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Über dieses Buch

This book comprises selected proceedings of the International Conference on Recent Advancements in Civil Engineering and Infrastructural Developments (ICRACEID 2019). The contents are broadly divided into five areas (i) smart transportation with urban planning, (ii) clean energy and environment, (iii) water distribution and waste management, (iv) smart materials and structures, and (v) disaster management. The book aims to provide solutions to global challenges using innovative and emerging technologies covering various fields of civil engineering. The major topics covered include urban planning, transportation, water distribution, waste management, disaster management, environmental pollution and control, environmental impact assessment, application of GIS and remote sensing, and structural analysis and design. Given the range of topics discussed, the book will be beneficial for students, researchers as well industry professionals.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Structure Engineering

Frontmatter

Analysis of Tall Building Using IS 16700-2017 and ASCE 7-10

With the increase in population, the lack of space in cities becomes the main issue. Due to this limitation in space, the constructions of tall or high-rise buildings have become the necessity of time. The design criteria for high-rise buildings are very complex in comparison with low- and mid-rise buildings. When a tall building is considered, it is exposed to static as well as dynamic loading. The life of a tall building is affected by various parameters such as bending, shear, torsion and drifts, and these effects have to be considered while analyzing and designing it. Each country develops its own codes and standards for analysis and design. Till date, the high-rise constructions in India are carried out according to various Indian standards and codal provisions. Recently, a new code IS 16700-2017 “Criteria for Structural Safety of Tall Concrete Buildings” specifically for tall buildings has been introduced in India. This code focuses on various aspects of tall buildings. In the present work, a G + 20 reinforced concrete tall building of height 63 m is considered. The seismic and wind analysis of the structure is carried out using ETABS 2016 version 16.2.1 software. The results are obtained using Indian and American standards. The analysis result shows that American standard gives higher values than that of Indian standard.

Deepika Nair, S. P. Raut, S. V. Denge

Comparative Study of Prediction of 28 Days Strength Using Fuzzy Logic and Model Tree

Concrete is a construction material which is used in n construction processes as a major stress resistance due to its strength characteristics. Designing a concrete mix is a tough task which includes right proportion of ingredients to be mixed in particular order and in particular environment with the objective to produce concrete mix with specified strength, durability, workability, and as economical as possible. Structural engineering field is full of nonlinear problems. This paper speaks about one of the basic nonlinear problems which is a strength prediction. We have tried to convert the nonlinear problem of strength into a linear problem by using model tree analysis and predicted the strength of various mix proportions using fuzzy logic. The objective of this research work is to study fuzzy logic tool and model tree regression analysis processes for prediction of concrete compressive strength, respectively, and its result comparison. Results of this study states that model tree regression analysis works more efficiently than a fuzzy logic.

Vardhan Nagarkar, P. S. Kulkarni, S. N. Londhe

Development of Cementless Recycled Concrete Aggregates Paver Blocks Using Molten Plastic Waste as Binder

Amount of demolished concrete waste and plastic waste being accumulated in twenty-first centuries have been created big challenges for their disposal. At present, nearly 530 million of tons debris is generated in the country annually. Due to our society has become dependent on usage of plastic packaging, approximately 5.6 million ton of plastic products are consumed per annum. The degradation rate of waste is also a very slow process. Using recycled concrete aggregates and waste plastic in development of paver blocks is an interesting possibility for economy on wastage disposals. The objective of the research is to study the characteristics of developed paver block. This paper presents a recent study on properties of paver block prepared by recycled concrete aggregates by using molten plastic waste as binder. For the laboratory samples, the compressive strength, split tensile strength, abrasion resistance, water absorption and heat resistance parameters were measured.

Dhanesh V. Shirsat, P. S. Kulkarni, S. N. Londhe, Shirish Phadtare

Seismic Retrofitting of Indian RC Buildings Using Shear Walls

Shear walls are often used to increment stiffness in building frames. The increase in stiffness improves the performance of building and makes it less vulnerable to the lateral forces it is subjected to in an event of earthquake. Moreover, the overall safety of building is increased due to increased occupational safety [1]. This study tries to study analytically the effects of retrofitting of RC buildings using structural walls or shear walls.

Saif Usmani, Kuldeep R. Dabhekar, Isha Khedikar, Nimita R. Gautam

Utilization of Cupola Slag as a Sustainable Construction Material

The present paper reviews the experimental characterization of cupola slag as a pozzolanic binder. Chemical composition of cupola slag was investigated using XRF scan. From the chemical composition, it can be indicated that the constituents of cupola slag is comparable to the other cementitious materials. Its use in production of building blocks is advantageous. The present paper explores various optimum percentage replacement level of cupola slag in the concrete and mortar.

S. S. Meshram, S. P. Raut

Preparation of Flexural Design Charts Using IS 13920:2016

The code IS 13920:2016 “Ductile design and detailing of reinforce concrete structures subjected to seismic forces—code of practice” is used in the earthquake-resistant design of reinforced concrete buildings. The formulations and provisions given in IS 13920:2016 are different than the provisions given in IS 456:2000. The structural practice handbook, SP 16:1980, has tables and charts that help structural designers to rapidly design the simple sections according to IS 456:1978. Even though the SP 16:1980 is based on IS 456:1978, it continues to be used for IS 456:2000, without revision as there have been no major changes in Sect. 5 on which the design aid is based. While designing with IS 13920:2016, SP 16:1980 is used instead of separate design charts even though the design methodology is different, cumbersome, and iterative. The present study is aimed to propose a new design aid useful to the design of RC, sections according to the provisions of IS 13920:2016 and to provide ease to structural design. This study is validated along with detailed explanation using examples.

G. K. Koshti, R. K. Ingle

Seismic Response Reduction of RC Frame Staging in Elevated Water Tank

Elevated water tank with frame staging is mostly used in India and due to its requirement after earthquake, it is considered as an important structure. Thus, it is required to control the seismic response of tank staging to minimize damages. In this work, the effectiveness of lead rubber bearing (LRB) and X-plate damper (XPD) in seismic response control of staging is investigated. Initially, two types of frame staging are considered for the same capacity of the tank and from nonlinear static analysis, best-suited staging is identified. After this, LRB and XPD are installed separately and to check the effectiveness of these devices, nonlinear time history analysis has been performed for four different earthquake records. It is observed that due to these control devices, seismic responses are significantly reduced.

