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Über dieses Buch

This book focuses on the predictive capabilities derived from digital representation of humans in simulation or virtual environments. It reports on models that facilitate prediction of safety and performance, and describes both innovative visualization techniques as well as the underlying mathematics and science. Contributions cover a wealth of topics, including simulation tools and platforms, virtual interactive design, model optimization methods, ontologies and knowledge-based decision support, human-computer interaction, human augmentation, and many others. The book gives special emphasis to cutting-edge simulation applications of human system modeling and optimization, including aviation, manufacturing and service industries, automotive design, product design, healthcare, sustainability, and emergency management. Based on the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Digital Human Modeling and Simulation, held on July 27-31, 2016, in Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA, it is intended as timely survey for researchers, engineers, designers, applied mathematicians and practitioners working in the field of Human Factors and Ergonomics.



Situational Awareness, Design and Computational Modeling


Field Study on the Application of a Simulation-Based Software Tool for the Strain-Based Staffing in Industrial Manufacturing

In the context of demographic changes in industrial nations and the common global megatrend Internet of Things or Industry 4.0, enterprises have to tackle technological, social and economic challenges. To maintain their market position, enterprises have to change their manufacturing processes, amongst others. After a short introduction, the following article presents the objective and proceeding of a field study on the simulation-based software tool WorkDesigner for the strain-based staffing in a medium-sized enterprise of industrial manufacturing. Afterwards, the data acquisition and modelling as well as the analysis of the simulation results is explained. Concluding, the presented results and future developments are discussed.
Peter Gust, Ulf Müller, Nico Feller, Michael Schiffmann

A Quantitative Comparison of Operator Field of View for Vehicle Design

This paper outlines the preliminary application of a quantitative method for assessing field of view using spherical projections of categorical visual information overlaid by occlusion maps based on vehicle geometry. The project goal was to quantitatively assess not only where a vehicle operator can see but what visual information is available in the operator’s field of view. By creating a driving environment dataset coded for visual information, we can indicate the probability of a type of visual information appearing in the operator’s field of view in a given vehicle. Next, we overlay probability maps with vehicle and operator eye height-specific occlusion maps, giving us a quantitative representation of visible information. This method was applied to three vehicles: a midsized sedan, a light-duty pickup truck, and a full-sized pickup truck using eye heights corresponding to those of 5th percentile females, 50th percentile females, 50th percentile males, and 95th percentile males.
M. D. King, Jeffrey Jinkerson, Teena Garrison, Derek Irby, Daniel W. Carruth

An Integrated Computational Simulation System for Injury Assessment

Injury prediction and prevention are subject areas that will significantly benefit from the use of digital human models (DHMs). The subject of this research is to investigate human simulation to predict injuries. This work over the past few years seeks to integrate high-fidelity computational methods for stress/strain analysis, namely finite element analysis (FEA) with biomechanics predictions through DHMS to yield measures (indices) for the propensity for injury. Indeed, a multi-scale FEA model using continuum-mechanics-based theories was developed in order to obtain highly accurate simulations of the segmental stress fields during a specific task. Previous work by this group is a simulation environment called Santos™ that enables the prediction of human motion including all aspects of its biomechanics. The Santos environment provides a joint- on physics-based, predictive capability including a muscle model. While FEA models are certainly useful as independent tools, their benefits can be fully realized when they are integrated with a complete system-level human model. This integration essentially connects the local model to a virtual environment, whereby the DHM model yields the muscle forces and motion profiles (i.e., the kinematics of the motion across time for each degree-of-freedom for the body). These motion profiles and muscle forces are calculated for each task and are used as input for the multi-scale FEA model. The results of the FEA model executed across a statistically viable set of data is fed into a neural network for learning and evaluating a pre-determined injury index measure that was developed by this group. This paper presents the initial promising results for this integrated multi-scale approach to quantify and predict injury in a particular joint that is undergoing a specific motion. The joint injury index system is developed based on the yield stress of the joint components. The injury index includes both the bone and soft tissue structures of the joint where bone was modeled as elastic material and the soft tissue was modeled as hyper-elastic material with the Noe-Hookean method. This integrated system allows one to study the effects of various motions and task-parameters on knee joints so as to modify tasks, save analysis time, and reduce the likelihood of injury.
Sultan Sultan, Karim Abdel-Malek, Jasbir Arora, Rajan Bhatt, Tim Marler

Identifying the Factors Affecting Automotive Driving Posture and Their Perceived Importance for Seat and Steering Wheel Adjustment

