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Über dieses Buch

This volume offers a detailed overview of currently applied and tested wastewater treatment technologies and the integration of advanced processes to remove trace organic contaminants and microorganisms. It discusses the potential of enhanced biological treatment to produce effluent suitable for reuse, new processes for urban wastewater disinfection and the reduction of antibiotic resistant bacteria, as well as the effect of advanced oxidation processes on wastewater microbiome and chemical contaminants. It also presents membrane bioreactors, moving bed bioreactors, light and solar driven technologies, ozonation and immobilised heterogeneous photocatalysis and provides an evaluation of the potential of constructed wetlands integrated with advanced oxidation technologies to produce wastewater safe for reuse. Furthermore, the volume discusses water reuse issues and standards, the status of membrane bioreactors applications, and the treatment of reverse osmosis concentrate for enhanced water recovery during wastewater treatment. Finally, it presents recent developments in potable water reuse and addresses various important issues in this framework, like the proper protection of public health, reliability and monitoring. This volume is of interest to experts, scientists and practitioners from various fields of research, including analytical and environmental chemistry, toxicology and environmental and sanitary engineering, as well as treatment plant operators and policymakers.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Scope of the Book Advanced Treatment Technologies for Urban Wastewater Reuse

This volume offers a comprehensive overview on the potential challenges and limitations of currently applied and tested treatment technologies, to remove trace organic contaminants.
Klaus Kümmerer, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Despo Fatta-Kassinos

Treatment Technologies for Wastewater Reuse: Fate of Contaminants of Emerging Concern

The presence of thousands of microcontaminants in wastewaters and their potential risks has drawn a large attention of the scientific community during the last years. The presence of these contaminants is especially controversial when wastewater is considered for reuse because a large number of microcontaminants are frequently not totally removed by conventional wastewater treatment processes. As a contribution to the knowledge in this field, this chapter focuses on the application of four well-known and widely used technologies to the elimination of microcontaminants. Membranes, activated carbon, ozonation, and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are deeply reviewed to assess their efficiency and safety in the elimination of these contaminants from wastewater effluents. A brief description of each technology is presented together with a review of their real application, mostly in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). A deep analysis of the found data allows to conclude that the four presented alternatives can be useful for microcontaminant mitigation although none of them seem to be a universal barrier for microcontaminants when used separately. In addition, each technology presents drawbacks which demand further research to be overcome. Depending on the final use of reclaimed water, the treatment may require the combination of several of the studied technologies although that results in an economic impact which cannot be neglected.
O. González, B. Bayarri, J. Aceña, S. Pérez, D. Barceló

Trace Organic Contaminants Removal by Combined Processes for Wastewater Reuse

The term trace organic contaminant (TrOC) refers to a diverse and expanding array of natural as well as anthropogenic substances including industrial chemicals, chemicals used in households, compounds and their metabolites excreted by people and by-products formed during wastewater and drinking-water treatment processes. Activated sludge-based processes (e.g. membrane bioreactor) are environmentally friendly approaches to wastewater treatment. However, conventional biological treatment alone may not be effective for all TrOCs that are known to occur in municipal and industrial wastewater. The low removal efficiency of biologically persistent and hydrophilic TrOCs necessitates the integration of MBR with other membrane-based and physicochemical processes to ensure adequate removal of TrOCs. Because MBRs can produce effluent with low turbidity and bulk organic content, significant synergy can be realised when it is integrated with other advanced treatment processes. In addition, given the small physical footprint of the MBR process, it is possible to deploy these integrated systems for decentralised water recycling applications. This chapter provides a brief overview of the integration of advanced treatment processes including activated carbon adsorption, advanced oxidation processes and high retention membranes (e.g. nanofiltration and reverse osmosis) with MBR for TrOC removal.
Faisal I. Hai, Luong N. Nguyen, Long D. Nghiem, Bao-Qiang Liao, Ismail Koyuncu, William E. Price

Enhanced Biological Wastewater Treatment to Produce Effluents Suitable for Reuse

Enhanced performance of biological processes for xenobiotic removal in municipal and industrial wastewater treatment plants can be achieved by adopting the following general strategies based on different principles of operation: increase of the biomass concentration (i.e., using biofilm, immobilized cell, and granular sludge reactors); dynamic operating conditions able to modify the biocenosis composition and to induce alternative metabolic pathways required by xenobiotic biodegradation; two-phase systems, which optimize the substrate delivery to the microorganisms on the basis of their metabolic demand; and combined treatment processes utilizing synergistic physical/chemical methods.
In this chapter, the three following strategies for enhancing the biological process are presented and discussed:
  • Addition of adsorption or absorption media
  • Advanced oxidation processes: UV and UV/H2O2
  • Bioreactors operated with attached and granular biomass
The proposed alternatives have been chosen as representative examples of promising technological solutions still under investigation. For each alternative a short presentation including the principle of operation, the realized applications and potentialities, as well as a case study is reported.
M. Concetta Tomei, Guido Del Moro, Claudio Di Iaconi, Giuseppe Mascolo

Conventional and New Processes for Urban Wastewater Disinfection: Effect on Emerging and Resistant Microorganisms