Sakshi A. Manchalwar, V. Verghese

Bending Analysis of Laminated Composite Thick Beam

The aim of this study to investigate the characteristics of a laminated composite beam with simple supports. The relations are developed between solutions of traditional theories of beams with those of the superior order shear deformation theories. Shear warp theories are those in which the effect of slanting shear strain is integrated. The interactions are developed for displacement, shear, and bending analysis. The principal equation of beam can be derived using energy and variational principles. In energy methods, the principle of virtual work or their derivatives, such as the principle of minimum potential energy is used to obtain the governing differential equations. The energy method has the advantage of providing information in the form of boundary conditions. The results of displacement, shear, and bending of a laminated composite beam are given for other shear deformation theories, in order to illustrate the influence of thick beam on the still behavior of beam.

D. H. Tupe, A. G. Dahake, G. R. Gandhe

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Haunched Beams Without Shear Reinforcement Under Static Shear Load

In the current paper, the verification of simply supported reinforced concrete (haunched and prismatic) beams has been done for different haunched angles. These beams have tested without shear reinforcement previously. These beams have tested by applying a concentrated static load at a mid-span. The verification has been done by comparing the results of nonlinear finite element analysis method by using ANSYS (Mechanical APDL) software with the experimental work results, where the load–deflection curves were obtained for both (FEA and experimental). The verification has done for three beams; one was as a prismatic beam and two more as a haunched beam with different haunched angles (α). The results obtained from ANSYS were in agreement with the experimental results, where the load–deflection curves of ANSYS results and experimental results were matching for all beams. The ANSYS results confirm the different behaviour of RCHBs with respect to prismatic beam which have been observed in an experimental work also. This paper shows the strength of ANSYS software in modelling and analysis.

Hamzah Sabah Jebur

Seismic Response of Rectangular RC Building with and Without Infill Walls Considering Soil–Structure Interaction

In the last few years, the tall, proportioned and irregular structure exhibits more risks during earthquakes. For interior wall and exterior walls of structure, infill walls are frequently used to fill up the space between beam and column frame. In this study, the influence of the response of infill walls on the seismic performance of the reinforced concrete building prone to lateral seismic loads is investigated. The exact modeling of the structure reflects on many structural aspects like strength and stiffness of the structure to resist the lateral earthquake load initiated by the earthquake. A comparative and parametric study is carried out with the help of joint displacement, axial force, maximum bending moment, shear force, time period, etc.

P. S. Bhurse, S. S. Sanghai, N. Lalitha Kumari

Identification of Enhanced Stiffness of Beam by EMI Frequency Shift Technique

Stiffness of the beam is the main parameter to distribute the load on the structure. As the concrete gains its strength, its stiffness also increases with it. Fundamental natural frequency of the structure is proportional to the square root of stiffness; thus, fundamental and subsequent natural frequencies increase with the increase in stiffness of the structure and with damage, the stiffness and natural frequencies decrease while mass is maintained constant. RCC beams are coated with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP) layer, which is used to increase the flexural stiffness of beam. By using electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) technique, conductance and susceptance signatures of structure are recorded through Inductance capacitance resistance (LCR) meter by applying alternating voltage to lead zirconate titanate (PZT) patches. In the present work, the EMI conductance values of the structure are recorded against the frequency in the form of signatures. The peak in the conductance values shows the resonant frequency of the structure and indicates modal natural frequency of the structure. The increase in stiffness of the beam is monitored with EMI resonant frequency shift technique.

Suraj Khante, Pranav Nimkar

Application of Maturity Meter to Estimate Location of Sensors for Plate Elements

The quality assurance of concrete structures mainly depends on the measure of the in-place strength of concrete. The in-place strength of concrete plays an important role in planning the activities on-site such as opening of structure of occupancy, opening of roads to traffic, construction claims, etc. The strength of concrete is a measure of temperature and time. This research work scrutinizes the application of “Maturity Method” in finding the location for placement of sensors in plate elements, specifically a squared manhole cover. A trial program is proposed to detect the distress locations in a manhole cover using maturity meter. For this study, three non-sacrificial sensors were placed in a manhole cover and hydration extent was examined. Further, the results were interpreted in excel on the basis of the correlation between the three sensors placed in the manhole cover kept at room temperature where concrete hydration was permitted.

Pranjali Hajare

Analysis of Various Asymmetric Membrane Roofs with Opening(s)

A roof is a part of a building which provides us protection from animals, weather, notably rain or snow and admits light if a skylight is present. The different types of roofs are gable roof, hip roof, sawtooth roof, etc., and the materials used in the roofs include grass, ceramics, Teflon, etc. Opening is the intentional introduction of ambient air into a space, and it is mainly used to control indoor air quality by diluting and displacing indoor pollutants; it can also be used for purposes of thermal comfort or dehumidification. Modern trends of roofs are now available with different modern and cheap materials with openings. This paper discusses the numerical and physical models developed for the design of different asymmetric membrane roofs and thus comparing the results of the models with those of the various models and their analysis. Generally, the shapes considered are conoid shape, saddle shape, and elliptical dome shape with one or more openings. The materials adopted for asymmetric membrane roofs are modern textile material, i.e., polytetrafluoroethylene, synthetic rubber, i.e., ethylene–propylene–diene–terpolymer and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). This initially outlines procedures for stress analysis, wind pressure analysis, and seismic analysis. Finally, construction of the actual membrane is described, and comparison is made. Determination of the mechanical properties of the fabrics used to construct the asymmetric membrane roofs which are also briefly discussed.

Grace Mary Abraham, Ruksa Nizar

Evaluation of Response Reduction Factor for RCC Moment Resisting Frame with Ductile Shear Wall

Most of the buildings are irregular and their behavior during the event of earthquake is significantly different than that of regular buildings. The actual base shear which act on the building is much higher than the designed base shear. That is why it is uneconomical to design the building for the actual base shear. The building is expected to undergo the inelastic deformations without excess damage to it. Response reduction factor (R) is an indication of extent to which the energy is dissipated through inelastic deformation during an event of seismic excitation. Many of the design codes recommends the different values of ‘R’ accounting for their ductility, over strength and Redundancy of the structure. IS 1893 (part 1): 2016 has recommended the values of R based on the structural framing system. The main objective of the present work is to verify the value recommended for the dual system using Non-linear Static Pushover Analysis and compare the obtained R value with code specified value.

