor to reduce power consumption for a way-prediction cache used for embedded systems. The proposed predictor shows better prediction accuracy and lower power consumption compared to any conventional data caches. In addition, two representative cache replacement policies,

LRU

(Least recently Used) and

random

, are examined for low-power data caches; simulation results show that

random

reduce power consumption more than

LRU

for highly-associative way-prediction caches. SimpleScalar and Cacti simulators are used for these simulations with SPEC benchmark programs.

Yul Chu

A Density Control Scheme Based on Disjoint Wakeup Scheduling in Wireless Sensor Network

Wireless sensor networks consist of many nodes with sensing, computation, and wireless communications capabilities. Due to difficulty of recharging battery, energy efficiency is essential problem in wireless sensor network. We propose a density control scheme based on disjoint wakeup scheduling which can provide a full connectivity to sink node with a minimum set of active nodes in a highly dense network to prolong the network lifetime.

EunHwa Kim

Multimedia Computing

Frontmatter

A Human Voice Song Requesting System Based on Connected Vehicle in Cloud Computing

Traditional on-board vehicle computer (OVC) systems do not support speech recognition and do not have massive song library due to their limited storage capacity and computing power. Furthermore, it is very inconvenient to update the song library to keep it up-to-date. The advent of cloud computing in conjunction with mobile computing has enabled human voice song requesting and mass song playing from on-board computer in a vehicle. A system of human voice song requesting from OVC connected to the music cloud has been proposed. Self-adaptive speech recognition and speech recognition technology based on keywords from song titles has been adopted. By recognizing the voice on a song title in a cloud environment, the digital content of the selected song stored in the cloud is streamed to and then played back in the OVC. As a result, the system improves the safety of driving and enables automobile entertainment more humane.

Ding Yi, Jian Zhang

Access Control System by Face Recognition Based on S3C2440

Face recognition technology has become more and more important in the field of biometric identification because of its advantages. A face recognition system combining hardware and software based on S3C2440 is presented in this paper. We adopt S3C2440 embedded development board as the hardware platform. This paper creates an embedded Linux software platform and our system is divided into four sections by their function: graphical user interface, image capture, face detection and face recognition. The whole system is tested as an access control system in practical situation. Experimental results show that our system has a good performance in both accuracy and efficiency of face recognition in access control.

Yongling Liu, Yong Lu, Yue Song

A Secure Digital Watermark Skeleton Based on Cloud Computing Web Services

More and more digital watermark systems provide the services via the internet. The watermark embedding and detection technology components are the parts of the web services of the sites. This paper designs a secure digital watermark skeleton based on cloud computing, pushing these web services to the cloud. The entire skeleton is based on cloud computing architecture, including service delivery, data storage and security, data lifetime, etc. The skeleton combines the digital watermark and cloud computing technologies with the certain reference value, it also provides efficient digital watermark within the large number of complicating requests to protect digital products in the marketing of multimedia network environment.

Jian Zhang, Ding Yi

Video Transmission Quality Improvement Under Multi-Hop Wireless Network Architecture

As wireless local area networks have been widely deployed and smart devices are becoming common in human everyday life, the demanding for video applications, such as video conference, video on demand, and video games is still increasing. However, the bandwidth in wireless networks is limited and channel quality is varying. As a result, how to provide a better delivered video quality over wireless networks is challenging. Also, the current solutions to better video transmission are almost only considering single hop transmission. When those solutions are applied in multi-hop wireless networks, such as wireless mesh network or VANET, the delivered video quality may not be good as one hop transmission. Therefore, we propose a new mechanism to improve video transmission in multi-hop wireless networks. The new mechanism contains two methods. One is to privilege the packets that have already traversed more hops. The other is control the number of retransmission for video packets with different importance. Through NS2 simulations, the results show the effectiveness of proposed mechanism.

Chih-Ang Huang, Chih-Cheng Wei, Kawuu W. Lin, Chih-Heng Ke

Mapping IDCT of MPEG2 on Coarse-Grained Reconfigurable Array for Matching 1080p Video Decoding

Coarse-grained reconfigurable array (CGRA) can achieve flexible and highly efficiencies for computing-intensive application such as multimedia, baseband processing and etc. MPEG2 is a popular multimedia algorithm which suits for CGRA. IDCT takes around 29 % of total time for MEPG2 Decoding, which is one of main parts of MPEG2. IDCT belongs to computation-intensive which fits for CGRA. The paper explores the parallelism of IDCT algorithm, mapping it on coarse-grained reconfigurable array. The simulation result shows 693 clock cycles are needed to complete 8 × 8 IDCT on REMUS, the cycles needed is just 36 % of XPP, just 24.7 % of ARM. The method improves performance for MPEG2 decoding. The performance fulfils MPEG2 decoding for 1080p @30 fps streams when employs 200 MHz clock frequency.

Guoyong Li, Leibo Liu, Shouyi Yin, Changkui Mao, Shaojun Wei

Green Master Based on MapReduce Cluster

MapReduce is a kind of distributed computing system, and also many people use it nowadays. In this paper, the Green Master based on MapReduce is proposed to solve the problem between load balance and power saving. There are three mechanism proposed by this paper to improve the MapReduce system efficiency. First, a brand new architecture called Green Master is designed in the system. Second, Benchmark Score is added to each services in the cluster. In the last, an algorithm about how to distinguish the high score service and the low score service, and how to use them effectively.

Ming-Zhi Wu, Yu-Chang Lin, Wei-Tsong Lee, Yu-Sun Lin, Fong-Hao Liu

Research on Graphic Digital Text Watermarking Research Framework

This paper proposes a research framework for graphic digital text Watermarking algorithms and methods. We summarized graphic text watermarking after a brief review of digital text watermarking, and propose the research framework which consists of 8 levels, pixel, line, etymon, character, row, paragraph, page, and chapter. And we give the details of pixel level details and review most graphic text watermarking of this level as the example. At last we also figure out distribution of nowadays algorithms and discuss further research’s possibility.

Jin Zhang, Xiaowei Liu, Xiaoli Gong, Rui Lu, Zhenlu Chen

A Predictive Method for Workload Forecasting in the Cloud Environment

Cloud computing provides powerful computing capabilities, and supplies users with a flexible pay mechanism, which makes the cloud more convenient. People are getting more and more usage of the cloud environment due to a steady increase of data. In order to improve the performance and energy saving of the cloud computing, the efficiency of resource allocation has become an important issue. In this study, a neural network model with learning algorithm is applied to predict the workload of the cloud server. The resource manager deployed on the cloud server provides the service of managing the jobs with a resource allocation algorithm. With this prediction mechanism, cloud service providers can forecast the following time workload of cloud servers in advance. The experimental results show that resources can be allocated efficiently and become load balanced by proposed mechanism. Therefore, the cloud server can avoid the problem of inadequate resources.

Yao-Chung Chang, Ruay-Shiung Chang, Feng-Wei Chuang

Implementation of Face Detection Using OpenCV for Internet Dressing Room

Human face detection is an important technology that is positively developed by industry. Therefore, this paper proposes a dressing application that adopts a face detection technology for better human life. Furthermore, this paper detects human face by using the combination of OpenCV and Internet camera. When the proposed application detect a human face, the proposed application dresses target on a screen, such as putting one selected cloth on the correspond position of human. Finally, the proposed application has a dressing ability for customers who are shopping clothes on Internet, and the dressing ability improves the sales performance of Internet store.

Li-Der Chou, Chien-Cheng Chen, Chun-Kai Kui, Der-Ching Chang, Tai-Yu Hsu, Bing-Ling Li, Yi-Ching Lee

A Comparative Study on Routing Protocols in Underwater Sensor Networks

Underwater sensor networks (UWSNs) are a class of emerging networks that experience variable and high propagation delays and limited available bandwidth. Because of the different environment under the ocean, the whole protocol stack should be re-designed to fit for the surroundings. In this paper, we only focus on the routing protocols in the network layer. We survey the state-of-the-art routing protocols and give a comparison of them with respect to the important challenging issues in UWSNs. The pros and cons are discussed and compared for the routing protocols.

Jian Shen, Jin Wang, Jianwei Zhang, Shunfeng Wang

A Novel Verifiably Encrypted Signature from Weil Pairing

A novel efficient verifiably encrypted signature (VES) which makes use of the Weil pairing is presented in this paper. VES can be used in optimistic contract signing protocols to enable fair exchange. Compared with the previous schemes, our proposed VES scheme is more efficient.