The continuous release of chemical and microbiological pollutants into the environment and the increasing demand for safe water call for effective water and wastewater treatment processes. In particular, the detection of resistant microorganisms (e.g. antibiotic-resistant bacteria) in the effluents of urban wastewater treatment plants disposed into surface water or reused (e.g. in crop irrigation) shows that conventional treatments and disinfection processes do not effectively control the spread of pathogens into the environment. There is a need for new and more effective disinfection processes and technologies. The aim of this chapter is to briefly describe some of the emerging and antimicrobial-resistant microorganisms detected in wastewater, as well as the conventional and new advanced available technologies for wastewater disinfection, and to evaluate and discuss their effect on these microorganisms. Moreover, regulations and policies on wastewater reuse are also critically discussed and compared.
G. Ferro, M. I. Polo-López, P. Fernández-Ibáñez

Impacts of Advanced Oxidation Processes on Microbiomes During Wastewater Treatment

The increase of antibiotic resistance in clinical settings but also in wastewater treatment plants is of increasing concern to human health. The goal of this chapter is to investigate the potential of different tertiary wastewater treatment technologies as to the reduction of the amount of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes in wastewater effluents. Molecular- and cultivation-based techniques are reported in the current scientific literature for the analysis of bacterial communities and especially opportunistic pathogenically bacteria in wastewater and after different levels of disinfection processes. Additionally, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (vanA, mecA, ampC, ermB, blaVIM, tetM) and phenotypic resistance to ciprofloxacin, cefuroxime, trimethoprim, ofloxacin, and tetracycline were analyzed to characterize the impact of different wastewater treatments and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) on the effluent antibiotic resistance patterns. The examination of the application of advanced oxidation and photo-driven technologies showed significant discrepancy among the removal of different bacterial families as well as bacterial species in wastewater.
Johannes Alexander, Popi Karaolia, Despo Fatta-Kassinos, Thomas Schwartz

Advanced Technologies for Emerging Contaminants Removal in Urban Wastewater

Human health can be adversely affected through lack of access to drinking water, inadequate sanitation, consumption of contaminated freshwater and seafood, and exposure to contaminated bathing water. For example, bioaccumulation of persistent organic contaminants may raise health concerns in vulnerable population groups. The wide range of “contaminants of emerging concern” present in European waters is a growing environmental and human concern. These substances are used in pharmaceuticals, personal care, and other consumer products, and their adverse effects have only recently become apparent. Understanding of their sources, emissions, levels, and effects in the aquatic environment is also limited. In this chapter, we review the advanced technologies recently investigated for the successful elimination of such contaminants present in urban municipal wastewater treatment plant effluents. An overview on the microcontaminants’ behavior throughout conventional and advanced biological systems is also presented, stressing the important buffer effect of their adsorption on supported biofilm. It has been also stressed that combination of membrane filtration technologies and biological treatment avoids secondary clarification and tertiary steps. The use of membranes for wastewater treatment has rapidly increased in the last years due to the exceptional high-quality standards typically for reusing purposes given. Finally, advanced chemical and biological oxidation technologies must be efficient not only in removing microcontaminants but also pathogens and microorganisms from treated water for reusing applications. For instance, the elimination of antibiotics which may lead to proliferation of antibiotic resistance in pathogenic or nonpathogenic microorganisms must be a target jointly with contaminants of emerging concern removal from treated water.
Isabel Oller, Inmaculada Polo-López, Sara Miralles-Cuevas, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Sixto Malato

Immobilized Heterogeneous Photocatalysis for Reuse of Water Contaminated by Recalcitrant Organic Compounds: The Case of Antibiotics

Photocatalysis has often being proposed to destroy micropollutants recalcitrant to biological treatment. However, the use of suspension of TiO2 nanoparticles at an industrial scale is not easy. The chapter reports on the evaluation of the efficiency of two photocatalysts (P25 and PC500) immobilized on glass plates and cellulose fibers for the degradation of three antibiotics (amoxicilline, sulfamethoxazole and tylosin) used in human and animal medicine. Although the degradation rates of these antibiotics observed with the immobilized photocatalysts are lower than those reported in the literature with suspended photocatalysts for the same molecules, the feasibility of their degradation has been assessed.
Marie-Noëlle Pons, Amélie Le Frêche, Aurélie Cortyl, Jessica Van Deik, Marie Poret, Orfan Zahraa

Constructed Wetlands Integrated with Advanced Oxidation Processes in Wastewater Treatment for Reuse