Akash Soni, Manohari P. Kulkarni, Shardul G. Joshi

Study on Properties of Lightweight Concrete Using Expanded Clay Aggregate and Its Value Engineering

Comparison was made between normal concrete (NC) and lightweight concrete (LWC) in terms of fresh, hardened and durability properties of concrete like fresh and hardened density, workability, compressive and flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, rapid chloride ion penetration and water absorption test. NC of M30 grade with normal aggregate and LWC having densities 1400, 1600 and 1800 kg/m3 from expanded clay aggregate (ECA) with complete replacement were prepared. The specimens prepared were tested on 7, 28 and 56 days. Key observations were that the density of the mixes remained constant throughout 56 days for all the mixes. Strengths of the LWC decrease with an increase in the percentage of ECA in the mix. However, LWC showed better results in durability properties than NC. Value engineering between NC and LWC showing best result among lightweight concrete was considered. Complete replacement of structural members was made by LWC and compared to get additional floors with the same load of NC for G + 5, G + 10 and G + 15 structures.

Shaikh Mohd. Tazir Asif, A. S. Wayal

Effect of Modern Chemical Admixtures on the Performance of Strength of Cement Mortar Cubes

Admixtures are chemical additives in concrete and play a vital role in modifying the desired properties in fresh concrete or green concrete. The evolution of these admixtures in their performance contributed a lot to the modern concrete over the conventional concrete. In the present experimental study, effect of low, medium and high end admixtures is considered to evaluate their performance on strength with their respective optimum dosages. Cement mortar cubes tested for 3 days, 7 days and 28 days with standard water–cement ratio determined from the standard consistency test of cement paste following IS procedures reveal notable improvements in the strength. This study highlights the minimum water–cement ratio required in each category of the admixture, and its effect on strength is discussed.

Alima Fernandes, K. G. Guptha

Review of Performance-Based Design of RC Shear Walls

Reinforced concrete shear walls are generally used as predominant in-plane lateral force-resisting members in tall buildings. National Building Code of India has clauses guiding their design process as well as there are numerous research papers detailing empirical formulations that can be used for complicated designs. Many structural design related software packages come with comprehensive shear wall modelling, analysis and designing modules. But in performance-based design philosophy it is necessary to consider not only the strength and the stiffness aspects of a shear wall but also its performance and its ultimate failure mode when subjected to strong dynamic loads. Especially RC shear walls present more challenges when it comes to accurate modelling and design because of the heterogeneous nature of concrete, variable concrete-aggregate and concrete-rebar bonding, strength degradation or pinched hysteretic behaviour, etc. This paper presents a summary of literature available of performance-based design methodologies and their applicability to the design of reinforced concrete shear walls.

Tarak Santosh Parab, Vikas Chodankar

Environmental and Water Resources Engineering

Frontmatter

Effect of Urban Land Use on Agriculture, Forest, and River Beds: A Case Study of Dehradun City, Uttarakhand, India

Urbanization has led to a tremendous pressure on available land in Dehradun, Uttarakhand, India. Therefore, proper land planning measures are required to mitigate the effect of urbanization on agriculture, forest, and water bodies. This study illustrates the use of remote sensing and GIS to detect the change in urban sprawl of Dehradun region during the period 2013–18 and its effect on agriculture, forest, and water bodies. Landsat 8 imagery has been used in this study. Supervised classification has been adopted in Landsat 8 images of the study area. Four different land cover classes have been considered in classification stage. These are urban, forests, agriculture and vegetation, and seasonal river beds. The accuracy obtained for both the images after classification was above 85% for good change detection results. The change detection technique used is post-classification comparison method which is the matrix union method. The study has shown that the built-up area in Dehradun city has expanded from 75.07 km2 in 2013 to 105.51 km2 in 2018 and 0.26 km2 of forest area, 34.40 km2 of agricultural land, and 2.56 km2 of water beds have been converted into built-up area in the duration of 5 years. The increase in built-up area from 2013 to 2018 is 40.54%.

Kunal Sawant, Rishi Prakash, Nitin Mishra

Spatio-Temporal Trend Analysis of Rainfall for Kumaon Region of Uttarakhand

Environmental change is upsetting the key climatic parameters at a worldwide dimension. In any case, the progressions having limited power are not rise to for all areas particularly in India. These progressions must be measured locally to deal with the normal water assets all the more adequately. Precipitation is a standout amongst the most significant climatic parameter. The reason for this investigation is to watch the worldly fluctuation of precipitation for the time of 1901–2017 (117 years), of Kumaon area regions of Uttarakhand. The point of the examination is to decide the pattern in yearly precipitation time arrangement utilizing the M-K and Sen T-tests. The pattern size in precipitation has been evaluated by Sen’s estimator strategy. Auto correlation impact is decreased prior applying the M-K test for the pattern in rainfall. On the yearly premise, examination of M-K analysis shows expanding (positive) no criticalness pattern in precipitation time arrangement over the Kumaon areas of Uttarakhand.

Pooja Negi, Nitin Mishra, Amit Kumar Sharma

Water Body Mapping of Chennai Region Using GIS and Remote Sensing

This venture depicts the improvement of water body mapping (WBM), utilizing a computerized calculation to process Landsat pictures from the United States Geological Survey (USGS) database. We utilized Landsat 2, 3, 5, 8 band pictures so as to depict a precise water body map, with no normal unsettling influence. Perpetual water bodies were recognized from fleeting water-shrouded regions by computing the recurrence of water body presence from covering, multi-transient, Landsat scenes. By examining the recurrence of water body presence, the WBM isolates stream channels and floodplains more obviously than past examinations. This recommends the utilization of multi-transient pictures is as significant as examination at higher goals for worldwide water body mapping. We screen the Chennai and adjacent surface water region changes from 1977 to 2016. Three scenes from the Multispectral Scanner System (MSS), three scenes from the Thematic Mapper (TM), and three scenes from the Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Thermal Infrared Sensor (TIRS) remote detecting information of Landsat satellites, the standardized distinctive water file (NDWI), standardized diverse vegetation record (NDVI), and NIR technique were utilized to quantitatively gauge the Chennai buffer surface water territory during the 1970s, 1980s, 2000s, and 2010s, separately. The examination closed the estimation of human exercises sway on surface water spatiotemporal dissemination. The point was to decide the exactness of utilizing basic computerized picture handling strategies to delineate water bodies with Landsat 2(MSS), Landsat 3(MSS), Landsat 5(MSS/TM), and Landsat 8(OLI/TIRS) information.