Jian Shen, Jin Wang, Yuhui Zheng, Jianwei Zhang, Shunfeng Wang

Location-Aware Routing Protocol for Underwater Sensor Networks

As the network communications technology developing, a new type of networks has appeared in the daily life which is named underwater sensor networks (UWSNs). Routing protocols in UWSNs should ensure the reliability of message transmission, not just decrease the delay. In this paper, we propose a novel routing protocol named Location-Aware Routing Protocol (LARP) for UWSNs, where the location information of nodes are used to help the transmission of the message. Simulation results show that the proposed LARP outperforms the existing routing protocols in terms of packet delivery ratio and normalized routing overhead.

Jian Shen, Jin Wang, Jingwei Wang, Jianwei Zhang, Shunfeng Wang

Efficient Key Management Scheme for SCADA System

Currently Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA) system intends to be connected to the open operating environment. Thus, protecting SCADA systems from malicious attacks is getting more and more attention. A key management scheme is essential for secure SCADA communications. In this paper, we propose an efficient key management scheme for SCADA systems with good security properties and performance.

Jian Shen, Jin Wang, Yongjun Ren, Jianwei Zhang, Shunfeng Wang

Smart System

Frontmatter

Dynamic Migration Technology Platform in the Cloud Computer Forensics Applied Research

This paper presents a new cloud computing environment, computer forensics, and migration of a virtual machine image file, the virtual machine images from cloud computing platform migration to the local forensics environment analysis, the cloud computing platform, electronic evidence and the performance and application of experimental analysis comparing the two migration strategy.

Lijuan Yang, Shuping Yang

Research on Parameters of Affinity Propagation Clustering

The affinity propagation clustering is a new clustering algorithm. The volatility is introduced to measure the degree of the numerical oscillations. The research focuses on two main parameters of affinity propagation: preference and damping factor, and considers their relation with the numerical oscillating and volatility, and we find that the volatility can be reduced by increasing the damping factor or preference, which provides the basis for eliminating the numerical oscillating.

Bin Gui, Xiaoping Yang

Ant Colony Algorithm and its Application in QoS Routing with Multiple Constraints

In the modern communication network, QoS routing optimization problem acts as one of the most important types of discrete optimization problem which could normally be solved by heuristic algorithm. And Ant Colony Algorithm as a new heuristic optimization algorithm shows good performance in solving complex optimization problems. In this paper, Ant Colony Algorithm is presented to solve the QoS unicast routing problem under the constraints of bandwidth and delay, using the mechanism that ants are able to find the optimal path through pheromone and joining the heuristic strategy. The simulation results show that this algorithm can quickly find the routing that meets the constraints of time delay and bandwidth with minimum cost and minimum time delay.

H. E. Huilin, Y. I. Fazhen

The Research and Exploration of the Development Trend of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is praised as the third-time IT revolution following the transformation of the personal computer, and the Internet change, its future trend of development will greatly impact on the existing IT concept that will change the business models and and people’s way of life and work. This paper do the summary analysis and research for present global cloud computing, put forward the development measures and the problem to solve about China’s cloud computing.

Shuping Yang, Lijuan Yang

The Research of Intelligent Storage System Based on UHF RFID

Warehousing is an important link of the enterprise operation. Usually, traditional management of warehousing has many defects and low efficiency. We need to change its management mode for improving the efficiency of logistics. Currently, most of warehousing and logistics take barcode as an intelligent way on management. In this way, the intelligence of the system has greatly improved than before, but it still need a lot of manpower and material resources into warehousing and logistics. This thesis designed an automatic identification system which bases on UHF-RFID and embedded control technology. The system can identify goods wirelessly, and realize automated management of warehousing goods.

Yong Lu, Zhao Wu, Zeng-Mo Gao

An Efficient Detecting Mechanism for Cross-Site Script Attacks in the Cloud

Cloud computing is one of the most prospect technologies due to its flexibility and low-cost usage. Several security issues in the cloud are raised by researchers. Cross-site script (XSS) attack is one of the most threats in the Internet. In the past, there are many literatures for detecting XSS attacks were proposed. Unfortunately, fewer studies focus on the detection of XSS attacks in the cloud. In this paper, we propose a mechanism to detect XSS attacks in cloud environments. The framework is also presented. In particular, our mechanism is not need to modify browsers and applications. We demonstrate our mechanism has higher accuracy rate and lower impact on performance of applications in the experiment. It sufficiently shows our mechanism is suitable for real-time detection in XSS attacks for cloud environments.

Wei Kan, Tsu-Yang Wu, Tao Han, Chun-Wei Lin, Chien-Ming Chen, Jeng-Shyang Pan

A Novel Clustering Based Collaborative Filtering Recommendation System Algorithm

Traditional collaborative filtering algorithms compute the similarity of items or users according to a user-item rating matrix. However, traditional collaborative filtering algorithms face very severe data sparsity, which causes a discount of the performance of recommendation. In this paper, we proposed an improved clustering based collaborative filtering algorithm for dealing with data sparsity. We first clustered the users set into k clusters using K-means algorithm. Then we presented a formula to estimate those absent ratings in the user-item rating matrix and acquired a high density matrix. After that, we use the new rating matrix to calculate the similarity of items and predict the ratings of a target user on items which have not been rated and recommend Top-N items to the target user. We also implemented experiments and demonstrated that our proposed algorithm has better accuracy than traditional collaborative filtering algorithms.

Qi Wang, Wei Cao, Yun Liu

A Secure and Flexible Data Aggregation Framework for Smart Grid

Smart grids are electrical grids that take advantage of information and communication technologies to achieve energy-efficiency, automation and reliability. Smart grids include renewable energy, electrical vehicles, phasor measurement unit (PMU) and advanced metering infrastructure system (AMI) etc. The system’s availability can be achieved via data aggregation technique by reducing the overhead of networks. However, since smart grids have become more popular in recent years, many researches have been done on the security issue of the smart grid such as confidentiality, integrity and availability. For these security issues, many researchers adopt secure data aggregation algorithms to protect the data transmission and to reduce the overhead of networks. In this paper, we propose a secure data aggregation framework, which provides multi-level security for different kinds of applications.

Lun-Pin Yuan, Bing-Zhe He, Chang-Shiun Liu, Hung-Min Sun

Data Integrity Checking for iSCSI with Dm-verity

With the ever increasing popularity of web service and e-commerce, there is a high demand on data storage. Because of the development of Internet infrastructure and the low cost of deployment, implementing storage over IP has become a trend. For the utilization of network storage, one important issue is the way to achieve data integrity. Usually, the application of Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI), which is a kind of network storage technology, is to store some read-only or important data remotely. I/O requests, which may cause data loss and data error, are frequent in a traditional distributed network storage system like iSCSI. In this paper, the data integrity of iSCSI is analyzed and Dm-verity mechanism is utilized to provide read-only transparent integrity checking for iSCSI, which could avert data loss and data error, increasing overall system reliability.

Rui Zhou, Zhu Ai, Jun Hu, Qun Liu, Qingguo Zhou, Xuan Wang, Hai Jiang, Kuan-Ching Li

Opportunistic Admission and Scheduling of Remote Processes in Large Scale Distributed Systems

The large scale loosely-coupled distributed systems such as, grid and cloud computing systems employ opportunistic execution mechanism of remote processes in order to utilize computing resources of idle nodes. The opportunistic admission and scheduling of remote processes at a node need to balance the enhanced resource utilization and the performance of local processes at the node. This paper proposes the design and implementation of a novel Admission Control and Scheduling (ACS) algorithm for opportunistic execution of remote processes in a distributed system based on online estimation method. The experimental results illustrate that the algorithm can schedule the CPU-bound and IO-bound remote processes without degrading overall performance of a node. The CPU-utilization and memory-utilization of a node are enhanced by 26.65 and 24.5 % respectively on the average without degrading the performance of local processes executing at the node.

Susmit Bagchi

Feasible Life Extension Concept for Aged Tactical Simulation System by HLA Architecture Design

The military owned simulation systems are facing legacy situation causing sky-high maintenance cost and unstable condition. It would be costly and risky for retiring them without considering life extension alternative. The objective of this research is to provide a feasible concept for migrating the structure of aged Tactical Training Simulation (TTS) system to High Level Architecture (HLA), which not only can retain the original feature but also offer an extra function of interoperability. This research offers a solution for military legacy simulation systems and paves the way for creating the synthetic battlefield environment that military can benefit its training, planning, acquisition and resource allocation.