The aim of the present study was to identify the factors affecting the driving posture and their order of importance for the postural prediction when using a digital human modelling tool. An experiment was carried out with 35 volunteers testing 5 different vehicles with a clutch pedal, covering a large range of European drivers and passenger vehicle types. The seat and steering wheel positions for each vehicle were first adjusted in a lab condition without riding. Then subjects were asked to drive the vehicle on road for about 5 min. Afterwards, they were asked to fill in a questionnaire in order to know the use of available vehicle interior adjustments and to identify the order of priority of the factors affecting the adjustment of vehicle interior dimensions. Results show that 47 out of 175 person-vehicle combinations (27 %) made at least one re-adjustment during the road driving session, suggesting the stationary lab condition could not fully represent road driving. For 55 of 175 volunteers-vehicle combinations (31.4 %), at least one adjustment was judged too restrictive. As expected, short volunteers complained more frequently than others did. The most important factor considered for adjusting the seat and steering wheel positions was the accessibility of the pedals for all participants. The second most important factor depended on stature group. For tall volunteers, the accessibility of the steering wheel was classified as the second most important, while it was the road visibility for short and average height volunteers. These observations could be helpful not only for identifying possible vehicle interior design issues but also for identifying task priority for driving posture prediction when using a DHM tool.
Xuguang Wang, Jeanne Bulle

Optimization-Based Prediction of the Motion of a Soldier Performing the ‘Going Prone’ and ‘Get Up from Prone’ Military Tasks

In this work, an optimization based 3-D motion prediction of the motion of a soldier transitioning between a “Standing” posture and a “Prone” posture is presented. Based on the time discretization strategy between these two postures, a set of motion frames are defined such that they include important moments of time during the motion (such as moments when the parts of soldier’s body that touch the ground alter). Then every frame of the motion is analyzed, predicted and certified to be both feasible and optimal considering all dynamic properties of a motion frame such as velocities, accelerations and all higher derivatives of the human’s position. The digital human model is a full-body, three dimensional model with 55° of freedom. Six degrees of freedom specify the global position and orientation of the coordinate frame attached to the pelvic point of the digital human and 49° of freedom represent the revolute joints which model the human joints and determine the kinematics of the entire digital human. Motion is generated by a multi-objective optimization approach minimizing the mechanical energy and joint discomfort simultaneously. The optimization problem is subject to constraints which represent the limitations of the environment, the digital human model and the motion task. Design variables are the joint angle profiles. All the forces, inertial, gravitational as well as external, are known, except the ground reaction forces. The feasibility of the generation of that arbitrary motion by using the given ground contact areas is ensured by using the well-known Zero Moment Point (ZMP) constraint. During the kneeling motion, different parts of the body come in contact and lose contact with the ground which is modeled using a general approach. The ground reaction force on each transient ground contact area is determined using the equations of motion. Using these ground reaction forces, the required torques at all joints are calculated by the recursive Lagrangian formulation. This simulation is able to predict feasible and optimal motions that vary when loading (such as backpack, etc.) or the equipment that the human model carries change as or when the human model’s strength, size or weight is altered.
Mahdiar Hariri

Virtual Reality and Simulation


FCA Ergonomics Proactive Approach in Developing New Cars: Virtual Simulations and Physical Validation

Cars’ manufacturing is subject to radical change because of market continuous request of new models developed in few years. Original Equipment Manufacturer and suppliers have to develop more flexible assembly chains, manufacturing services and methods for job planning. And this requires new concepts for process design and for production: the human centered approach to improve manual assembly. In Fiat Chrysler Automobiles, during process design “Digital Manufacturing” and immersive virtual reality have been used in design phase. Holistic ergonomics assessment method as EAWS and ErgoUAS Methods have been used for ergonomic optimization of assembly tasks and for optimal line balancing. Parallel to virtual phase physical assessment on prototypes runs in order to have a physical validation of design/virtual solutions.
Spada Stefania, Germanà Danila, Sessa Fabrizio, Lidia Ghibaudo

Virtual Human Motion Design and Ergonomics Analysis in Maintenance Simulation

Maintainability is one of the main targets of product development. Through simulating the actual maintenance process, maintainability problems can be identified by virtual reality technology. Most virtual reality softwares provide virtual human motion simulation functions, but the virtual human motion control methods of them are defective. In order to enhance virtual human motion control, maintenance task model was established in this paper, virtual human motion model was designed. Then a virtual human motion database based on Jack was developed by Tcl/Tk Python language, and it was applied to a real maintenance process. Furthermore, the maintenance process was simulated in Jack and the ergonomics of it were analyzed. The result showed that the motion database can be effectively applied to virtual maintenance simulation and make the maintenance process-related ergonomics analysis conveniently.
Fuyang Yu, Qing Xue, Minxia Liu

