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The usual view in a mixed economy is that some goods and services are produced privately and some, such as transportation, are produced publicly. Private institutions, such as households and entrepreneurs, produce and con­ sume goods and services in pursuing their parochial interests, while the pub­ lic sector attempts to broaden public interests. More precisely, the public sector constructs new transportation systems, improves their capaci ties, and regulates services and prices; and the private sector chooses locations of pro­ duction, modes of transportation, and routes of shipmellt. At the sallie' Lillte'. all forms of transportation influence our lives and cause us concern for Oll r environment, health, and safety. Thus, transportation is intimately woven into the daily life of individuals and organizations in our society. Because of its constant presence, transportation is easy to overlook until it fails in some way. Few would contend that private firms could or should construct an effi­ cient transportation system in a mixed economic system. Because the entire transportation system must be integrated and coordinated, firms with the power to construct such a system would have considerable monopoly control.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Introduction

Frontmatter

Chapter 1. National Development Plans and Planning Issues in Korea

Abstract
The process of development in many countries is assumed to evolve through a series of stages.1 The nature of this process depends on a number of factors, including the structure of each country’s economy in terms of its endowed resources, the state of technology, the availability of entrepreneurial talent, and the individual country’s position in the world economy from the perspective of the competitiveness of its products on the world market.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 2. The Transportation Systems in Korea

Abstract
During the five consecutive FYDP periods (1962–1986), the government of Korea invested heavily in infrastructure development, particularly on transportation.1 Almost half of the total budget was spent on transportation during the first FYDP period (1962–1966). The government invested heavily in railroad systems to provide greater accessibility to and within the seven special planning districts established during the first FYDP (1962–1966) period.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Linear Programming Models and Applications

Frontmatter

Chapter 3. A National Transportation Development Planning Model

Abstract
How can we model the proper interaction between transportation and the other economic systems?1 As described before, such a model will not only be necessary for developing programs for national development, but also will be needed in revising priorities and implementing program changes. National transportation development planning models fall into two categories: positive and normative, like other models for both mixed and planned economies. The usual view in mixed economic systems is that some goods and services are produced by the private sector and some by the public sector.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 4. Implementation of the Linear Programming Model: Experience from a Korean Application

Abstract
Based on the results obtained from the model outlined in the previous chapter, RDRI/KIST recommended a set of national transportation improvement programs in 1980.1 The model was solved using IBM’s MPX360 package program. Detailed descriptions on recommended plans and programs are described in Kim(1980)[139]. Recommended additional networks to be completed by 1991 are shown in Figure 4.1.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Nonlinear Programming Models and Applications

Frontmatter

Chapter 5. Combined Input-Output and Commodity Flow Model: A Nonlinear Programming Formulation

Abstract
Many developing nations have formulated and implemented national development programs to increase their national well-being.1 Korea began its first five-year development program in 1961 and successfully implemented its fourth FYDP in 1981, as described in previous chapters.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 6. Model Applications: Formulating Highway Investment Strategies

Abstract
Improvement of road conditions has become a major concern for many developing countries in the 1980s.1 Roads in many developing countries have deteriorated in the past decade due to their bearing heavier traffic loads than was originally intended for them, and funds have been allocated for expanding rather than maintaining the network (World Bank 1983)[13]. Thus, formulating investment priorities for road improvement has become an important component in national planning strategy, because transportation is vital to nations’ economies. Also, many countries face various problems from having allocated limited capital resources in the past to improving transportation facilities that have since deteriorated.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Bilevel Programming Models and Applications

Frontmatter

Chapter 7. Bilevel Programming

Abstract
Multilevel decision making is an important aspect of the planning process for planning problems that require synthesis of several interacting individual agencies or subunits.1 Decision-making agencies may be arranged within a hierarchical administrative structure that has independent or conflicting objectives.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 8. Bilevel Transportation Network Design Models and Solution Algorithms

Abstract
As described in the previous chapter, there are at least two parties involved in the transportation planning process.1 The first is the private sector, which adjusts itself to the given level of transportation facilities in an optimal way based on its own behavioral criteria. This behavior represents the demand-side of the process. The other party is the public sector, which supplies the transportation facilities. The public sector provides transportation facilities in such a way that the social welfare function is maximized. The public sector is the supply side.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 9. Model Application I: Measurement of Congestion Functions for Korean Highways

Abstract
Travel cost, or in a more general sense, travel impedance, on a given highway link usually increases as the traffic flow increases.1 As traffic flow increases beyond a certain level, congestion takes place. In modeling a highway network with congestion effect, it is necessary to have a correct congestion function to account for increases in travel cost for the given highway environment. This highway environment includes driver characteristics, roadway conditions, and roadside activities. Different countries with distinctive demographic, economic, cultural, and behavioral characteristics might have unique congestion functions for their own environments.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 10. Model Application II: Evaluating Alternative Highway Investment Strategies

Abstract
Considering the dominant role of the highway system as a mode of transporting passengers and freight in Korea, it is important to maintain proper highway infrastructure to facilitate national transportation.1 Therefore, proper decisions on allocating investment capital are also important, considering the large amount invested on highway network upkeep.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Advanced Transport and Spatial Planning Models: Future Prospects

Frontmatter

Chapter 11. Integrated National Transport Planning Model for Mixed Economic Systems: A Bilevel Programming Approach

Abstract
As was described previously, at least two parties are involved in the decision-making processes in mixed economic systems: the public sector, which constructs new infrastructure systems, improves their capacities, and regulates services and prices; and users, who choose locations of residence and production, modes of transportation, and shipment routes.1 While many have acknowledged the existence of this type of multilevel decision-making process as an important planning issue, no one has explicitly incorporated it into existing development planning models. Failure to explicitly include the public-private interaction in the model in Korea could result in inconsistent public policies, as described earlier. For example, policies designed to reduce Seoul’s dominance within Korea may affect Korea’s international competitiveness (Ko and Hewings 1986)[144]. Consideration of development/investment policy cannot be divorced from the centripetal forces of private sector economic activities. As the world system of markets becomes more integrated, the ability of the government to pursue development policies without much regard for the private sector will have to be circumscribed.
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Chapter 12. Future Research Agenda

Abstract
All forms of transportation influence our lives and give us cause for concern for our environment, health, and safety. In fact, transportation is intimately interwoven with the daily lives of individuals and organizations in our society; thus, it is easy to overlook the significance of transportation until it fails us in some way (Schofer and Boyce 1985)[220].
Tschangho John Kim, Sunduck Suh

Backmatter

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