Lin Hui, Kuei Min Wang

Mobile Agents for CPS in Intelligent Transportation Systems

Recently, cyber-physical systems (CPS) have emerged as a promising direction to enrich the interactions between physical and virtual worlds. Because of the large-scale features of CPS, mobile agents (MA) technology can promote the performance of CPS. In this article, we first introduce the concept and characteristics of CPS, MA, and intelligent transportation system (ITS). Then, we propose the structure of intelligent transportation CPS (ITCPS). On this basis, giving the case of mobile agents for ITCPS, we exploit a mobile agent by three levels (node level, task level, and combined task level) to reduce the information redundancy and communication overhead. Finally, we in brief outline the technical challenges for ITCPS.

Yingying Wang, Hehua Yan, Jiafu Wan, Keliang Zhou

Improving Spectator Sports Safety by Cyber-Physical Systems: Challenges and Solutions

With the support of wireless networking, cloud computing, and advanced control technology, cyber-physical systems (CPS) applications are gradually becoming a reality. However, different applications (e.g., spectator sports safety) are confronted with diverse challenges and issues. In this article, we innovate an autonomous dynamic spatial panoramic video surveillance system that is a typical CPS to provide effective technologies and systems to protect spectators in safety and security. We first introduce the system model and components, and then propose the methodologies for quality of service (QoS) improvement from the following aspects: distributed real-time panoramic video stitching, autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles, autonomous unmanned ground vehicles, and wireless networking. The proposed methodologies can help the system design and improve the QoS.

Hehua Yan, Zhuohua Liu, Jiafu Wan, Keliang Zhou

MapReduce Application Profiler

MapReduce is a programming model popularized by Google to process large data in clusters and has become a key technology on cloud computing nowadays. Due to the feature of simplicity, MapReduce attracts many application developers to develop related applications. However, MapReduce currently has few solutions to help application developers with the tasks of profiling their applications. In this paper, MapReduce Application Profiler (MRAP) is proposed to facilitate profiling MapReduce applications in clusters.

Tzu-Chi Huang, Kuo-Chih Chu, Chui-Ming Chiu, Ce-Kuen Shieh

Cross Strait Conference on Information Science and Technology

Frontmatter

Research on Micro-Blog Information Perception and Mining Platform

To predict the tendency of Micro-blog information dissemination, provide the early warning of the Internet emergencies, and contribute to the content security of micro-blog, the paper offers a platform for Micro-blog information perceiving and mining. This platform is an integration of Micro-blog data collection and processing module, topic detection and tracking module, user behavior analysis module, trend prediction module, etc. It could access and analyze micro-blog information automatically, leading a positive significance to grasp the emergencies on micro-blog. This paper puts forward methods based on the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) document clustering and hot topics prediction, which could analysis and predict the micro-blog data effectively, avoiding the problems in the traditional algorithm. Also, these methods have a higher accuracy for clustering and prediction.

Xing Wang, Fei Xiong, Yun Liu

A New Algorithm for Personalized Recommendations in Community Networks

In a graph theory model, clustering is the process of division of vertices in groups, with a higher density of edges in groups than among them. In this paper, we introduce a new clustering algorithm for detecting such groups; we use it to analyze some classic social networks. The new algorithm has two distinguished features: non-binary hierarchical tree and the feature of overlapping clustering. A non-binary hierarchical tree is much smaller than the binary-trees constructed by most traditional algorithms; it clearly highlights meaningful clusters which significantly reduce further manual efforts for cluster selections. The present algorithm is tested by several bench mark data sets for which the community structure was known in advance and the results indicate that it is a sensitive and accurate algorithm for extracting community structure from social networks.

Xin Zhou, XinXiang Xing, Yun Liu

Design and Implementation of NGDC Geospatial Metadata Management System

As an important part of the geospatial framework, National Geospatial Data Center (NGDC) is a website which can provide potential users with convenient geospatial metadata query services. It will improve the development of Digital City strongly. This paper firstly analyzes the content of the geospatial metadata. It puts forward the concept of the Integrated Geospatial Metadata based on the analysis of geospatial metadata query conditions entered in the NGDC website. The NGDC geospatial metadata management system is developed according to the Integrated Geospatial Metadata.

Li Zhang

Apply Genetic Algorithm to Cloud Motion Wind

Cloud Motion Wind (CMW) is a very important issue in the meteorology. In this paper, we firstly apply Genetic Algorithm (GA) to the CMW searching to reduce the computational complexity. We propose a novel CMW method, namely GA-CMW. Compared with the traditional Exhaustive CMW (E-CMW) algorithm, GA-CMW can obtain almost the same performance while with only 11 % of the computational complexity required. Generally speaking, the proposed GA-CMW method can obtain the wind vector picture in shorter time, which makes a lot of sense to the resource saving in the practical application.

Jiang Han, Ling Li, Chengcheng Yang, Hui Tong, Longji Zeng, Tao Yang

A Topic Evolution Model Based on Microblog Network

Fission mode of information transmission in the Microblog network presents a challenge to the existing public opinion diffusion model. In order to depict the mechanism of the public opinion transmission in the Microblog network, this paper proposes a topic evolution model based on the complex networks and infectious disease dynamics theory. The model takes the directed scale-free network as the carrier, which synthetically considers the characteristics of topic propagation and its influence factors. In addition, the research performs simulation analysis, of which result mirrors the topic evolution process from common topic into hot topic, and verifies its validity.

Qingling Zhou, Genying Wang, Haiqiang Chen

A Platform for Massive Railway Information Data Storage

With the development of national large-scale railway construction, massive railway information data emerge rapidly, and then how to store and manage these data effectively becomes very significant. This paper puts forward a method based on distributed computing technology to store and manage massive railway information data, builds massive railway information data storage platform by using the Linux cluster technology. This system consists of three levels including data access layer, data management layer, application interface layer, enjoying safety and reliability, low operation cost, fast processing speed, easy expansibility characteristics, which shall satisfy the massive railway information data storage requirement.

Xu Shan, Genying Wang, Lin Liu

Hybrid Data Fusion Method Using Bayesian Estimation and Fuzzy Cluster Analysis for WSN

Data fusion is the process of combining data from multiple sensors in order to minimize the amount of data and get an accurate estimation of the true value. The uncertainties in data fusion are mainly caused by two aspects, device noise and spurious measurement. This paper proposes a new fusion method considering these two aspects. This method consists of two steps. First, using fuzzy cluster analysis, the spurious data can be detected and separated from fusion automatically. Second, using Bayesian estimation, the fusion result is got. The superiorities of this method are the accuracy of the fusion result and the adaptability for occasions.

Huilei Fu, Yun Liu, Zhenjiang Zhang, Shenghua Dai

Enhancements of Authenticated Differentiated Pre-distribution Key Methodology Based on GPSR

Wireless sensor network consists of plentiful energy and computing power-constrained tiny sensor nodes. On the basis of the protection of security, the main goal of our study is to maintain the network life time at a maximum with the appropriate routing protocol. In this article, we will propose a new routing algorithm on the basis of the original routing algorithm. Considering the security of the wireless sensor network, the residual energy of nodes as well as issues such as physical distance, we try to extend the maximum lifetime of a wireless sensor network with all the combination of these factors for routing. This energy-balance routing algorithm takes into account the number of pre-distributed shared keys between the sending node and receiving node, the residual energy of the receiving node and the physical distance between two nodes in order to protect the security at the same time, to maintain the network life time at a maximum.

Lin Sun, Zhen-Jiang Zhang

Research on Kernel Function of Support Vector Machine

Support Vector Machine is a kind of algorithm used for classifying linear and nonlinear data, which not only has a solid theoretical foundation, but is more accurate than other sorting algorithms in many areas of applications, especially in dealing with high-dimensional data. It is not necessary for us to get the specific mapping function in solving quadratic optimization problem of SVM, and the only thing we need to do is to use kernel function to replace the complicated calculation of the dot product of the data set, reducing the number of dimension calculation. This paper introduces the theoretical basis of support vector machine, summarizes the research status and analyses the research direction and development prospects of kernel function.

