main-content

2022 | Buch

# Advancements in Nanotechnology for Energy and Environment

herausgegeben von: Dharmendra Tripathi, Ravi Kumar Sharma, Hakan F. Öztop

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore

Enthalten in:

insite
SUCHEN

### Über dieses Buch

This book presents a very useful and valuable collection of chapters associated with recent developments in energy, environment, and nanotechnology including nanofluids dynamics. The book provides insights related to various forms of nanotechnological applications in green buildings, environmental and electrochemical systems, solar distillation systems, green energy, storage tank of the solar water heating systems, solar concentrator system's receiver, solar adsorption refrigeration system, and CFD simulations of various aspects of nanofluids/hybrid nanofluids, which are particularly useful, valuable for the betterment of society, culture, and ultimately mankind.

### Inhaltsverzeichnis

##### Chapter 1. Applications of Nanotechnology through the Ages: A Socio & Eco-critical Study for the Welfare of Humanity
Abstract
Nanotechnology is the use of matter on an atomic, molecular, and supramolecular scale for several scientific and industrial purposes. Recent developments in nanoscience and nanotechnology intend new and innovative applications in the various aspects of human lives. The exclusive qualities of non-materials enhance the approach that it can be used in a wide range of fields. The basic innovations that come from nanotechnology have the potential to contribute to the betterment of human health and environmental safety in numerous ways. It involves developed techniques and methods for pollution reduction, treatment of water, sensing of environmental issues, remediation, and ensuring the availability of alternative sources of energy in a more cost-effective and sustainable way. It appears in ancient Indian society being used in the field of medical science, for making weapons related to warfare, tools for agriculture, and work of goldsmiths. Today, it also lowers costs, produces stronger and lighter wind turbines, and improves fuel efficiency which saves energy. This work is the attempt to capture the nanotechnological development in India through the ages by highlighting and critically analyzing its impact upon society and environment. It has also been discussed that how the understanding and pursuing the old-world knowledge in conjunction with modern technological advances yield greater scientific knowledge for the benefit of environment and mankind.
Santosh Kumar Yadav, Ajay K. Chaubey, Manu Sharma
##### Chapter 2. Electrodes Coated with Nanomaterials and Their Use for Environmental and Electrochemical Applications
Abstract
The use of nanomaterials in electrochemical and environmental applications has gained a great attraction due to their excellent electrical, optical, thermal, catalytic properties, and strong mechanical strength. Electrodes modification with nanomaterials can offer high performance for the used electrodes for better performance in many electrochemical and environmental applications. Carbon nanotubes, gold nanoparticles, silicon nanowires, etc. have been considered as innovative electrode materials for environmental and electrochemical applications. In this context, we tried to discuss the importance of the coating of electrodes with various types of nanomaterials for the enhancement of their properties for environmental and electrochemical applications, especially for wastewater decontamination. An overview of the nanomaterials: Properties and applications were given. Also, we have described and discussed the methods used for the coating of electrodes with nanomaterials.
Amina Othmani
##### Chapter 3. Nanotechnology: The Future for Green Buildings
Abstract
With the increasing population, demands for sustainability are also growing and hence can be closely related to the requirement for innovations in technology. Nanotechnology, a traditional and most rapidly growing science, can be regarded as a new technology for constructing sustainable buildings. They exhibit improved characteristics, distribution and morphology due to their size and are used in various scientific fields. Considering their good insulating abilities, better strength, and its ability to minimize carbon footprint and improve energy generation with photovoltaics, they can be considered as the future of building materials.
Shubham Kumar Verma, Sahil Thappa, A. Sawhney, Y. Anand, S. Anand
##### Chapter 4. Application of Green Energy for Drying of Food Products
Abstract