Ashish Bhandari, Nitin Mishra, K. K. Gupta

Investigation of Hydraulic Jump Over Rough Sloping Floor in Prismatic Rectangular Channel—An Experimental Study

Hydraulic jump is the one, which has widely been studied in hydraulic engineering. It is the most regular encountered cases of rapidly varied flow in hydraulic engineering. Very limited studies have been reported in literature on the performance of the behavior of hydraulic jump, only for smooth and rough horizontal channel beds. This study attempts to investigate the characteristics of hydraulic jumps formed on rough sloping channel beds under different flow conditions using laboratory experiments. A series of experiments were conducted in a rectangular flume having artificially roughened beds which is formed by placing concrete with different roughness and tilting flume slope. This study concerns with the investigations of effects on slopes of channel and channel bed roughness height at hydraulic characteristics. To achieve this, the bed of flume was provided the roughness with the help of different size of gravels (d50 = 1, 1.2, 1.5 and 1.7 cm) and three different channels slopes (0.0115, 0.0146, 0.0174) were used. In all 48 different runs were conducted with varying discharge and approach supercritical flow depth. The available empirical relationships for estimating the sequent depth ratio were first checked for their accuracy for new data. As the existing relationships were inadequate, new relationship are proposed, herein for parameter of the hydraulic jump. Comparison of observed values of sequent depth ratio with calculating values coming from respective proposed relationship showed satisfactory agreement.

Murari Kumar, Nitin Mishra, Sanjeev Kumar

Groundwater Storage Analysis in Changing Land Use/Land Cover for Haridwar Districts of Upper Ganga Canal Command (1972–2011)

Over the last century, a key change in land use has happened locally, provincially and all around. These will prolong in the future also. The affect of built-up area on groundwater has a key worry over past many years, and in exacting, to those worried in groundwater amount and subjective examinations. Augmentation in impermeable region due to urbanization results in decreased infiltration and finally affecting the groundwater storage. So, land use change has to be calculated with spatial information technologies; especially, the application of remotely sensed data and geographical information systems (GIS) has been used. The present study investigates the urban growth of Haridwar district, Uttrakhand, using satellite data for the years 1972, 1980, 1992, 2002 and 2011. Unscrupulous population increase, rise in food, silage and energy demands in combination with industrial action have led to quick modification in land use patterns. In this study, GIS tool is used to classify different land use classes from remote sensing data and groundwater potential in Haridwar district, and supervised classification technique is applied to categorize urban LULC. The study of results shows the extreme increase of urban area and reduced green cover within the city boundary limit. Due to increase of settlement area will directly impact the decrease of groundwater level. Proper planning of land use and groundwater organization is an input to socioeconomic upliftment of a region.

Nitin Mishra, Amit Kumar Sharma

Design of Rising Main for Amravati Water Supply Scheme

Rising main or pumping main is used to convey the water from source or reservoir to water treatment plant and further to the balancing reservoir or elevated service reservoir. If water treatment plant is located above reservoir sump level, water can be transmitted using direct pumping or combined pumping and gravity technique. This paper reviews the method for the analysis and design of combined pumping and gravity transmission system by provision of break pressure tank for Amravati water supply scheme. The water is lifted to break pressure tank by pumping main and thereafter, it is conveyed to water treatment plant using gravity main. The variable cost parameters of the transmission system such as cost of pipes, pumps and energy are studied. Diameters of both the pipes were found to achieve cost effectiveness and performance. Further, an alternate water transmission system was studied and designed. Lagrange multiplier method was used to develop mathematical model.

R. K. Rai, S. R. Khandeshwar

Synthetic Stream Flow Generation of River Gomti Using ARIMA Model

Study of synthesizing of time series applies various stochastic models out of which autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model has proved to be an effective tool. Such models are useful to select the best fit model from the available past values of any time series. The objective of present study is to develop a methodology to synthetically generate the time series using ARIMA model for an Indian River Gomti at Gomti Barrage of Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), India. The approach for prediction of time series is based on the idea of predicting future values of an observed time series using a model with estimated regression parameters. ARIMA is a popularly adopted stochastic technique for the various studies in the water resources engineering where long futuristic data is necessary. The present model uses an iterative three-stage modelling approach. First stage is to identify and select model, which involves the checking of stationarity of the variables. Second stage comprises the checking of the seasonality of the dependent variables and to select the suitable model based on the plots of the autocorrelation and partial autocorrelation functions of the dependent time series data. Parameter estimation has been carried out using computation algorithms to arrive at coefficients which best fit the selected ARIMA (1, 1, 1) model. Model checking has been performed by testing whether the estimated model confirms to the least value of AIC and SBIC. By checking of the least value of the AIC and SBIC, the model is generated and hence the mathematical equation has been formulated for the generation of the forecasted stream flow for future time period from the original data of discharge collected from gauge site.

Hemanshu Singh, Maya Rajnarayan Ray

Land Vegetation Change Detection Using Remote Sensing and GIS

The study of vegetation cover change is one of the foremost arenas to understand the degree of interaction between man and environment. Changes in land vegetation cover affect biodiversity, water and other processes that come together to affect climate and biosphere. The study is done using remote sensing and GIS technique. The aim of this study is to detect vegetation cover change between 2003 and 2018 of Roorkee city region using Landsat image data. Vegetation changes have been detected by classification technique like unsupervised classification of both the images of year 2003 and 2018 using ERDAS Imagine 9.3. By monitoring of vegetation change, we can get the effects in biodiversity, water and other processes that come together to affect climate and biosphere the national development. The 15-year time period between 2003 and 2018 shows that a major change of vegetation cover change in the study area. The change in vegetation area observed in the duration of 15 years is 108.61 square.

Samshul Aarfin, Rishi Prakash, Nitin Mishra

Applications of Low Impact Development for Managing the Storm Water Surface Runoff in Urban Areas

Urbanization is one of the main important factors leading to urban flooding, which has caused major damage to the environment and society. Controlling urban flooding has become a new challenge for urban planners. There are many reasons of urban flooding in Delhi. It may occur due to increased urbanization, low rate of infiltration and poor infrastructure for storm water drainage network, improper drainage system. For controlling urban flooding, there is one of the control source solutions that help in reducing the urban flooding that is low impact development techniques. Low impact development (LID) is a new innovative technique for managing storm water at the source and helps to improve the water quality as well. It is most popular method which helps to reduce the hydrologic as well as water quality which effects by urbanization. The storm water management model (PCSWMM) is a widely used rainfall-runoff simulation model which has ability to model LID techniques. The LID used in this study is infiltration trench, green roof and rain water harvesting. The result obtained from the model (with LID) found to be satisfactory with the ground reality. In this present study, PCSWMM has been used for the first time for modelling storm water drains of the urban area (Delhi city, India), and the results obtained from simulation are in good consent with the observed data. Thus, the present study will help the flood managers to manage excess surface runoff during storm more efficiently in urban cities.