Lijuan Liu, Bo Shen, Xing Wang

Improved Multi-dimensional Top-k Query Processing Based on Data Prediction in Wireless Sensor Networks

Since the scale of wireless sensor networks is expanding and one single node can sense a variety of data, selecting the data of interest to users from a tremendous data stream has become an important topic. With further development in the field of WSN query, extensive research is being conducted to solve different kinds of query issues. Skyline is a typical query for multi-criteria decision making, and many applications have been developed for it. Studies of multi-dimensional top-k query processing have proven it to be more efficient than traditional centralized scheme. In some cases, variations of observed conditions, such as temperature and humidity, are related to time. Thus, we used a data- prediction method to establish the bi-boundary filter rule, which helps filter the data that may be dropped by the final result set. The bi-boundary filter rules determine whether the received or generated data will be transmitted. We analyzed the simulation results and concluded that the bi-boundary filter rules can be more energy-efficient in situations in which temporal correlation exists.

Zhen-Jiang Zhang, Jun-Ren Jie, Yun Liu

An Improved LMAP++ Protocol Combined with Low-Cost and Privacy Protection

With the fast development of the Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology, the cost and privacy of RFID systems have become an obstacle that prevents it from being deployed in a larger scale. In this paper, we introduce the attacks which the LMAP

++

protocol suffers from briefly. We modify the LMAP

++

protocol by importing hash function on the parameters A and B as well as setting the lowest bit of ID as “1”. Analysis shows that the protocol can improve the security for the traceable and desynchronized problems with reasonable overhead.

Fei Zeng, Haibing Mu, Xiaojun Wen

Empirical Analysis of User Life Span in Microblog

The aim of this work is to study two kinds of user life spans and their connection to the distribution of followers, friends and statuses in microblog. Both the user activity spans and user age approximately follow a two-part exponential distribution. Moreover, the users’ average number of followers and statuses increases linearly with the active span, but the average number of friends does not change significantly during the life span. We plot the distribution of users, followers, friends, and statuses as a cumulative sum to obtain a strict power-law form, which indicates an allometric growth phenomenon. These new findings show that the users’ production capacity is consistent and with self-similar growth ability in different user activity spans. We argue that the scale effect of user count development is the reason for the allometric growth phenomenon in microblog.

WeiGuo Yuan, Yun Liu

Study and Implement of Topology Analysis Based on Hyper-Nodes in GIS

In order to take full advantage of the topology analysis mechanism provided by the Geographical information system (GIS) platform software, the graphical topology method is advised to express the topology in pipe network GIS. This paper puts forward the concept of hyper-node, which has two graphic objects which each belongs to different graphics worlds. It can help implement the topology analysis across different graphics worlds. Finally, the power supply range analysis of electrical equipment (such as transformers in substation) in electric power GIS is implemented, which will validate the feasibility of the topology analysis method based on hyper-nodes.

Li Zhang

A New Lightweight RFID Grouping Proof Protocol

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a key technology for the Internet of things. With the spread of RFID system, the security and privacy related to RFID plays a vital role in applications. At present, EPC C1G2 tags have been widely spread in the commodity retail, pharmaceutical sector, medicine distribution and many other fields. This kind of tags is passive, which means that they have limited power and memory space. Under these conditions, we present a new lightweight protocol for the RFID system with two tags and one reader. In the protocol, we develop a new function to realize the exchange between bits of a vector, which uses fewer resources in computing. In addition pieces of analysis show that the protocol reaches the capabilities of the grouping proofs and is resistant to a variety of attacks.

Ping Huang, Haibing Mu, Changlun Zhang

Iris Recognition

An iris recognition system uses the iris to distinguish the identity of a person using the rich iris texture feature. To effectively remove noise and precisely segment the stable iris region is a crucial stage prior to recognition. Most noises on iris images are caused by occlusion of eyelids or eyelashes in certain areas. In this paper, we propose an iris recognition system which precisely locates and segments iris regions. We extract the iris feature from a relatively reliable portion of the iris region using a DoG filter. Experimental results show that the proposed iris recognition system has satisfactory results in terms of time efficiency and recognition rate.

Hwei Jen Lin, Yue Sheng Li, Yuan Sheng Wang, Shih Min Wei

A LDoS Detection Method Based on Packet Arrival Time

Low-rate Denial of Service (LDoS) attack is a new type of Denial of Service attack, which is difficult for the router and victim site to detect because the attack packets are as many as the valid packets. In consideration of the fact that the features in time domain between attack traffic and valid traffic are different, we present a method to identify such kind of attack and try to trace the potential location of the attacker. We also carry out a simulation to illustrate the usability of this method.

Kun Ding, Lin Liu, Yun Liu

Simplifying Data Migration from Relational Database Management System to Google App Engine Datastore

Cloud computing has been widely introduced because of its ability to increase resource utilization. Furthermore, cloud computing offers resources as services that taken part as one of the next generation computing technologies. Before delivery application to cloud computing environment, the first step is the migration of the data. Migrating data from relational database management system (RDBMS) to Google App Engine is time-consuming problem. Hence, Google App Engine (GAE) Datastore provides NoSQL data storage with configuration file that contains table schema and CSV or XML file. This study presents the method for simplifying data migration from RDBMS to GAE including blob data migration. The proposed method leverages AppCfg to provide convenience way for data migration. As a result, user has eliminated at least 75 % task effort for data migration.

Yao-Chung Chang, Ruay-Shiung Chang, Yudy Chen

A Degree-Based Method to Solve Cold-Start Problem in Network-Based Recommendation

Recommender systems have become increasingly essential in fields where mass personalization is highly valued. In this paper, we propose a model based on the analysis of the similarity between the new item and the object that the users have selected to solve cold-start problem in network-based recommendation. In order to improve the accuracy of the model, we take the degree of the items that have been collected by the user into consideration. The experiments with

MovieLens

data set indicate substantial improvements of this model in overcoming the cold-start problem in network-based recommendation.

Yong Liu, Fan Jia, Wei Cao

Security Flaws of Off-Line Micro Payment Scheme with Dual Signatures

Wuu et al. proposed their off-line micro-payment scheme with dual signatures to provide customers’ anonymity. However, some security flaw is pointed out. To remove this flaw, the channel between bank and trusted party and the channel between the bank and customers should be authenticated and secure.

Shin-Jia Hwang

Mobile Reference Based Localization Mechanism in Grid-Based Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are based on monitoring or managing the sensing area by using the location information with sensor nodes. These sensor nodes are sometimes random deployed, so they have to be aware to their location before starting their tasks. Most sensor nodes need hardware support or receive packets with location information to estimate their location, and this needs lots of time or costs, and may have a huge error. In this paper we present a localization mechanism in wireless sensor networks (MRN). This mechanism can cooperate with node localization algorithm and mobile reference node moving direction scheme. We use a mobile reference node with GPS to move to the whole environment, and we use RSSI and trilateration to estimate unknown nodes’ location. We can obtain more unknown nodes location by mobile reference node moving scheme, and will decreases the energy consumption and average location error.

Ying-Hong Wang, Yi-Hsun Lin, Han-Ming Chang

A Delegation-Based Unlinkable Authentication Protocol for Portable Communication Systems with Non-repudiation

For portable communication systems, the delegation-based authentication protocol provides efficient subsequent login authentication, data confidentiality, User privacy protection, and non-repudiation. However, in all proposed protocols, the non-repudiation of mobile users is based on an impractical assumption that home location registers are trusted. To reduce the HLR’s trust assumption and enhance the non-repudiation of the mobile users, our new delegation-based authentication protocol is proposed. Our protocol also removes the exhaustive search problem in the subsequent login authentication to improve the subsequent login authentication performance. Moreover, the user unlinkability in the subsequent login authentication is also provided in our protocol to enhance the user identity privacy.

Shin-Jia Hwang, Cheng-Han You

A Lightweight Mutual Authentication Protocol for RFID

In order to protect the tag and its communication, the authentication between the tag and the reader as well as its backend database is necessary. The paper proposed a mutual authentication protocol by introducing pointer and check number pool which make a simple random number to hide the ID information and disturb the static answers in challenge-response of the protocol. The check number pair selected from the pool in each authentication turn is also pointed out by a random number which controls the shifting of the pointer in pool. The analysis shows that the protocol can resist the common attacks in RFID communication with low computation overhead.