Drying food products is the oldest and cheapest technique of preserving food for a long time. Since green energy is abundant and free, adopting green energy in the drying process is the best solution for food product drying. Drying involves reducing moisture content from food products, which aids in long-term food preservation and prevents food product deterioration. Several drying methods are developed utilizing green energy (solar, wind, biomass, geothermal energy, etc.) in the drying process. Solar energy can be used majorly for drying applications, and other sources of green energy can be used for enhancing the drying performance. The solar drying method includes direct, indirect, and mixed-mode drying processes. Products relating to food are placed in direct sunlight exposure for drying in the direct method, which may influence the color, fragrance, and nutrient value of the dried material after drying. In the indirect method, solar energy is typically employed to create warm air that is used to dry food goods, but in the mixed method, a combination of direct and indirect methods is used for drying. Several technical advancements in the field of food product drying have occurred in recent years, resulting in more efficient energy use and the production of high-quality dried products. Even though solar energy is irregular in nature, so there is a chance for reabsorption of moisture content in the surrounding environment to food products to be dried. So, energy storage is required to overcome this limitation. Green energy storage technology is used to facilitate the drying process. The theory of food products drying, technological developments, and the economics of different drying techniques to dry food products are given and explored in this chapter. Finally, the most important problems and possibilities of drying technology are investigated.
Ankit Srivastava, Abhishek Anand, Amritanshu Shukla, Richa Kothari, D. Buddhi, F. Bruno, Atul Sharma
##### Chapter 5. Application of Latent Heat Storage Materials in the Storage Tank of the SWH System
Abstract
The demand for hot water in the domestic sector is increased rapidly in a few decades around the globe. As well the adverse effects of global warming due to the exploration of conventional coal-based technology are faced everywhere in this period. The technology of solar water heating (SWH) is the proven method for heating water from solar radiation for curbing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. But solar radiations are available in intermittent nature, so there is a need for the accumulation of solar energy in latent heat form in the storage tank of the SWH system. Many studies have revealed that storing latent heat, the phase change materials (PCMs) are the utmost eligible materials. It has been observed that PCMs are capable to improve the thermal efficiency as well as reducing the existing storage tank size of the SWH systems. Generally, it is found that the eligible PCMs are capable to store an appreciable amount of energy for more than 1500 thermal cycles without making corrosion for encapsulated container material. Even the biggest challenge for the commercialization of encapsulated PCMs in the storage tank is its associated cost. This study will provide a review of the benefits of applications of PCMs for the SWH storage tanks along with the potential eligible materials of PCMs.
Shailendra Singh, Abhishek Anand, Amritanshu Shukla, D. Buddhi, F. Bruno, Atul Sharma
##### Chapter 6. Different Degradation Modes of PV Modules: An Overview
Abstract
Shubham Sharma, Gautam Raina, Prashant Malik, Vikrant Sharma, Sunanda Sinha
##### Chapter 7. Thermal Performance Assessment Review of the Solar Concentrator System’s Receiver Utilized for High-Temperature Applications
Abstract
The present unprecedented lockdown scenario due to COVID-19 and the ever-concerning energy crisis impels researchers to find more self-sustainable energy solutions for all anthropogenic basic needs. Solar systems seem to be a good option for future energy use. Solar thermal energy plays a vital role in achieving Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). The receiver is one of the important components in any solar concentrating thermal system as it contains the highest temperature of the system, and inherently, maximum heat losses are also associated with it. In this study, energy and exergy analyses have been done on all available receivers of solar concentrators hitherto. The solar concentrators are categorized according to their prime mover, i.e. the artificial and actual solar heat-driven (solarized) systems. Receivers are also categorized according to their shape, with special attention to cavity receivers. The thermal performance parameter assessment study also helps researchers and policymakers in the selection and decision-making process.
Hemant Raj Singh, Dilip Sharma
##### Chapter 8. Performance of Solar Adsorption Refrigeration System: A case Study of a Two-Stage Freezing System with Varying Thermal Conductivity, Permeability of Adsorbents
Abstract