Ruchika Dabas, Satish Kumar, Munendra Kumar

Analysis of Parameters for Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) by Using GIS

The most important and basic data required for assessment of water resource is Runoff. For this runoff water requires proper planning, sustainable management, water control Strategies. In this present investigation, the area of Yamuna river flowing through Delhi has been selected for the study. The study depicts development of watershed catchment delineation, flow direction, development of streams, Land use and cover map and Digital elevation model (DEM) by using Geographic Information System (GIS) applications. DEM is generated from satellite image. As a result of this, the Runoff of this catchment is discharged into the Yamuna River. By using the available data rainfall intensity analysis work has been carried out and the IDF curve has been generated.

Ruchika Dabas, Munendra Kumar

Application of Six Sigma on RMC Plant

Six sigma is a quality improvement technique widely used in manufacturing industry. Application of six sigma is yet to be explored exhaustively in the field of construction. This study explores the possibility of application of six sigma in the process of manufacturing of concrete in the RMC plant situated at Navsari, Gujarat. This paper defines and analyzes process performance of RMC plant using six sigma technique. The data was collected in the form of batches and its mix proportion. Total data was collected for 469 batches of the said plant and analyzed using MS Excel. As per IS 4926:2003, tolerance limit for cement, aggregate, and water was set, and batch-wise upper limit and lower limit were calculated. These calculations were then compared with the target value set by the RMC plant. This comparison led to calculate the defects per million opportunity (DPMO) value for the concrete manufacturing process of the RMC plant. With the help of DPMO value, the sigma value is found out to be 1.77 which is not at par with the ultimate sigma level. This work provides valuable insights on the implementation of six sigma technique in the construction industry. Six sigma technique can evaluate the quality of the process and quantify the improvement goals if the process is under performance and less efficient. Improvement in quality of construction can be observed at large extent if six sigma technique is applied to more complicated, volatile, and multistep projects with a linkage to lean principle.

Viraj Parekh, Sagar Jotani, Jay Patel

Monitoring of a Construction Project in Its Execution Phase Using Project Delivery Success Factor (PDSF)

A construction project usually involves different types of activities and has number of factors affecting it. Such situations demand rigorous monitoring and fluent coordination on the project. The final output of any project must be that it is delivered successfully. In this study, the researchers have focused on application of a conceptual model based on KPIs and project constraints to monitor a real estate building project in Pune. To predict the project delivery success factor (PDSF) of a 13 storeyed commercial building, two additional parameters, project performance index (PPI) and project monitoring and coordination index (PMCI), have been defined and used. Data has been collected from on-site observations, collecting authentic documents related to the particular project, meeting various involved stakeholders, interviewing them and making a note of their opinion and expertise. It has been clearly observed through the results that the PDSF for the real estate project under study is less. Therefore, the particular project has been considered as a possible failure, and various measures have been recommended to improve the PDSF.

Shubhankar S. Pimplikar, Rohit R. Salgude

Rainwater Harvesting at Vaageswari College of Engineering Karimnagar

According to the United Nations Population Fund’s (UNFPA) State of the World population 2018 report, India’s population grew at 1.2% a year between 2010 and 2019, marginally higher than the global average of 1.1.% a year and also double than China’s population 0.5% a year. These will lead to high rate of consumption of most valuable natural resource “Water” resulting in augmentation of pressures on the permitted fresh and drinking water resources. Ancient method of damming river and transporting water to urban area has its own issues of eternal troubles causing socially and politically. In order to conserve and maintain the daily demand of water requirement, we need to think for alternative cost-effective and relatively simple technological methods of conserving water. Rainwater harvesting is one of the best methods fulfilling these requirements of water. The technical aspects of this paper are rainwater harvesting collected from rooftop which is considered to be catchment areas from institute’s departmental building at Vaageswari College of Engineering (S4 campus), Thimmapur, Karimnagar, Telangana (India). Data is collected, i.e., catchment areas & hydrological rainfall data. Water harvesting potential for the S4 campus is calculated, and the tank capacity with suitable design is being considered. Volume of tank has been calculated with most appropriate method of estimation of water. Optimum location of tank on the basis of hydrological analysis and GIS analysis was done in the college campus. Finally, Gutter design, its analysis, first flush, and filtration mechanism are also carried out in detail.

Umank Mishra, Syeda Saba Huriya, Md. Areef, Ubaid Bin Hameed, M. K. Upadhyay

Elimination of Process Wastes in Construction by Using Last Planner® System

Recently, Government of India has decided vision of 100 smart cities in 2020, and for a better productivity (on time, within budget and promised quality of projects), construction industry should adopt new construction management technologies but due to the tendency to adopt new management technology and other more reasons almost 80% construction projects are either time overrun or cost overrun. This problem can be solved by the adoption of tools of lean construction in Indian construction sector. Last Planner® System is one of the most efficient tools of lean construction and with the use of this tool; process wastes and negative effect of traditional method can be mitigated. Thus, objective of this study is to overcome the limitations of traditional method of construction and process wastes by the implementation of Last Planner® System in residential project.

Mitesh K. Bhatt, S. S. Pimplikar, Piyush Pandey

Runoff Volume Estimation by SCS-CN Method Through Arc-GIS Approach

The salient resources of water for discharge of groundwater in a watershed or catchment area are rainfall and rainfall runoff. The primary source of groundwater recharge is rainfall. Runoff in the watershed or catchment area affected by geomorphologic feature principally, land use change affects the surface runoff volume over and rate of runoff considerably. This project aims to estimate the runoff volume over Gangadhara watershed (289.29 km2), Telangana by one of the methods called Soil Conservation Services (SCS)–Curve Number (CN) method. In this method, alternate land use/land cover (LULC) and soil type shape files were first obtained and compiled using by remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Then, hydrologic soil group (HSG) maps will be developed by interpreting formative elements by soil taxonomy. Available rainfall data of the past 30 years (1988–2018) from rain gauge station of Gangadhara watershed is collected and screened to consistency and accuracy and is linked to GIS database. Based on soil and rainfall conditions of a watershed, the antecedent soil moisture condition (AMC) is found to be AMC-I, i.e. dry condition. By using relevant equations, the runoff volume over the watershed estimated is 0.81 km3.