Changlun Zhang, Haibing Mu

An Approach for Detecting Flooding Attack Based on Integrated Entropy Measurement in E-Mail Server

The aim of this study is to protect an electronic mail (email) server system based on an integrated Entropy calculation via detecting flooding attacks. Lots of approaches have been proposed by many researchers to detect packets accessing email whether are belonging to the normal or abnormal packets. Entropy is an approach of the mathematical theory of Communication; it can be used to measure the uncertainty or randomness in a random variable. A normal email server usually supports the four protocols consists of Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3), Internet Message Access Protocol version 4 (IMAP4), and HTTPS being used by remote web-based email. However, in Internet, there are many flooding attacks will try to paralyze email server system. Therefore, we propose a new approach for detecting flooding attack based on Integrated Entropy Measurement in email server. Our approach can reduce the misjudge rate compared to conventional approaches.

Hsing-Chung Chen, Shian-Shyong Tseng, Chuan-Hsien Mao, Chao-Ching Lee, Rendabel Churniawan

A Forecast Method for Network Security Situation Based on Fuzzy Markov Chain

In order to solve some problems associated with network security situation forecast, this study proposed a new forecast method based on fuzzy Markov chain. In this work, we focus on forecasting the threat value of network combines historical data of safe behavior with the level of threat. We establish unified information database based on multi-source log data mining techniques. By using text categorization and the threat level division, it is capable of calculating the threat value of a period of time. Due to the discrete nature of the threat values of each time and its unfollow-up effect property, considering the fuzziness of safety state, we use fuzzy Markov chain to predict the threat value in next period of time.

Yicun Wang, Weijie Li, Yun Liu

IT Architecture of Multiple Heterogeneous Data

This paper studies the multiple heterogeneous data IT infrastructure issues in Internet, focusing on the data storage management, the integration analysis and the efficient data transmission. On this basis, we propose architectural solutions and key technology programs which can effectively solve and handle the problems of large data trend analysis and risk assessment. Based on the characteristics of big data, considering the flexibility and scalability of the framework and taking in-depth mining the potential value of big data as the future goal, this paper studies and designs data storage and processing framework which can be adapted to developing more application functionality and meet future demand for Internet services and new business for big data processing requirements.

Yun Liu, Qi Wang, Haiqiang Chen

An Implementation Scheme of BB84-Protocol-Based Quantum Key Distribution System

The BB84 protocol is a secure communication solution that has been proved to be unconditionally secure. The quantum key distribution system that is based on this protocol has been gradually developed towards the application stage. This paper proposes a scheme to realize quantum key distribution system based on BB84 protocol using weak coherent light source, polarization controller and delay multiplexing detection technology to prepare single photon, to design photon polarization states orthogonal to each other, and to detect single photon respectively.

Shao-sheng Jiang, Rui-nan Chi, Xiao-jun Wen, Junbin Fang

Precise Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Tracking and Segmentation

In this paper we propose a mean-shift based technique for a precise tracking and segmentation of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) from computed tomography (CT) angiography images. Output data from the proposed method can be used for measurement of aortic shape and dimensions. Knowledge of aortic shape and size is very important for selection of appropriate stent graft device for treatment of AAA. Comparing to conventional approaches, our method is very efficient and can save a lot of manual labors.

Shwu-Huey Yen, Hung-Zhi Wang, Hao-Yu Yeh

Advances in Multimedia Algorithms, Architectures, and Applications

Frontmatter

Mining High Utility Itemsets Based on Transaction Deletion

In the past, an incremental algorithm for mining high utility itemsets was proposed to derive high utility itemsets in an incrementally inserted way. In real-world applications, transactions are not only inserted into but also deleted from a database. In this paper, a maintenance algorithm is thus proposed for reducing the execution time of maintaining high utility itemsets due to transaction deletion. Experimental results also show that the proposed maintenance algorithm runs much faster than the batch approach.

Chun-Wei Lin, Guo-Cheng Lan, Tzung-Pei Hong, Linping Kong

Design and Implementation of a LBS General Website Content Extract System for Android

Every day more than 1 million new Android devices are activated worldwide [

1

]. This paper researched on the topic of design and implementation of a location based public opinion information system on android system, which provides personal or group users, such as people, enterprise, and government an easy access to information what they care about in specified location area with specified focus and interest. Those latest information would extract from some API-opened websites, such as a microblog website, a specified social network website, and take advantage of Google Geocoding API, we can extends the ability of the system to an infrastructure for other applications.

Yongbo Chen, Xin Zhou, Yun Liu

MR. Eye: A Multi-hop Real-time Wireless Multimedia Sensor Network

Simple data, such as temperature, humidity and luminary, gathered by nodes in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), can hardly meet the growing needs for real-time information. The availability of low-cost hardware is enabling the development of wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs), i.e., networks of resource-constrained wireless devices that can retrieve multimedia content such as video and audio streams, still images, and scalar sensor data from the environment. However, multi-function means complex design, effective hardware, robust protocol and many other considerations. Comparing some of those current mainstream WMSN test beds, limits and shortcomings can be easily found. In this paper, MR. Eye is designed. Nodes, within MR. Eye, built on OMAP3530, are capable of coping with video, images and other real-time information. Moreover, the load balanced airtime with energy awareness (LBA-EA) is applied in this system and nodes can be easily controlled by SNMP gateway. The last but not the least, real-time video data can be transmitted fluently in multi-hop scenarios.

Yanliang Jin, Yingxiong Song, Jian Chen, Yingchun Li, Junjie Zhang, Junni Zou

Effects of the Online VOD Self-learning on English Ability of Taiwanese College Students: The ARCS Approach

This study investigated the effect of the Live DVD self-learning system on English learning motivation of students of a Taiwanese technological university. Modeled on the ARCS motivation model of Keller (1987), this study validated the ARCS model, examined the effects of Majors and English Levels on motivation, and tested the proposed structural model involving the effect of the ARCS model on self-assessed English skills. Five hundred and twenty-seven students of three English ability groups completed a survey questionnaire. Statistical procedures including confirmatory factor analysis, factorial ANOVA, and structural equation modelling were performed to address the research questions. The participants were found to have overall positive motivation toward the Live DVD System in terms of the ARCS model. English Levels had significant influence on Attention, with students of Mid and Low-level groups having higher attention to the Live DVD system than High-level group students. For Satisfaction, aside from the main effect of English Levels, the English Levels*Majors interaction effect was also found to be statistical; for non-engineering majors, students of mid and low English abilities were found to have higher satisfaction with the Live DVD System than high proficiency students, while for Level B groups, non-engineering had higher satisfaction with the self-learning system than engineering students. Only Confidence of the ARCS in the proposed structural model was found to have significant effect on Self-assessed Skills, students with stronger confidence tending therefore to have higher self-rated English abilities.

Da-Fu Huang

Applying Firefly Synchronization Algorithm to Slot Synchronization

Firefly synchronization algorithm, in a bio-inspired way, has been proposed to replace conventional methods of solving the synchronization problem in wireless sensor networks. For the well-known M&S model and the RFA, a direct application of them can hardly lead to considerable results. This paper presents several vital improvements in order to make the RFA more applicable for a certain wireless sensor network. To better evaluate the results, the algorithm is modulated in a scenario with realistic parameters of a network. Moreover, differing network topologies have also been taken into consideration.

Yanliang Jin, Zhishu Bai, Lina Xu, Wei Ma, Xuqin Zhou, Muxin Wang

Novel Mutual Information Analysis of Attentive Motion Entropy Algorithm for Sports Video Summarization

This study presents a novel summarization method, which utilizes attentive motion analysis, mutual information, and segmental spectro-temporal subtraction, for generating sports video abstracts. The proposed attentive motion entropy and mutual information are both based on an attentive model. To capture and detect significant segments among a video, this work uses color contrast, intensity contrast, and orientation contrast of frames to calculate saliency maps. Regional histograms of oriented gradients based on human shapes are also adopted at the preliminary stage. In the next step, a new algorithm based on mutual information is proposed to improve the smoothness problem when the system selects the boundaries of motion segments. Meanwhile, differential salient motions and oriented gradients are merged to mutual information analysis, subsequently generating an attentive curve. Furthermore, to remove non-motion boundaries, a smoothing technique based on segmental spectro-temporal subtraction is also used for selecting favorable event boundaries. The experiment results show that our proposed algorithm can detect highlights effectively and generate smooth playable clips. Compared with existing systems, the precision and recall rates of our system outperform their results by 8.6 and 11.1 %, respectively. Besides, smoothness is enhanced by 0.7 on average, which also verified feasibility of our system.