This research presents an improved design of a solar adsorption refrigeration system with certain specifications and requirements. In the traditional simulation of the performance of the solar adsorption refrigeration, the constant permeability and thermal conductivity were always selected for the establishment for the mathematic model. Latest research revealed that the permeability and thermal conductivity vary appreciably in the processes of adsorption and desorption, which indicates the consequential adsorption refrigeration performance will likewise be affected. The varying permeability and thermal conductivity in the CaCl2 and BaCl2 adsorption processes were tested, and the two-stage adsorption refrigeration system using CaCl2–BaCl2–NH3 as working pair was simulated to evaluate the effect of varying adsorbents’ permeability and thermal conductivity on the refrigeration system adsorption performance. The variable thermal conductivity and permeability simulation findings are compared to the constant thermal conductivity and permeability simulation results, as well as the experimental data. According to the results obtained, the greatest relative error between the simulation result with variable characteristics and the actual result is 8.3% for cooling capacity, 9.1% for SCP and 12% for COP, while the maximum relative error between the simulation result with constant properties and the experimental result is as high as 41.4% for cooling capacity, 42.8% for SCP and 36% for COP. This finding shows that variable characteristics have a major impact on simulation results and should be explored first before developing mathematical models for chemical and solar adsorption refrigeration systems.
Nidal H. Abu-Hamdeh, Hakan F. Öztop
##### Chapter 9. Combined Utilization of Inclined Fins and CNT Nanofluid on Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Performance in Channel Flow
Abstract
In this study, the performance of the thermoelectric generator (TEG) module placed between two channels was analyzed by integrating fins inner the channels. The effects of parameters such as fin length and height and fin inclination angle on TEG output power were investigated. In the designed TEG system, water-based CNT nanofluid with a volume fraction of 0.02 nanoparticles was used as hot and cold fluid in the channels. Finite element method was used to investigate the effect of fin usage on the TEG output power features. In the results obtained, when the fins were used, enhancement of TEG output power was obtained. At Reynolds number of 1500, the TEG output power increased by about 10% when comparisons were made between the fin geometry and the model without fins. When CNT nanofluid under the same conditions was used, an increase of 7.23% was achieved as compared to pure water. Fin inclination angle did not show any significant enhancement on TEG output. By using combined utilization of fins and CNT-nanofluid, an increase of approximately 12% power generation was obtained at Re = 1500 Reynolds as compared to the case without the fin.
Fatih Selimefendigil, Damla Okulu, Hakan F. Öztop
##### Chapter 10. Analogy Between Darcy-Bénard Convection Problems Involving a Clear Fluid and a Nanofluid: An Illustration
Abstract
We extend the work reported by Barletta et al. (Int J Heat Mass Transf 89:75–89, 2015) on the onset of Darcy-Bénard convection to steady finite-amplitude convection, considering both clear fluids and nanofluids that are Newtonian in character. The minimal Fourier-Galerkin expansion is used for the case of a free surface along with the convective thermal boundary condition. The heat transport is represented in terms of the Nusselt number, $$Nu$$. On comparing the Nusselt number of the present problem with that of the classical Darcy-Bénard problem, it is found that the former is much smaller or larger than the latter depending on the Biot number. An analogy between the problems of a clear fluid and a nanofluid is shown indicating that the results of a nanofluid can be obtained from that of a clear fluid.
Davita Devi Soibam, P. G. Siddheshwar
##### Chapter 11. Thermal Radiation and Natural Convection in the Flow of Hybrid Nanofluid Across a Permeable Longitudinal Moving Fin Using TOPSIS
Abstract
This chapter deals with the hybrid nanofluid (H-NF) over a moving porous fin under the influence of thermal radiation effect. The main objective of the present study is to increase the heat transfer (HT) rate by H-NF of the porous fin and select the appropriate values of the parameters where HT rate is maximum. This can help in the manufacturing process like glass fiber drawing, casting, etc. To accomplish this objective, we employed TOPSIS method which leads us to take the certain values of the parameters to enhance the HT. This will be very helpful for the engineers to investigate the results experimentally. For this, dimensionless differential equations are solved with the help of midpoint method, and then we employed TOPSIS method. The study revealed that the radiative and convective parameters increase heat transfer rate from the fin face surrounded by water-based H-NF. For that reason, status of radiation and convection parameters are important for transfer of heat from the fin area. Moreover, alternative A12, with value of operating parameters as Nc = 0.000688, Nr = 0.006586, m2 = 0.000299, Ѳa = 0.006173, n = 0, and Pe = 0.003574 have maximum value 0.952634 of performance score (Pi) so ranked as 1.
##### Chapter 12. Radiation Effect on Rayleigh-Bénard Convection in Nanofluids: General Boundary Condition
Abstract