Virtual Reality for Safety, Entertainment or Education: The Mars Mission Test

A Virtual reality (VR) has many applications; the main ones are related to safety and performance, entertainment, and education. To increase safety and performance, VR may use, for example, simulation for training purposes or for improving the performance of the operator; in entertainment, it can be used to experience for fun new realities that are possible only virtually; and finally, in education, VR can be used to let the user learn in an immersive environment. This paper wants to open a debate on how to increase the trustworthiness of virtual reality in order to increase the number of possible applications in the field of safety.
Irene Lia Schlacht, Antonio Del Mastro, Salman Nazir

The Argument for Simulation-Based Training in Dietetic Clinical Education: A Review of the Research

Simulation methodology has been successfully incorporated into a multitude of health care education disciplines with demonstrated efficacy through validated evaluation and research. Similarly, health education programs have increasingly implemented modeling and simulation methodologies into their curricula. At this time, however, there is comparatively little research of simulation-based tools or methodologies used in dietetic clinical education. Does simulation-based health education produce positive learning outcomes? Is there evidence-based research to substantiate adoption of simulation-based methodologies and tools in clinical dietetic education? This article focuses on the qualitative and quantitative research currently available in this arena.
Farhood Basiri

The Working Posture Controller—Automated Assessment and Optimisation of the Working Posture During the Process

We present the Working Posture Controller (WPC), a novel technology to help workers preventing posture-related Musculo-skeletal disorders. The innovation lies in the fact that the system does not require tedious work place design or process planning, since it automatises these steps. We discuss this technology from different views including a first technical evaluation, discussions concerning use cases, safety and economic and legal challenges when integrating such a technology into the production line.
The Duy Nguyen, Carla Pilz, Jörg Krüger

Older Driver’s Physiological Response Under Risky Driving Conditions—Overtaking, Unprotected Left Turn

Twenty healthy elderly and twenty healthy young taxi drivers drove a car simulator through an immersive virtual environment. Two driving events were considered intersection crossing and overtaking a lead vehicle with continuous cross traffic coming from opposing direction. The physiological responses measured were electroencephalogram (EEG) from frontal (Fz) and occipital lobe (O2), electrocardiogram (ECG), and galvanic skin response (GSR). The data were measured using Biopac MP150 system and analyzed using AcqKnowledge (ver. 4.2) software. EEG results conveyed stress and eyestrain for the elderly; the increased heart rate and GSR results expressed the nervousness and/or stress for the elderly in both driving situations. The physiological results confirm that aging causes a decrement in cognitive functions, the deficit in visual perceptual skills, and difficulty in decision-making. Therefore, research and policy improvement required for elders. For example, the shorter renewal period for a driving license, and cognitive test like in the USA.
Se Jin Park, Murali Subramaniyam, Seoung Eun Kim, Seunghee Hong, Joo Hyeong Lee, Chan Min Jo

Applied Modeling and Simulation


Modeling Decision Flow Dynamics for the Reliable Assessment of Human Performance, Crew Size and Total Ownership Cost

This chapter aims to demonstrate research progress and current understanding of the impact of acquisition technology selection and manning decisions on maintenance, sustainment, training and total ownership costs for the increasingly complex naval platform. The chapter demonstrates a comprehensive approach based on system dynamics modeling to model complex processes and technology insertion alternatives, with the emphasis on constructing a reliable system dynamics model of the total ownership cost (TOC) and related major human-system components categorized in two groups: human-system performance and manpower skill model to support conducting tradeoff analysis and, technology integration and insertion processes. The system dynamics models presented as the building blocks to ultimately help management determine the required skills and manpower needs in order to meet long term strategic goals of reduced manning and reduced total ownership cost, and avoiding performance risks and hazards. Along with this core model, this chapter three illustrates interaction matrices, redundancy level matrix, crew flexibility matrix and technology interaction matrix. The benefit of the models approach process is to identify the critical factors that lead to unwanted and unforeseen results or behaviors which can affect the attainment of new and/or desired capabilities and total systems readiness. In conclusion, simulated model results demonstrate the ability to track both total ownership cost and the performance of the underlying processes for enhanced decision flow models and reliable assessment.
Tareq Z. Ahram, Waldemar Karwowski, Serge Sala-Diakanda, Hong Jiang