Bo-Wei Chen, Karunanithi Bharanitharan, Jia-Ching Wang, Zhounghua Fu, Jhing-Fa Wang

A Framework Design for Human-Robot Interaction

Multimodal human-robot interaction integrates various physical communication channels for face-to-face interaction. However, face-to-face interaction is not the only communication method. The proposed framework achieves more flexible communications such as communication to others at a distance. Intimate and loose interactions are categorized as ubiquitous multimodal human-robot interaction. Therefore, this work presents a framework design for human-robot interaction using ubiquitous voice control and face localization and authentication implemented for intimate and loose interactions. The simulation results demonstrate the practicality of the proposed framework.

Yu-Hao Chin, Hsiao-Ping Lee, Chih-Wei Su, Jyun-Hong Li, Chang-Hong Lin, Jhing-Fa Wang, Jia-Ching Wang

Blind Signal Separation with Speech Enhancement

A new speech enhancement architecture using convolutive blind signal separation (CBSS) and subspace-based speech enhancement is presented. The spatial and spectral information are integrated to enhance the target speech signal and suppress both interference noise and background noise. Real-world experiments were carried out in a noisy office room. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed architecture.

Chang-Hong Lin, Hsiao-Ping Lee, Jyun-Hong Li, Chih-Wei Su, Yu-Hao Chin, Jhing-Fa Wang, Jia-Ching Wang

A Robust Face Detection System for 3D Display System

Face detection is a kind of extremely useful technology in many areas, such as security surveillance, electronic commerce and human–computer interaction and so on. Face detection can be viewed as a two-class classification problem in which an image region can be classified as being a “face” or “non-face”. Detection and locating the position of the observers’ face exactly play a critical role in stereoscopic display system. Accuracy, speed and stability are some main standards to evaluate an object-tracking system. The face detection system presented in the paper with classifiers trained by AdaBoost algorithm can meet the specific requirements of stereoscopic display in detecting speed, accuracy and stability. After accurate face detection, we utilize a certain method to detect the pupil in the area of face which is obtained in the above process. At last, the active 3D display equipment will project corresponding images of the same scene to users’ pupil respectively to make sure the viewer can obtain the sense of depth. According to the experimental results, this system is highly accurate, stable and users can get well experience through this 3D display system.

Yu Zhang, Yuanqing Wang

Virtual Reality for Medical Applications

Frontmatter

Using Inertia Measurement Unit to Develop Assessment Instrument for Self-Measurement of the Mobility of Shoulder Joint and to Analyze Its Reliability and Validity

Frozen shoulder is one type of shoulder disease that is commonly seen clinically, and its main symptom is the limit in the mobility of the shoulder joint of the patient and the shoulder pain. Since its therapeutic process of rehabilitation takes a long period of time, the patient usually abandons the therapy. In addition, under the current medical situation, physical therapist usually does not have extra time and space to help each patient densely to measure the mobility of the joint and to evaluate the progress of rehabilitation, hence, the patient usually is lack of in-time feedback to understand clearly the current rehabilitation progress, which in turn results in future low willingness of the patient to take rehabilitation, eventually, the goal of early and continuous therapy cannot be reached. Therefore, the objective of this research is to develop a set of “Assessment instrument for self-measurement of the mobility of shoulder joint”, meanwhile, its reliability and validity is tested too. The system has associated wireless sensor technology and virtual reality, and the patient only has to follow the instruction and teaching on the screen to finish all kinds of standard shoulder joint actions, the progress in shoulder joint can then be evaluated at any time, eventually, the goal of real-time and self-assessment of the effectiveness of rehabilitation can be achieved.

Shih-Ching Yeh, Si-Huei Lee, Yi-Hang Gong

The Development of Interactive Shoulder Joint Rehabilitation System Using Virtual Reality in Association with Motion-Sensing Technology

Virtual Reality combined with medical rehabilitation has become the modern trend. In the clinical therapy, frozen shoulder is a common shoulder disease. They usually use proper rehabilitation exercise to pole adhesive joint capsule. In these long time process, patients usually can’t continue. Our research is using virtual reality to combine with motion tracking in order to develop interactive shoulder joint rehabilitation system. We decide to use interactive game-based oriented way and to give real-time visual and auditory feedback to improve user’s motivation and willingness of doing rehabilitation. In this way, patients can achieve better result of rehabilitation compared with traditional therapy.

Shih-Ching Yeh, Si-Huei Lee, Yao-Chung Fan

Development of a Virtual Reality-Based Pinch Task for Rehabilitation in Chronic Hemiparesis

Impaired pinch performance affects dexterity function after stroke. Virtual reality-based training may be beneficial for improving dexterity function. This study aimed to develop a virtual reality-based pinch task and to investigate its feasibility for chronic hemiparesis. The pinch task in the virtual environment was accomplished by coordinating two PHANTOM devices that provide haptic feedback. Participants grasped and lifted a virtual cube with 30-sec time limit for 10 trials. Cube size, cube mass and lift height were systematically varied. The participant poststroke attempted an average of 38 trials per session with a 60 % success rate and without complaint of fatigue or pain. After the training, the participant poststroke decreased the total time. However, the peak pinch force did not change. The results suggest that the virtual reality-based pinch task was feasible for chronic hemiparesis. Further investigation is warranted to better understand the effect of pinch force regulation using hepatic feedback.

Shuya Chen, Shih-Ching Yeh, Margaret McLaughlin, Albert Rizzo, Carolee Winstein

Developing Kinect Games Integrated with Virtual Reality on Activities of Daily Living for Children with Developmental Delay

Children with developmental delay (DD) often have difficulty in executing activities of daily living (ADL). Although independence in ADL is one of the ultimate goals of rehabilitation for children with DD, ADL training is challenging in the contexts of hospitals and clinics due to a lack of natural settings, and the difficulty in transferring the skills learned in hospitals and clinics to home environment. Kinect games integrated with virtual reality (VR) simulating a home environment can provide a natural environment for effective ADL training on children with DD. Thus, the aim of the study is to develop game-based ADL training tasks using Kinect integrated with VR for children with DD. Kinect games for training purposes are developed. In addition, two pilot studies are conducted for typically developing children and children with DD aged 3–5.9 years respectively to test the applicability of Kinect games. Kinect games integrated with VR designed for ADL training provide opportunities for children with DD to practice ADL in simulated real-life situations, which reinforces the effectiveness of training at clinics and decreases the burn of caregivers in training the child. The efficiency and feasibility of ADL training could thus be improved.

I-Ching Chung, Chien-Yu Huang, Shyh-Ching Yeh, Wei-Chi Chiang, Mei-Hui Tseng

Automate Virtual Reality Rehabilitation Evaluation for Chronic Imbalance and Vestibular Dysfunction Patients

Dizziness is a major consequence of chronic imbalance and vestibular dysfunction, which prevents people performing their routine tasks and affects their quality of life. It may lead to severe injuries caused by unexpected falling. Medicine treatment can alleviate the syndrome of dizziness and past research shows that dizziness can be further reduced if appropriate vestibular function rehabilitation exercises are practiced regularly. Nevertheless, these exercises are usually time-consuming and tedious because of repetitive motions. Most of patients ceases practicing accordingly and reduce the effectiveness of rehabilitation. In order to encourage patients to be involved in the rehabilitation process, interactive rehabilitative gaming systems are introduced in the recent research. Virtual reality technology is used to enhance the gaming experiences and vision sensors are served as gaming inputs. This paper proposes a series of novel virtual reality games adapted by Cawthorne-Cooksey exercises, which are extensively used in clinical for chronic imbalance and vestibular dysfunction rehabilitation. 32 patients participate in the rehabilitation processes within two months period and their gaming parameters and quantified balance indices are analyzed by the supported vector machine (SVM) classifier. It shows that ~81 % patients improve their game parameters and balance indices after undertaking the dizziness rehabilitation training compared to the measurement they had. Our clinical observations also reveal that our patients have higher willing and motivation to regularly perform rehabilitation with the proposed system.