Umank Mishra, Gowru Kiran Kumar, S. K. Gupta, P. Sarah Kiron, N. Vinay, Lubna Ara

Analysis and Design of Urban Water Distribution Network Using Hardy Cross Method and EPANET

Water distribution networks (WDNs) serve many purposes in addition to the provision of water for human consumption, which often accounts for less than 2% of the total volume supplied. The purpose of water distribution system is to supply required water quantity at adequate pressure. Water distribution networks play an important role in modern societies because its proper operation is directly related to the population’s well-being. The analysis and design of hydraulic network of Waghapur Naka medical college (WNMC) in Yavatmal city were carried out which contains dead ends and modelling it in computer software EPANET. The hydraulic network was analysed for residual pressure of 7 m. Design for 12 m residual pressure for WNMC in Yavatmal city is given in this paper. The procedure developed for analysis and design in this paper has been explained and tested using a case study of WNMC in Yavatmal city as hydraulic network. It also compares between analytical solutions by Hardy Cross method using Hazen–Williams equation and analysis results using computer software EPANET. The aim of this paper is to develop a simple procedure for water distribution network analysis and design using Hardy Cross method and EPANET.

R. K. Rai, P. S. Lingayat

Estimation of Surface Runoff Potential Using SCS-CN Method and GIS for Parts of Doddahalla3 Watershed in Krishna River Basin

A study was conducted to estimate the runoff by using SCS-CN method and geospatial technology for part of Doddahalla3 watershed in Krishna River Basin. The study area falls under Gadag, Sirahati, and Mundargi Taluks of Gadag District, Karnataka, with an area of 752 km2. Spatial data like raingauge station locations, land use and land cover, and soil texture for the study area was determined using Water Resources Information System (WRIS), Bhuvan, and Google Earth. Non-spatial data like daily rainfall was obtained from Karnataka State Natural Disaster Monitoring Centre (KSNDMC). The SCS-CN runoff curve number is one of the most widely accepted and frequently used techniques for the estimation of surface runoff. Once the yield is available, then further planning can be done for the river rejuvenation activities in the same area.

Bhavyata Jethva, Ashim Ghosh, Lingaraju Yale

Use of BIM for Study of Life Cycle Cost Analysis of Residential Complex

The initial costs of a building are quite small in comparison to the life cycle costs, as it is estimated that they represent less than 30% of the total life cycle cost of a building. Accordingly, if we consider integration of the life cycle cost of a building into the estimation of investment values, then we would have a better and clearer idea of how much our total operation costs are during and after construction process. Did an overview of Life Cycle Assessment and Modelling tools and BIM integrated LCC evaluations. Used BIM objectives by Krieder for to generate Life Cycle Cost Analysis of the Residential Building. Findings of this study demonstrate the opportunities to manage and estimate a reliable and accurate information on a building’s life cycle in real time by considering each element and its components into the calculation, which may change the metrics for a real estate economic evaluation in order to achieve sustainable and efficient property investment. The adoption of the building information modelling to generate relative LCCA databases directly benefits the real investment cost calculation for investors.

Aditi A. Sathe, S. S. Pimplikar

Water Resources Planning, Policy and Management—Experiences from Kumudvathi River Rejuvenation Project

Kumudvathi River Rejuvenation Project is an initiative taken to revive the natural process of water resource renewability, which existed in nature. The terrain analysis using geospatial technology revealed the geomorphological and geohydrological processes that had been operating since ages and the conventional human interventions which made the water resources sustainable [1]. It was possible to reveal the causative factors which distorted the pre-existing water resources renewability factors, which in turn helped in evolving a methodology to copy nature’s method of cycling the water source between the surface and sub-surface with different layers of soil, vegetation, and subsurface aquifers, collecting the spatial and non-spatial information. It was possible to map, locate suitable sites for harvesting rainwater, recharge groundwater, revive the surface, and base flow with environment-friendly conditions. The structures constructed accordingly have been able to perform the function efficiently and yield good results of increased base flow, raising the water table, and improved groundwater potential. The pilot exercise proved efficient when concurrent impact assessment was done. This helped in project extension as stakeholder’s confidence and involvement increased, resulting in an extension of the project to the entire basin. Many hindrances and constraints faced are discussed in this paper. It needs the attention of the policymakers and also the government to adopt such proven cost-effective, eco-friendly, and innovative methods elsewhere in the similar geological terrains (Sharachchandra in World Dev 19(6):607–621, 1991 [2]). This also brings awareness and provisions for regulations to protect and maintain such structures to sustain the augmented process of water resource renewability.

Ravindra Desai, Anjali Kumari, Girish G. Shetty, Bhavyata Jethva

Optimal Design of Sewerage Networks Using Swamee Algorithm

Sewerage system is the significant infrastructural component of society which collects wastewater from various areas/localities and conveys the same toward the sewage treatment plant. Sewer line is the basic unit occurring repeatedly in design process of sewerage network. Huge amount of investment is required for the construction and maintenance of the sewerage system which includes cost of sewer pipe, cost of excavation, cost of manhole, etc. The reduction in the cost of sewer lines results in substantial savings in the total capital cost. In this paper, Swamee algorithm was used to design the cost-effective sewer line by determining the cost function and optimal solutions. Manning equation was used to obtain the set of feasible diameter, head loss, etc.

R. K. Rai, D. K. Madavi

Comparative Study of Designing of Common Effluent Treatment Plant by STAADX PRO Software and by Manual Calculations

The increasing small and medium scale industries in India, environmental pollution and wastewater percentage increases. So waste minimization and cleaning technology are encouraged under Swacch Bharat Abhiyan. The government has many facilities to promote the CETP in small-scale industry. According to that Abhiyan, every industry should have their Effluent Treatment Plant, so that water will be treated before leaving it outside the industry. In this paper, the designing of a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) for 20 MLD is studied. The design parameters and the design verification of the plant are also done using certified design software of STAADX PRO. Therefore, the establishment of CETP plant is considered in saving rivers from adverse effects of industrial pollution. The treated water can also be used for boiler or gardening purposes. The calculations for all the equipment like sedimentation tank, precipitator, etc. have done. The simulation of CETP plant gives an overall idea about the minimization of pollution then according to treatment we can modify the design of a common effluent treatment plant.