Modeling the Perception Reaction Time and Deceleration Level for Different Surface Conditions Using Machine Learning Techniques

The ability to model the driver’s perception reaction time (PRT) and deceleration level is important for signal-timing design. The current state of practice considers PRT and the deceleration level deterministic and uses of constant values for them. The state of practice ignores the differences in PRT and deceleration level between individual drivers approaching the same intersection at the onset of yellow. The research presented in this paper uses data collected from two controlled field experiments on the Smart Road at the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI) to model brake PRT and the deceleration level at the onset of a yellow indication for different roadway surface conditions. The paper uses many of the recent stat of art machine learning to train models that can be used to predict the brake PRT and deceleration level of approaching driver.
Mohammed Elhenawy, Ihab El-Shawarby, Hesham Rakha

3D Scanning of Clothing Using a RGB-D Sensor with Application in a Virtual Dressing Room

This paper presents an approach for creating digital clothing with application in a virtual dressing room. The clothes are made digital by scanning real clothes using a RGB-D sensor. While creating digital clothing using specialized programs, e.g. Marvelous Designer 2, is a time consuming process, the 3D scanning process is relatively fast. The model is acquired via registration of different views while rotating on a platform; a complete rotation is performed in approximately 60 s, however, we have achieved satisfactory results even with rotations of 15 s. The surface is textured using the RGB images acquired during the scanning process, and the color of the occluded parts is approximated via K-Nearest Neighbors (KNN). We show early results of creating digital clothing of high quality by scanning real clothes.
Michael B. Holte

Application of Strength Requirements to Complex Loading Scenarios

NASA’s endeavors in human spaceflight rely on extensive volumes of human-systems integration requirements to ensure mission success. These requirements protect space hardware accommodation for the full range of potential crewmembers, but cannot cover every possible action and contingency in detail. This study was undertaken in response to questions from various strength requirement users who were unclear how to apply idealized strength requirements that did not map well to the complex loading scenarios that crewmembers would encounter. Three of the most commonly occurring questions from stakeholders were selected to be investigated by human testing and human modeling. Preliminary findings indicate that deviation from nominal postures can affect compliance with strength requirements positively or negatively, depending on the nature of the deviation. Human modeling offers some avenues for quickly addressing requirement verification questions, but is limited by the fidelity of the model and environment.
Scott England, Sudhakar Rajulu

Movement Variability and Digital Human Models: Development of a Demonstrator Taking the Effects of Muscular Fatigue into Account

Movement variability is an essential characteristic of human movement. However, despite its prevalence, it is almost completely ignored in workstation design. Neglecting this variability can lead to skip over parts of the future operator’s movements, thus bring to incomplete assessment of biomechanical risk factors. This paper starts with a focus on movement variability in occupational activities. Then, as an example of feasibility, it describes a Digital Human Model framework intended to simulate the movement variability induced by muscle fatigue. The demonstrator is based on several simulation environments, namely (1) XDE, a virtual human simulation software tool previously used for ergonomics analyses, (2) a dynamic three-compartment model of muscle fatigue and recovery, and (3) OpenSim, a dynamic musculoskeletal simulation software. The demonstrator is a first step towards tools to assist designers in considering movement variability for improved ergonomics at the workstation.
Jonathan Savin, Martine Gilles, Clarisse Gaudez, Vincent Padois, Philippe Bidaud

Climate Variability, Opposition Group Formation and Conflict Onset

Political Science has a rich heritage of trying to understand how time-invariant geo-physical and geo-political features impact the calculus of peace and war, within and among societies. The growing body of climate change evidence has encouraged the re-examination of such questions yielding a variety of hypotheses which attempt to explain how weather variations can trigger societal and civil conflict. We develop an agent-based, predictive analytic model for subnational conflict onset. We model the preferences and influence of citizens in geophysical space and capture the emergence of groups and the diffusion of support and opposition across society using cooperative game theory. We then model the interaction of groups and the government utilizing non-cooperative game theory to ascertain conflict onset. Such a method empowers us to ascertain the duration and magnitude of environmental shocks which would most prominently lead to conflict within societies with specific demographic and wealth characteristics.
Zining Yang, Piotr M. Zagorowski