Ming-Chun Huang, Shuya Chen, Pa-Chun Wang, Mu-Chun Su, Yen-Po Hung, Chia-Huang Chang, Shih-Ching Yeh

Recent Advances on Video Analysis and Its Applications

Frontmatter

Machine-to-Machine Interaction Based on Remote 3D Arm Pointing Using Single RGBD Camera

In this paper, we propose a prototype of machine-to-machine interaction system using a single RGBD camera. Based on the 3D arm pointing and tracking algorithm, system enables user to select multiple objects using their two arms, without infrared remote controller and wireless transmitter. A fast gesture recognition method is used to identify the instruction assignment for the target objects. The system consists of three modules, including image capturing module, 3D arm pointing and target tracking module, and interaction module. The image capture module use the RGBD camera installed behind of user to capture the arm parameters in real-world space. The pointing and tracking algorithm is referred to the environmental information to establish the master and slave objects. For interaction module, the command gesture is determined by the gesture recognition, interacting with target devices by the decoded instruction. Finally, system generates a control signal for triggering the master object to communicate with the slave object according to the fetched the instruction.

Huang-Chia Shih, En-Rui Liu

Automatic Peak Recognition for Mountain Images

In this paper, we propose a novel method for automatically recognize the peaks of mountains based on the shape of skyline. Since the appearances of a mountain are variable due to the changes of weather, season or region, the skyline of mountains is extracted for the matching of different mountain images. We use support vector machine (SVM) to predict the possible skyline segments and the linking of incomplete fragments of skyline is formulated as a shortest path problem and solved by dynamic programming strategy. In order to resist the geometric distortion caused by view change, we perform 2D curve matching on the extracted skylines for the peak recognition task. Our experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is our method is effective for the mountain recognition under complicated and variable circumstances.

Wei-Han Liu, Chih-Wen Su

Gesture Recognition Based on Kinect

In recent years, depth cameras have become a widely available sensor type that captures depth images at real-time frame rates. For example, Microsoft KINECT is a powerful but cheap device to get depth images. Even though recent approaches have shown that 3D pose estimation and recognition from monocular 2.5D depth images has become feasible, there are still some challenge problems like gesture detection and recognition. In this paper, we propose a gesture recognition method and use that to make a puzzle game with kinesthetic system. Gesture is very important for our system because instead of using some devices like keyboard or mouse, users will play the puzzle game by their own hand. We will focus on using ROI and some algorithms that we proposed to do gesture detection and recognition.

Chi-Hung Chuang, Ying-Nong Chen, Ming-Sang Deng, Kuo-Chin Fan

Fall Detection in Dusky Environment

Accidental fall is the most prominent factor that causes the accidental death of elder people due to their slow body reaction. Automatic fall detection is then an emerging technology which can assist traditional human monitoring and avoid the drawbacks suffering in health care systems especially in dusky environments. In this paper, a novel fall detection system based on coarse-to-fine strategy is proposed focusing mainly on dusky environments. Since the silhouette images of human bodies extracted from conventional CCD cameras in dusky environments are usually imperfect due to the abrupt change of illumination, our work adopts thermal imager instead to detect human bodies. In our approach, the downward optical flow features are firstly extracted from the thermal images to identify fall-like actions in the coarse stage. The horizontal projected motion history images (MHI) features of fall-like actions are then designed to verify the fall by the proposed nearest neighbor feature line embedding (NNFLE) in the fine stage. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can distinguish the fall incidents with high accuracy even in dusky environments and overlapping situations.

Ying-Nong Chen, Chi-Hung Chuang, Chih-Chang Yu, Kuo-Chin Fan

Mandarin Phonetic Symbol Combination Recogniztion in Visioned Based Input Systems

This paper proposes a Mandarin Phonetic Symbols combination recognition system. This work provides a prototype of a user-friendly and efficient human-centered interface. The system analyzes the fingertip trajectories to obtain the strokes of Mandarin Phonetic Symbols combinations. The trajectories are segmented into real strokes and virtual strokes. The system computes the prior probabilities of different classes of combinations and via Bayes Classifier. The likelihood that each segment is generated by a certain Mandarin Phonetic Symbols combination model is computed via Hidden Markov Models. The experiments have validated the effectiveness of the proposed system.

Chih-Chang Yu, Hsu-Yung Cheng

All-IP Platforms, Services and Internet of Things in Future

Frontmatter

Supporting Health Informatics with Platform-as-a-Service Cloud Computing

Recent progression in health informatics data analysis has been impeded due to lack of hospital resources and computation power. To remedy this, some researchers have proposed a cloud-based web service patient monitoring system capable of providing offsite collection, analysis, and dissemination of remote patient physiological data. Unfortunately, some of these cloud services are not effective without utilizing next-generation hardware management techniques. In order to make cloud based patient monitoring a reality, this paper shows how leveraging an underlying platform-as-a-service (PaaS) cloud model can provide integration with web service patient monitoring systems while providing high availability, scalability, and security.

Garrett Hayes, Khalil El-Khatib, Carolyn McGregor

MABLIPS: Development of Agent-Based Vehicle Location Tracking System

Location positioning and information delivering techniques have recently become important research issues with the increasing of Internet Map service and GPS technology. Similarly, location-aware technologies for bike riders have also become a new issue for bike positioning. In this paper, a mobile agent technology system for locating bicycle position is thus developed. The proposed system can also automatically push and pull the message for location-aware. Combining multi-agent technology with push technique in the proposed system, it can thus enhance the intelligence of bike location tracking and route planning.

Yun-Yao Chen, Yueh-Yun Wang, Chun-Wei Lin

Data Sensing and Communication Technology for the IoT-IMS Platform

When the Future Internet is defined as a dynamic global network infrastructure, the Internet of Things (IoT), an integrated part of it, is viewed as one of the most important technologies. Distinct from former definition and applications of IoT and the IoT based on

Radio Frequency IDentification

(RFID), the current IoT means the interconnection of devices and appliances via the Internet. However, because the development of the IoT technologies varies, there is neither an unified standard nor a standardized interoperability to provide an unified network software architecture for the IoT. In this paper, we propose a method for integrating the data detected by sensors in the IoT-IMS communication platform with specifications, including Zigbee,

Wireless Sensor Network

(WSN), RFID and IEEE 1451, and converting the data to

Sensor Be One Code

(SBO Code), a coding format that supports all kinds of sensors. Through this system, the data gathered by different sensors can be unified to meet the IoT requirement.

Tin-Yu Wu, Wen-Kai Liou

Adaptive Multi-Hopping MAC Mechanism for WSN Scheduling

In this paper, we extend the routing enhanced MAC (RMAC) protocol to combine wireless sensor network (WSN) technology with energy-efficiency and quality of service (QoS) guarantee transmission scheduling mechanisms. This energy-efficient QoS-aware scheduling over multi-hopping WSNs is called adaptive multi-hopping MAC (AMH-MAC). Based on the RMAC scheme, we further adjust the transmitted power and the number of multi-hopping nodes dynamically to reduce the transmission latency and energy consumption. We conduct the simulation using network simulator 2 (ns-2) to show the improvement of the performance in terms of end to end latency and energy consumption as compared with RMAC scheme.

Lin-Huang Chang, Shuo-Yao Chien, H. F. Chang, Tsung-Han Lee

Avoiding Collisions Between IEEE 802.11 and IEEE 802.15.4 Using Coexistence Inter-Frame Space

Recently, more and more wireless networks have been deployed and start provide varies services to customers. Such as smart-phones integrate heterogeneous wireless devices, it may cause unintended interactions between multiple radios using difference radio access technologies. Thus, heterogeneous wireless network will be the trend of future network. The Co-channel interference problem in heterogeneous wireless networks is more and more important. This paper focus on the coexistence problem between IEEE 802.11b/g/n and IEEE 802.15.4 protocols in the ISM 2.4 GHz band. The performance impact on IEEE 802.15.4 network under IEEE 802.11 wireless network has been analysis, and results show that IEEE 802.15.4 has serious collision problem if there has no appropriate scheduling mechanisms among two wireless protocols. A CIFS (Coexistence Inter-Frame Space) has been proposed in this paper to effectively enhance the IEEE 802.15.4 transmission probability which is implemented in IEEE 802.11 nodes to observe the transmission opportunity for IEEE 802.15.4 under wireless coexistence environment.