Rishab Pardeshi, Abhishek Satputale, Shraddha Admane

Experimental Modeling and Evacuation of Cr(VI) from Wastewater by Using Nanostructured Ceria

Ceria nanoparticle synthesizes by nanotechnology by using cerium chloride and sulfuric acid by the precipitations method which is evaluated as an adsorbent for the evacuation of Cr(VI) detachment from wastewater. Experimentation was done using the simple batch process where all the experiments were conducted to verify the efficiency of the nanoparticle for the removal of Cr(VI). Adsorption achieved balance inside at some point and was autonomous of starting chromium (VI) focus. The hybrid material was found to have maximum efficiency for the removal of hexavalent chromium with 94–95.6%, pH at 7, adsorbent dose of 0.1 mg and temperature of 28 ± 2 °C and initial concentration of 50 ppm. The mathematical modeling has done for the experimental data. The experimental data clearly fitted the Langmuir isotherm and Freundlich adsorption isotherm; the adsorption information was examined; and the adsorption instrument was explored utilizing X-beam diffraction by SEM.

Harshada Deore, Mamta Sardare, Parag Nemade

Impact of Micronutrients on Bioenergy Production with Addition of Animal Dung—A Pilot-Scale Study

Day by day energy issues are concentrating focus of the world’s most of the nations due to limited production in crude oil [1, 2]. Bioenergy in the form of biogas is a suitable option for fulfilling this energy crises in rural areas because of the easy availability of raw substrates [3]. The focus of the current experimental study is to access in the generation of biogas and improve its production by adding some micronutrients along with its combination. Floating drum digester which has fixed in brick masonry chamber having a size of 2 m3 in volume was used for the study. 20 kg cow dung along with 20 lit of water was mixed and filled into the reactor on daily basis, furthermore, addition of ferric chloride (FeCl3), cobalt chloride (CoCl2) and nickel chloride (NiCl2) with doses of 10 mg/lit, 1 mg/lit, 1 mg/lit, respectively, added up to specific retention time. Daily gas generation in digester was measured with floating drum displacement. The result revealed that average gas production is 0.637 m3/kg VS without micronutrient, 0.79 m3/kg VS with adding ferric chloride, 0.781 m3/kg VS with combination of cobalt chloride and nickel chloride and 0.874 m3/kg (VS added) with a combination of ferric chloride, cobalt chloride, and nickel chloride.

Harshal M. Warade, Ramesh A. Daryapurkar, Prashant B. Nagarnaik

Study of Maximum Temperature Using Extreme Value Distributions

The study aims to analyse the maximum temperature in seven districts of Maharashtra using extreme value distributions. The total 100 years data (annual measured values) from 1901 to 2000 of maximum temperature is used for analysis in present study. The data is divided in two sets with first set from 1901 to 1950 and second set from 1951 to 2000. Maximum temperature for return periods 50 and 100 years is calculated using Gumbel and Log Person distributions. All seven districts have different meteorological aspects and have variety of temperature values. There is rise in temperature in all seven districts. Annual maximum temperature is highest rise in Gadchiroli, moderate in Nagpur, Chandrapur, beed and less rise in Pune, Satara, Nashik districts. There is considerable difference between annual maximum temperature values of each return period between both the sets for all the two distributions. This may also be contributed to effect of climate change over last 100 years.

Shreenivas Londhe, Pradnya Dixit, Shraddha Khandare

Adsorptive Removal of Fluoride from Water Using Non-conventional Adsorbents

The rapid industrialization and ever-growing population have led to degradation of water quality and reduction in availability safe drinking water. Presence of priority and secondary pollutants in underground water is posing serious health concerns. Fluoride in drinking water is referred as a two-edge sword for its beneficial (up to 1 mg/L) and detrimental effects (>1.5 mg/L). In the present study, an attempt is made to assess the fluoride removal efficiencies of some waste material as well as the naturally occurring substances. In the present study, fly ash, modified neem bark powder and fish scale biochar were investigated for their feasible use as adsorbent for fluoride removal from water environment. Batch sorption experiments were employed to examine the effect of influencing parameters like adsorbent dose, contact time, pH, initial fluoride concentration and agitation speed, etc. The batch sorption data showed non-conventional adsorbents can be used effectively in fluoride removal and simultaneously also renders to reduce refuse disposal problem of human settlement.

Disha Khandare, Ajay Tembhurkar, Somnath Mukherjee

Role of Meteorology in Seasonal Variation of Air Pollution

The meteorological parameters such as atmospheric temperature, wind speed and direction, and relative humidity are the governing factors for the concentration of air pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of these meteorological parameters on ambient particulate matter (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitrogen oxide (NO), ozone (O3), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ammonia (NH3) concentration during northeast monsoon, winter, summer, and southwest monsoon for Lucknow. Multiple linear regression analysis and Pearson’s correlation matrix is prepared using data from October 2014 to October 2017. The monitored values by pollution control board and predicted values using regression equations are compared from October 2017 to October 2018. The result shows that in northeast monsoon, PM2.5 is highly correlated with temperature, and O3 and NH3 are moderately correlated with relative humidity and wind speed, respectively. In summer, NO2, O3, and NH3 are moderately correlated with relative humidity, and NH3 is also moderately correlated with wind speed. In southwest monsoon, PM2.5 is highly correlated with relative humidity and atmospheric temperature, and NO and O3 are moderately correlated with wind speed and relative humidity, respectively. In winter, O3 is highly correlated with relative humidity and PM2.5 with wind speed and relative humidity, O3 with atmospheric temperature and wind speed in moderately correlated, while rest of above pollutants in different seasons are low correlated with meteorological parameter.

Avneesh Tiwari, A. K. Shukla

Vehicular Emission Inventory of Lucknow

Lucknow is amongst the most urbanized and rapidly growing cities in India. Based on the bottom-up approach, the COPERT 5 model was used to generate the emission inventory of the city. The pollutants CO, NOX, HC, PM2.5, SO2, and CO2 were considered, and emission for the year 2010–2018 was calculated. The vehicles’ categories chosen for the study include cars, HCV, LCV, bus, motorcycle, and scooter. After the validation of the results with previous estimates of the city, the emission for the years 2020 and 2022 is predicted for different pollutants under each category of vehicles. CO and NOx are the major concerned air pollutants. It is predicted that besides the scheduled implementation of BS-VI emission standards from April 2020, the total emission in the city would increase due to the continuous growth of the city and thus increasing the number of two-wheelers and four-wheelers constituting almost 90% of the total vehicular population.