Towards a Comprehensive Simulator for Public Speaking Anxiety Treatment

Public speaking anxiety (PSA) is often cited as the most common social phobia. Virtual reality enables us to overcome PSA with life-like scenarios. This paper first reviews the state-of-the-art in virtual environments as an emerging treatment for public speaking anxiety and presents a comprehensive Virtual Environment (VE). In most of the studies there is a lack in the inclusion of physical and vocal cues. Physical and vocal cues generated by the audience are crucial contributors to PSA. We design a virtual auditorium with an audience exhibiting these physical and vocal cues; a comprehensive VE, helping overcome PSA. Additionally, participants are subjected to the three phases of speech: Anticipation, Performance and Recovery [Cornwell et al. in Biol Psychiatry 59(7):664–666, 2006 1]. The resulting simulator can then be used for training and eventual treatment of PSA in addition to being used as a tool for identifying cues to which speakers are more sensitive to.
Esin Söyler, Chathika Gunaratne, Mustafa İlhan Akbaş

The Research on VR-Based of Technology Generating Equipment and Interaction Equipment

The technology of VR (Virtual Reality) is the result of the progress of science and technology since the 20th century, it embodied the computer technology, computer graphics, multimedia technology, sensor technology, display technology, human body engineering, human-computer interaction theory, the latest achievements of artificial intelligence, and other fields, has become the latest achievements after relay information field of multimedia technology and network technology is widely attention and research, development and application of hot spots, is currently the fastest growing a multi-disciplinary comprehensive technology. Rapid generating equipment and interaction changed in the past, between people and computer dull, stiff, passive way of communication, make the man-machine interaction between become more humanized, blazed a new research field of human-computer interaction interface, which provides a new interface for the application of intelligent engineering tools, for all kinds of engineering provides a new description method of large-scale data visualization, but also changed the way people work and lifestyle and ideology.
Yan Liu, Fan Wang

Assessing Hazard Identification in Surface Stone Mines in a Virtual Environment

Mine workers are expected to remain vigilant and successfully identify and mitigate hazards in both routine and non-routine locations. The goal of the current research project is to better understand how workers search and identify hazards. NIOSH researchers developed a data collection setup to measure a subject’s gaze, head position, and reaction time while examining 360° 2D-panoramic images at a surface mine. The data is integrated in semi real-time to determine region of interest (ROI) hit accuracy for hazards within the images. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the development and implementation of the hardware and software. The following aspects of the setup will be explored in the paper: (1) environment selection, (2) image creation, (3) stimulus display, (4) synchronization, (5) gaze mapping, and (6) region of interest (ROI) hit calculation.
Jennica L Bellanca, Timothy J Orr, William Helfrich, Brendan Macdonald, Jason Navoyski, Brianna Eiter

Interactive Landslide Simulator: A Tool for Landslide Risk Assessment and Communication

Understanding landslide risks is important for people living in hilly areas in India. A promising way of communicating landslide risks is via simulation tools, where these tools integrate both human factors (e.g., public investments to mitigate landslides) and environmental factors (e.g., spatial geology and rainfall). In this paper, we develop an interactive simulation model on landslide risks and use it to design a web-based Interactive Landslide Simulator (ILS) microworld. The ILS microworld is based on the assumption that landslides occur due to both environmental factors (spatial geology and rainfall) as well as human factors (lack of monetary investments to mitigate landslides). We run a lab-based experiment involving human participants performing in ILS and we show that the ILS performance helps improve public understanding of landslide risks. Overall, we propose ILS to be an effective tool for doing what-if analyses by policymakers and for educating public about landslide risks.
Pratik Chaturvedi, Akshit Arora, Varun Dutt

The Human-Systems Integration (HSI) Concept, Applied in an Observation of a Car Crash Simulation

The Human-systems Integration (HSI) is a concept which discusses the relation among several factors that influence and are influenced in a system. Aiming to identify all these factors, a car crash simulation is addressed in this paper, emphasizing all people and tasks involved, categorizing in their respective classifications, discussing how relevant they are during the emergency actions and how important is an integration to guarantee the efficiency and excellence in the rescue process.
Nelson Matias, Natalha Carvalho, Paulo Sena, Claudia Araújo, Rosinei Ribeiro

Digital Human Modeling Pipeline with a 3D Anthropometry Database

This paper presents a digital human modeling pipeline with support from a 3D anthropometry database. The database is derived from the 2012 anthropometric survey of US Army personnel (ANSUR II) and provides search capabilities to query traditional anthropometric measurements and three-dimensional (3D) shape. The query results, which contain both measurements and 3D scans, facilitate further digital human modeling tasks. This paper first presents the implementation and functionality of this 3D database, then discusses some digital human modeling tasks relying on the query results from the database.
Peng Li, Jeremy Carson, Joseph Parham, Steven Paquette