The development of integrated systems for wastewater treatment has been investigated in recent years not only for the improvement of control parameters but also to allow the routine reuse of wastewater to be effectively implemented. Several studies also seek to add processes that may reuse by-products, energy, and unit operations in a single integrated remediation unit. Considering the sustainability scenario, all these processes should be designed and controlled with description of scope, mass inventory, and energy demand in order to establish indexes of environmental pressure. Classical publications of books and articles for wastewater treatment have already described to more than 10 years several procedures and standards for reuse (direct or indirect), segregation at source, required treatment levels, groundwater recharge, combination of remediation processes, logistics, and sanitation. In this case, further investigation to decentralized systems, such as reed bed filters, with reduced costs of implementation and operation is required, as well as the simplicity of units to be installed. This tendency of integrated phytoremediation systems supports the growing interest for the combination of a system already considered classic in wastewater treatment, the constructed wetlands (CWs), with advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), particularly the photocatalysis with direct or indirect use of solar energy. Because of its already reported disinfection and detoxification potentials which might enable the reuse of urban wastewaters for some specific purposes, the photocatalytic treatment was selected for a study of case. So, this chapter covers the phenological aspects of a macrophyte still little used in phytoremediation, the Hymenachne grumosa; the evolution of the combined use of Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket systems (UASB) + CWs; and the integration of the processes UASB + CWs + UV /TiO2/O3 with indirect use of solar energy in photoreactors designed for these studies.
Ê. L. Machado, A. M. Lourenço, L. T. Kist, R. C. S. Schneider, D. Kern, E. A. A. Lobo, C. A. Lutterbeck, D. D. Silveira, T. B. Horn, F. V. Zerwes

Membrane Bioreactors (MBRs) for Water Reuse in the USA

Water scarcity is a global problem, and the production of wastewater is growing correspondingly along with the ever-increasing water consumption. Wastewater can be used as an alternative water resource. Technological developments in treating municipal wastewater, such as membrane bioreactors (MBRs), provide high-quality effluents appropriate for water reuse. In this chapter, we review water reuse issues and standards, features and challenges of membrane bioreactor systems, and status of MBR applications in the USA. It can be concluded that MBRs are a superior wastewater treatment technology compared to conventional activated sludge systems, and they can help fulfill the growing water reuse demand.
Ziqiang Yin, Irene Xagoraraki

Treatment of RO Concentrate for Enhanced Water Recovery from Wastewater Treatment Plant Effluent

Due to continual deterioration of surface water quality and increased water scarcity, water reclamation of the treated effluent has become a widely accepted strategy for sustainable water supply in urban areas. Reverse osmosis (RO) is a reliable and essential water reclamation technology for producing high-quality water for reuse. The RO concentrate, which is the waste stream produced from the RO process, is volumetrically substantial and contains environmentally harmful substances and therefore can cause severe environmental impacts if disposed of to receiving water bodies. Several technologies are available for further treatment of RO concentrate to reduce its volume, remove its total dissolved solids (TDS) and total organic carbon (TOC) and reclaim it for additional water recovery. This chapter presents a review of RO concentrate quality and various technologies for treating RO concentrate originated from municipal wastewater treatment plant. The technologies discussed include mineral recovery, electrochemical desalting and removal of TOC through adsorption, coagulation and oxidative degradation. Other alternative strategies including the emerging technologies for increasing water recovery rate from water reclamation plant are also proposed.
Teik-Thye Lim, Pow-Seng Yap

Recent Developments in Potable Water Reuse

Potable water reuse through the use of treated wastewater effluents has been practiced for more than 50 years. The majority of projects worldwide are characterized as indirect potable water reuse, where an environmental buffer (groundwater aquifer or surface water reservoir) provided retention, additional attenuation, and blending prior to use as drinking water. In order to protect public health, these projects have utilized different treatment processes and combinations to establish multiple barriers against microbial and chemical contaminants. Due to the advancements in environmental analytical chemistry and the recognition of contaminants of emerging concern occurring in reclaimed water that might exhibit adverse health effects, additional advanced treatment processes (including ozone, advanced oxidation, activated carbon) were implemented. With increasing reliability of advanced water treatment processes and operational experience over several decades, the role of the environmental buffer to provide treatment and retention time has been revisited in projects that came online during the last 10 years. Recent trends are favoring direct potable water reuse applications in particular in the USA and Southern Africa that might evolve as the new paradigm for drinking water augmentation using impaired source water. However, questions remain regarding proper protection of public health, reliability and degree of treatment, appropriateness and design of monitoring strategies, maintenance requirements, and cost.
Jörg E. Drewes, Nils Horstmeyer

Long-Term Strategies for Tackling Micropollutants

Nowadays, more than 30,000 chemicals (including pharmaceuticals, biocides and pesticides) are estimated to be of relevance for the aquatic environment. Wastewater has to be treated to meet the required quality for its reuse. Many approaches for the assessment of water quality are used or are under development. It is now widely accepted that none of these approaches is suitable to assess all the (micro)biological and chemical contaminants. Many processes for water and wastewater treatment have been proposed and researched, and some of them are already applied in routine treatment. Unfortunately, these are not able to completely remove most of the contaminants. In contrast, most often, each of them removes only a minor percentage. Some processes may even result in the formation of transformation products of widely unknown fate and effects. This clearly demonstrates the serious limitations of such end-of-pipe approaches like effluent treatment. Therefore, in the future, more attention has to be paid on the prevention of the introduction of such contaminants into the water cycle, i.e., by measures that have to be taken at the beginning of the pipe. Approaches helpful in this direction are presented here.
Klaus Kümmerer, Dionysios D. Dionysiou, Despo Fatta-Kassinos

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