Tsung-Han Lee, Ming-Chun Hsieh, Lin-Huang Chang, Hung-Shiou Chiang, Chih-Hao Wen, Kian Meng Yap

Implementation and Evaluation of Multi-Hopping Voice Transmission over ZigBee Networks

The wireless sensor network (WSN) technology has been one of the most active research topics in the last several years. Besides sensing the environmental or physical data, there has been a growing need on supporting voice communication, particularly under emergency conditions, in WSNs. In this paper, we will conduct the implementation of voice codec on embedded system using multi-hopping ZigBee communication. The implementation issues, in terms of codec and transmission rate-dependence consideration, as well as the voice quality with multi-hopping are analyzed and evaluated for the designed test-bed.

Lin-Huang Chang, Chen-Hsun Chang, H. F. Chang, Tsung-Han Lee

A Lightweight Intrusion Detection Scheme Based on Energy Consumption Analysis in 6LowPAN

6LoWPAN is one of Internet of Things standard, which allows IPv6 over the low-rate wireless personal area networks. All sensor nodes have their own IPv6 address to connect to Internet. Therefore, the challenge of implementing secure communication in the Internet of Things must be addressed. There are various attack in 6LoWPAN, such as Denial-of-service, wormhole and selective forwarding attack methods. And the Dos attack method is one of the major attacks in WSN and 6LoWPAN. The sensor node’s energy will be exhausted by these attacks due to the battery power limitation. For this reason, security has become more important in 6LoWPAN. In this paper, we proposed a lightweight intrusion detection model based on analysis of node’s consumed in 6LowPAN. The 6LoWPAN energy consumption models for mesh-under and route-over routing schemes are also concerned in this paper. The sensor nodes with irregular energy consumptions are identified as malicious attackers. Our simulation results show the proposed intrusion detection system provides the method to accurately and effectively recognize malicious attacks.

Tsung-Han Lee, Chih-Hao Wen, Lin-Huang Chang, Hung-Shiou Chiang, Ming-Chun Hsieh

A k-Cooperative Analysis in Game-Based WSN Environment

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), the coverage problem usually accompanies the energy-saving issue, which ensures the fundamental functions are workable. Therefore, the sensor nodes must be deployed and survived in the target place for a long time, and sustain the trade-off between expected coverage and limited battery energy. The lesser sensor nodes are awake in an epoch, the longer network lifetime is achieved. It shows that the coverage problem must be solved based on the energy efficiency viewpoint. In this paper, we propose a game-based WSNs environment and solve the energy saving issue with the minimum number of competition players, which implies the most suitable duty-cycle for all sensor nodes. In the simulation results, the proposed approach achieves the lowest power consumption and longest network lifetime.

Hsin-Hung Cho, Fan-Hsun Tseng, Timothy K. Shih, Li-Der Chou, Han-Chieh Chao, Tin-Yu Wu

An Enhanced Resource-Aware Query Based on RLS-based SIP Presence Information Service

Many innovative services over the standardized SIP-based IMS signaling infrastructure have been widely deployed in the next-generation converged networks. The presence is a key feature for designing context-ware network service. It can efficiently reflect resource availability through subscription and notification mechanisms. Thus, it can apply the presence service to design a resource list server (RLS) to collect a set of resource information, such as resource availability and allocation in order to provide an efficient resource reporting for resource subscribers. In this paper, an improved RLS-based Resource-Aware Query Routing scheme is proposed, in which each server can obtain its neighbors’ utilization states notified from RLS. Besides, the proposed scheme is capable of minimizing message traffic between local presence server and its neighboring presence servers while maintaining full responsiveness for the resource subscribing management.

Jenq-Muh Hsu, Yi-Han Lin

Networking and Applications

Frontmatter

Authentication of Real-Time Communication System Using KIS Scheme

In global communication environment, signature computation will be frequently performed on a relatively insecure device that cannot be trusted all times to maintain the secrecy of the private key. To deal with this, Dodis et al. [

1

] proposed a strong key-insulated signature schemes whose goal is to minimize the damage caused by secret-key exposures. This environment will become more important when we focus on real time communication like telephony, TV shopping, electronic voting etc. Any flaws in the authentication system cause a critical damage to the real time environment. Considering this scenario we proposed a KIS scheme based on elliptic curve cryptography, which minimizes the damage of key exposer. Its security is based on elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) assumption, and efficient in terms of computational cost and signature size.

Binayak Kar, Eric Hsiao-kuang Wu

Innovative Wireless Dedicated Network for e-Bus

In recent years, several kinds of wireless network have been widely deployed. In this work, we focus on the e-bus-system for movements of buses. Passengers can get the bus information through the intelligent bus stop when they are waiting for the bus. In today’s environment of Taiwan, the transportation information is provided through some specific Mobile network operators. In this case, it costs a huge expenditure every month for the charge of data transmission. Therefore, we propose a new network system with Digital Mobile Radio (DMR) and Super Wi-Fi to replace the mobile network operator. Furthermore, when the catastrophe happened, the proposed system can also change to be used for the rescues. The implementation of the system architecture, the application of DMR and super WiFi in the proposed system, and the operation scenario are described in this paper.

Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu, Chung-Yu Chen, Ming-Hui Jin, Shu-Hui Lin

Cross-Platform Mobile Personal Health Assistant APP Development for Health Check

Our team proposes a concept allowing patients taking health check anytime everywhere, which can increase patients’ attention to their own health condition. To improve the user experience and convenience, the system must be designed to simply operate and easily connect with the medical devices. Moreover, the system must have the ability to communicate between the patients and doctor or medical personnel. In this paper, we illustrate our system, such as user interface, storage, display and cloud system. The user interface is designed with standards-based Web technologies. We use PhoneGap to build cross-platform mobile apps with HTML, JavaScript, and CSS. Because patients need to keep their record of health check, we use SQLite database for storage. Moreover, for the patients’ health check report which shall be easily understood, we design line charts to display the data. In this paper, we implement the Personal Health Assistant system.

Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu, S. S. Yen, W. T. Hsiao, C. H. Tsai, Y. J. Chen, W. C. Lee, Yu-Wei Chen

Cross-Platform and Light-Weight Stroke Rehabilitation System for New Generation Pervasive Healthcare

We propose a concept allowing disabled patient taking their rehabilitation treatment without going to the hospital. We design a portable device of rehabilitation and it can be lightweight in an advanced version. Particularly, we select PhoneGap to be a mobile development framework and to build the specific application for mobile devices using JavaScript, HTML5, and CSS3 instead of using device-specific language in our system. The great advantage is cross-platform that represent write once and run anywhere. In our software, we lead the patient to do the exercise of rehabilitation step-by-step and then store recovery status in database. Finally, the system will play restful music when patient do exercise. According to the mentioned above, we developed the Mobility Rehabilitation that combines mobility, entertainment, and storing ability.

Eric Hsiao-Kuang Wu, C. C. Tseng, Y. Y. Yang, P. Y. Cai, S. S. Yen, Yu-Wei Chen

Off-line Automatic Virtual Director for Lecture Video

This research proposed an automatic mechanism to refine the lecture video by composing meaningful video clips from multiple cameras. In order to maximize the captured video information and produce a suitable lecture video for learners, video content should be analysed by considering both visual and audio information firstly. Meaningful events were then detected by extracting lecturer’s and learners’ behaviours according to teaching and learning principles in class. An event-driven camera switching strategy was derived to change the camera view to a meaningful one based on the finite state machine. The final lecture video was then produced by composing all meaningful video clips. The experiment results show that learners felt interested and comfortable while watching the lecture video, and also agreed with the meaningfulness of the selected video clips.

Di-Wei Huang, Yu-Tzu Lin, Greg C. Lee

Cycle Embedding in Alternating Group Graphs with Faulty Elements

The alternating group graph, which belongs to the class of Cayley graphs, is one of the most versatile interconnection networks for parallel and distributed computing. Cycle embedding is an important issue in evaluating the efficiency of interconnection networks. In this paper, we show that an

n

-dimensional alternating group graph

AG

n

has the following results, where

F

is the set of faulty vertices and/or faulty edges in

AG

n

: (1) For

n

≥ 4,

AG

n

-

F

is edge 4-pancyclic if |

F

| ≤

n

− 4; and (2) For

n

≥ 3,

AG

n

-

F

is vertex-pancyclic if |

F

| ≤

n

− 3. All the results are optimal with respect to the number of faulty elements tolerated, and they are improvements over the cycle embedding properties of alternating group graphs proposed previously in several articles.

Ping-Ying Tsai, Yu-Tzu Lin
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