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2023 | Buch

Advances and Innovations in Ferronickel-Making

verfasst von: Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang

Verlag: Springer Nature Singapore


Über dieses Buch

This book introduces the most inspiring progress in the production of ferronickel from laterite ores, from both theoretical and technological perspectives. Based on a detailed overview of nickel utilization from laterite ores, it provides the advances of four main methods for laterite ore processing, including the solid-sate reduction-magnetic separation process, the rotary kiln reduction-electric arc furnace smelting process, the Krupp-Renn process, and the sintering-blast furnace smelting process. Moreover, for mediating the adverse impacts of the byproducts in ferronickel and subsequent stainless-steel making, it presents pioneering technologies of utilization of ferronickel slag for producing value-added functional materials and recycling of stainless-steel pickling sludge for ferronickel making. This book is expected to offer the audiences a fascinating new insight into ferronickel making and related by-products valorization.


Chapter 1. An Overview of Nickel Utilization from Laterite Ore
Ferronickel is an important alloy and intermediate product for manufacturing many advanced materials with versatile functions, e.g., stainless steel. Its properties and performance are mainly relied on the content of nickel, which is now primarily extracted from laterite ore. This chapter provides an overview of nickel utilization from laterite ore. Based on a brief introduction of properties of metallic nickel, it summarizes the applications of nickel, demand of nickel, resources of nickel, and metallurgical processes of laterite ore, in which the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) smelting process is dominant for production of ferronickel. Lastly, it discusses the challenges and development of ferronickel-making.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Chapter 2. Fundamentals of Selective Solid-State Reduction and Novel Process for Preparing Ferronickel from Laterite Ore
Due to the shortage of laterite ore resources in China, most of the raw nickeliferous materials for ferronickel production have to be imported. The low Ni grade (1–2 wt%), high water content (35–45 wt%) and high transportation cost of laterite ore result in costly production of ferronickel and stainless steel in China. This chapter presents a new method for preparing ferronickel from laterite ore based on selective solid-state reduction followed by magnetic separation. The key issues in the selective reduction of nickel oxides over iron oxides and the growth of newly-formed ferronickel grains (particles) were primarily discussed, and the related fundamentals such as thermodynamics, reduction/sulfidation behaviors of nickel and iron oxides in the ore as well as the growth of ferronickel particles during solid-state reduction were investigated. The pilot-scale tests and industrial tests were then conducted to validate the feasibility of the proposed new process.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Chapter 3. Technology of Slag Formation Control in Electric Furnace Smelting of Laterite Ore
Two-thirds of the global nickel output is produced by the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) process. Due to the high contents of MgO and SiO2 and low content of iron in laterite ore, high temperature (~1600 ℃) and huge energy consumption (approximately 4000 kW⋅h/t-ferronickel) are required during the smelting step. This chapter proposes an energy-efficient technique for reducing the smelting temperature and energy consumption by controlling slag formation. The effects of various components on the melting properties of the slag were evaluated by analyzing phase diagrams, generation behaviors of the liquid phase, and viscosity of the slag. Subsequently, a comprehensive regulation of the quaternary basicity [R4 = m(CaO + MgO)/m(SiO2 + Al2O3)] and FeO content of the slag was proposed, instead of solely controlling the MgO/SiO2 mass ratio, to facilitate smelting. The high efficiency of the new method was further verified through the lab-scale, pilot-scale and industrial tests, respectively.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Chapter 4. Softening–Melting Properties of Laterite Ore and Regulation Technology Applied in Krupp–Renn Process and Sintering Process
Producing a certain amount of liquid phase is crucial for the growth and aggregation of ferronickel particles during reductive roasting of laterite ore in the Krupp–Renn process and for mineralization of the ore during its sintering to enhance the sinter output and quality. In this chapter, the effects of the flux addition, roasting temperature and atmosphere on the phase transformation and softening–melting properties of laterite ore were studied and the correlation between phase transformation and softening–melting properties was ascertained. Thereafter, the corresponding regulation technology of softening–melting performance of laterite ore based on the quaternary basicity control was proposed. The efficiencies of the regulation technology applied in the Krupp–Renn process and sintering process were also verified.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Chapter 5. Valorization of Ferronickel Slag for Preparation of Value-Added Materials
Along with the production of ferronickel from laterite ores, there are a large quantity of ferronickel slags, especially that from the RKEF process, which not only poses a potential hazard to environment but also represents a waste of the resource. By now, the slags have been used for production of building materials, preparation of functional materials, and recovery of valuable metals. Based on a summary of the current status of utilization of ferronickel slag, this chapter provides recent advances in using the slag for producing refractory materials and lightweight thermal insulation materials, covering thermodynamic analysis, experimental exploration, and production verification.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Chapter 6. Recycling of Stainless-Steel Pickling Sludge via RKEF Route
Stainless-steel pickling sludge (SSPS) is a hazardous solid waste, mainly containing CaSO4, CaF2 and certain amounts of Fe, Cr and Ni. The abundant sulfur in the SSPS hinders its utilization and deteriorates the product quality when the sludge is recycled as the feed for ferronickel production. In this chapter, we introduce a method of coprocessing of SSPS and laterite ore via the rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) process. The desulfurization behaviors of SSPS, including the thermodynamics, phase transformation and off-gas emission characteristics during reductive roasting were primarily investigated. The presence of laterite ore enhanced the desulfurization of SSPS which could facilitate the subsequent reductive smelting of the calcine obtained by reductive roasting.
Guanghui Li, Jun Luo, Mingjun Rao, Zhiwei Peng, Tao Jiang
Advances and Innovations in Ferronickel-Making
verfasst von
Guanghui Li
Jun Luo
Mingjun Rao
Zhiwei Peng
Tao Jiang
Springer Nature Singapore
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Print ISBN