Integrating Heterogeneous Modeling Frameworks Using the DREAMIT Workspace

The history of agent development is a litany of expensive one-off solutions that are opaque to the uninitiated, difficult to maintain and impossible to re-use in novel contexts. This outcome is the unfortunate result of a tendency to apply monolithic “architectures” to agent development, which require specialists to build the models and extensive knowledge engineering and hand tuning to realize adequate performance. To address these shortcomings, we are developing methods to align agent development with best practices in software engineering. In this paper we describe an approach that promotes modularity and learning in the development and validation of intelligent agents. Specifically, our approach enables the modeler to decompose intelligent behavior as required by the problem (rather than the modeling environment), implement component behaviors using the tool best suited to those requirements and close the data loop between agent and environment early in the development process rather than as a post hoc validation step.
Walter Warwick, Matthew Walsh, Stu Rodgers, Christian Lebiere

Lessons Learned in Development of a Behavior Modeling Tool for Health Intervention Design: BehaviorSim

The BehaviorSim Modeling Tool, a behavioral-scientist-facing software for development of Computational Human Behavior Models (CHBMs), has been developed in an effort to close the gap between Just-in-Time Adaptive Intervention researchers and dynamical systems modeling. We present a summary of our iterative methodology for creating the BehaviorSim Model Builder alongside insights and lessons learned at each stage of the process. Drawing from our lessons learned, we highlight and explain the following UI design guidelines as especially important in the development of future CHBM tools: (1) promote expertise development, (2) enable quick model iteration, (3) present high-level visualizations to de-internalize models, and (4) utilize adaptive interfaces. A focus on these design guidelines in the development of future CHBM tools, combined with the provided user persona, will allow developers to create systems that are more accessible and have more utility to JiTAI designers.
Tylar Murray, Eric Hekler, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Daniel E. Rivera, Andrew Raij

Experimentation System for Path Planning Applied to 3D Printing

This paper is focused on finding the efficient path generating algorithms. These algorithms can take part in the path planning process, which is the last stage in model processing for 3D printing. The paper provides the comparative analysis of the five implemented path generating algorithms, which are based on four strategies: ZigZag strategy, Contour strategy, Spiral Strategy, and Fractal strategy. The analysis is based on the results of experiments made with the designed and implemented experimentation system. The system allows carrying out two types of experiments: simulation experiments and physical one. The simulation experiment is performed with the programming application written in C#. The physical experiments utilized FDM technology for 3D printing. Basing on the obtained results, we can conclude that the algorithm based on the ZigZag strategy seems to be better than the algorithms based on other approaches.
Mateusz Wojcik, Iwona Pozniak-Koszalka, Leszek Koszalka, Andrzej Kasprzak

User Experience Design Based on Eye-Tracking Technology: A Case Study on Smartphone APPs

With the rapid development of mobile technology, smartphone has been becoming a part of our daily life. There are amounts of applications (APPs) developed for smartphone in the market, in order to meet the various needs of users. Recently, the user experience evaluation research of smartphone APPs is mainly based on subjective questionnaires, which might be relatively simple and lacking of the supporting evidence from objective data. This study aims at integrating subjective questionnaires and objective eye-tracking technology to evaluate user experience on instant message (IM) APPs. This study proposed that eye-tracking data could be used as objective criteria to evaluate user experience for smartphone APPs. A correlation model between smartphone APPs design variables and user experience was built based on Quantification Theory I.
Qing-Xing Qu, Le Zhang, Wen-Yu Chao, Vincent Duffy

When Feedback Loops Collide: A Complex Adaptive Systems Approach to Modeling Human and Nature Dynamics

In the context of sustainable development, complex adaptive systems frameworks can help address the coupling of macro social, environmental and economic constraint and opportunity with individual agency. Using a simple evolutionary game approach, we fuse endogenously derived socio-economic system dynamics from human and nature dynamics (HANDY) theory with Prisoner’s Dilemma spatial intra-societal economic transactions. We then create a new human and nature dynamics agent based model to explore technological progression on population dynamics, economic development, social inequality and use of resources. We investigate the impact of technology proliferation on communications ease and the resulting compression of social space on individual wealth and societal sustainability. Our initial result shows complex adaptive or evolutionary systems approaches are necessary to understand both near and potentially catastrophic, far-from-equilibrium behavior and societal outcomes across all scales of human behavior and dynamics.
Zining Yang, Patrick deWerk Neal, Mark Abdollahian
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