The thermal radiation effects on the Rayleigh-Bénard convection in an absorbing and emitting Newtonian nanofluid, subjected to general boundary conditions, are studied analytically. Single-phase description is used for water-copper and water-alumina nanofluids considered for investigation. Transparent and opaque media are considered under the assumption of wave length being independent of the optical properties of the nanofluid. The opaque medium holds heat longer than that held by the transparent medium and hence onset of convection is much delayed in the first medium. Significant effects on cell size at the onset of convection due to radiation were observed in the case of transparent medium. In the presence of radiation, water-copper and water-alumina nanofluid continue to behave much the same way as in its absence. The general boundary condition bridges the gap between the results of free-free isothermal to rigid-rigid isothermal boundaries, and similarly for adiabatic boundaries.
Heena Firdose, P. G. Siddheshwar, Reena Nandal, Ruwaidiah Idris
Abstract
The temperature difference in many applications, such as the polymer industries and heat exchangers, is quite large; consequently, the variation in the density of working fluid due to the temperature is significant. Therefore, the nonlinear variation of density with respect to the temperature cannot be ignored as it influences the rheological behaviors of the working fluid immensely. Furthermore, there is a disparity in the modeling of Rosseland thermal radiation when quadratic (nonlinear) convection is significant. This study focuses on presenting an appropriate model of quadratic Boussinesq convection and quadratic Rosseland thermal radiation in a heat transfer problem. Therefore, a numerical study of the flow and heat transport of a non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluid over an elongated plate with transpiration cooling is carried out. The nonlinear form of the Boussinesq approximation is considered, along with an appropriate approach is proposed for modeling the Rosseland radiative heat flux. The governing equations consisting of modified Navier-Stokes momentum, conservation of mass, conservation of energy, and modified basic state equation. The nonlinear self-similar governing equations are solved by using finite difference method-based routine. The importance of the quadratic thermal convection number, quadratic thermal radiation, viscoelastic fluid parameter and suction/ injection factor on the heat transfer phenomenon is discussed. Streamlines are also drawn to study the flow pattern subject to nonlinear convection. It is established that the rate of heat transport increases with the viscoelastic behavior of the working fluid. The thickness of the momentum boundary layer enlarged due to the nonlinear variation of the density with temperature. The results of the conventional mixed convection model are obtained from the present study by setting to zero the value of the nonlinear convection parameter. Also, setting a unit value to the temperature ratio in the present problem, the results of linearized Rosseland thermal radiation problem. The present simulations are applicable in the polymer and heat exchanger industry.
Mahanthesh Basavarajappa
##### Chapter 14. Composite Nanofluids Flow Driven by Electroosmosis Through Squeezing Parallel Plates in Presence of Magnetic Fields
Abstract
Fluid flow across parallel plates has been involved in a variety of commercial and technological applications which have continuously been attracting the interest of the researchers. This chapter presents an approach to investigate electromagnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) squeezing flow of viscous ternary composite nanofluid ($${\text{Al}}_{2} {\text{O}}_{3}$$ (spherical), silicon dioxide (spherical), and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) (cylindrical) with base fluid $${\mathrm{H}}_{2}\mathrm{O}$$ (water)) with zeta potential effects. A set of partial differential equations describing continuity and momentum equations in the mathematical framework is considered. In the present work, the electro-viscous effects caused by electric double-capacity flow field distortions are thoroughly examined over a wide range of applied plate motion intensities. The results of the model vary significantly from those obtained using a normal Poisson–Boltzmann equation model. The governing equations are then transformed into ordinary differential equations using similarity transformation and then numerically solved using MATLAB software. The numerical solutions are employed to explore the scaling phenomena of the liquid, while plates move apart and collide. The influences of numerous parameters on fluid axial velocity and skin friction coefficient have also been explored, including squeezing number, zeta potential parameter, electric field parameter, and electroosmosis parameter. Numerical results conveyed that prominent retardation in flow of ternary hybrid nanofluid is attained due to magnification of electroosmotic parameter at the lower plate.
J. Prakash, R. Balaji, Dharmendra Tripathi, Abhishek Kumar Tiwari, R. K. Sharma
Titel
Advancements in Nanotechnology for Energy and Environment
herausgegeben von
Dharmendra Tripathi
Ravi Kumar Sharma
Hakan F. Öztop
2022
Verlag
Springer Nature Singapore
Electronic ISBN
978-981-19-5201-2
Print ISBN
978-981-19-5200-5
DOI
https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-19-5201-2