Tauqeer Alam, A. K. Shukla

Inactivation of E. coli Present in Lake Water Using UV Reactor

Microbial contaminated water is the main cause for many water-borne diseases in developing countries. To make contaminated water microbial safe for drinking, disinfection is needed. Hence, this research work was carried out to disinfect lake water containing E. coli by using UV light. Four experimental setups were designed, i.e., UV reactor. Initially, the uncovered UV reactor (pair of 6 W UV light) was fabricated to disinfect the lake water for inactivation of E. coli, Later on, the UV reactors were modified three times by reflective mirrors (Modified 1), increased length and decreasing height and increased UV intensity (Modified 3). All experimentation were carried out at varying contact time, viz. 1:30 min, 2:30 min and 3:15 min. Raw lake water was characterized for and physicochemical and bacteriological parameters, viz. turbidity (1–6 NTU), temperature (23.9–25.4 °C), pH (6–8.5) and E. coli. Average E. coli in raw lake water was found to be 2400 MPN/100 ml, which exceeds the permissible limit as per IS:10500, (2012), Results of the investigation indicated that increased UV intensity (Modified 3) showed 99.99% inactivation, i.e., 3-log reduction.

Isha P. Khedikar, Abhijeet Ashok Paidalwar

Evaluation of Fractal Growth Characteristic of Flocs for Aluminium Sulphate and Ferric Chloride Using Microscopy Method

Coagulation and Flocculation processes are some of the important aspects of water treatment. The properties of flocs, such as size, structure, and strength have a significant effect on the solid and liquid separation process also it affects the basic operations of the industrial unit process. Floc structure is an important factor that influencing the coagulation effect and to identify the post-treatment load. The physical characteristics of the floc are therefore fundamental in determining their removal efficiency. Study of floc generated and its growth characteristics in the flocculation process plays an important role as it decides the removal policies, effect on subsequent processes, and ultimately the quality of water. The present investigation is to study the floc growth for two different aluminium and iron-based coagulants, Aluminium Sulphate and Ferric Chloride, respectively, using the microscopy method. This paper deals with the examination of two different kinds of flocs for strength, breakage, recovery, and floc growth rate.

P. S. Randive, D. P. Singh, A. G. Bhole, V. P. Varghese, A. M. Badar

Estimation of Carbon Dioxide Emission from Vehicles in Lucknow

Emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) into the atmosphere have led to the rise in temperature of the planet. Increase in the concentration of GHGs is due to the emission from natural and anthropogenic activities. Various pollutants are emitted from the exhaust of vehicles including carbon dioxide (CO2) which is a greenhouse gas, this has led to an increase in the concentration of anthropogenic CO2 in the atmosphere. This study is conducted to determine the emission of CO2 from the vehicles at four major roads of Lucknow. Traffic count survey is conducted to determine the traffic volume and its composition. Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB) emission factor is used for the estimation of emission. The result of traffic survey count shows that bikes are the major share of vehicles with 39% at Kanpur road, 47% at Faizabad road, 32% at Prayagraj road, and 37% at Sitapur road. The total concentration of CO2 emitted is estimated to be 491,937 g/km/hr, 291,640 g/km/hr, 404,662 g/km/hr and 252,443 g/km/hr at Kanpur road, Sitapur road, Prayagraj road, and Faizabad road, respectively. Petrol cars and diesel cars are the major sources of CO2 emission at all sites.

Ankit Kumar, A. K. Shukla

Biosorption: Principles, and Applications

In recent years, human and anthropogenic activities have generated elevated accumulations of toxic pollutants in the environment. These toxic pollutants become persistent in the environment and constitute major environmental problems by badly disturbing the ecosystems and human health. Pollutants including heavy metals, hydrocarbons, dyes, pesticides, and radionuclides are hard to remove from the environment given that most of them cannot be degraded by chemical and biological means and are eventually indestructible. Several approaches such as soil incineration, precipitation, or/and ion-exchange methods, have been extensively employed, but are expensive and detrimental to the environment. Apart from physicochemical methods, biological methods have also been acknowledged as an alternative remediation process. Fundamentals of these biological approaches are microbial activities through which degradation of pollutants depends. Moreover, the cosmopolitan distribution and significant properties of microorganisms in alteration and detoxification of pollutants make them an ultimate candidate. Among biological methods, biosorption is one of the promising technology for pollutant elimination/recovery from wastewater because of its effectiveness, simplicity, and easy biomass availability. This article critically reviews the mechanism, advantages, limitations, and the significance of biosorption for the removal of heavy metals, radionuclides, dyes, hydrocarbons, and pesticides from the environment.

Poonam, Anju Rani, Pradeep Kumar Sharma

Transportation and Geotechnical Engineering

Frontmatter

Analysis and Management of Road Accidents Caused Due to Pavement Surface Conditions on Expressways

Expressways are the highest class of roads in the Indian road network, and approximately, 1581.4 km of expressways are operational in India. Road accidents have rose over decades and are a significant contributor towards human deaths. It is increasing yearly with the increase of road users and construction of road pavement globally. In India, more than 150,000 people are killed each year in traffic accidents and that is about 400 fatalities a day. Also, India losses 3% of its GDP to road accidents. The objective of this study is to segregate critical accident blackspots on Mumbai–Pune Expressway, to map the accident blackspots using QGIS and to generate Karl Pearson correlation coefficient and regression model between number of accidents and pavement roughness index.

Rohit R. Salgude, S. S. Pimplikar, Kunj R. Patel

Compact City and Related Impact on Sustainable Development in Urban Areas

This article examines the city of Nagpur in India in the context of a compact city. The development concept is theoretical elements of the compact city. It tries to analyze the physiological aspects. The compactness of cities often refers to urban sustainability achieved by dense, mixed neighborhoods which make the city more livable. Today the developing cities have an adverse impact as they occupy large areas, convenient transport facilities are promoting the urban sprawl to spread over the large urban area. Compact city concept is one of the sustainable development approaches to restrict the impact of urban sprawl on the environment. There is a huge difference between the city characteristics around the world as compared to India. This paper reviews the compact city concept and tries to explore its impact on sustainable development in the Indian context.

Kaivalya Metre, Harshit Baghel, Gaurav Suman, Mohit Batra, Sujesh D. Ghodmare

PM10 Dispersion Modelling at Unsignalised Intersection Using Caline4—A Case Study

Air pollution caused due to human activities is one of the major problems in the whole world, and India is the third-largest contributor to the emission of greenhouse gases. Thus to control the air pollution, monitoring for the various pollutants as CO, PM10, PM2.5, SOx and NOx was carried out by CPCB in India. In Surat, daily monitoring was carried out at twelve sampling stations all around the city. The air quality index (AQI) was found to fairly harmful with a high concentration of particulate matter (PM). PM10 is a complex mixture of dry solid fragments, droplets of liquids or solid cores with coatings which is highly carcinogenic. The present study aims to study the dispersion of PM10 at an unsignalised intersection on urban roads. The temporal variation of the PM10 was studied compared with the traffic volume. It was observed that morning peak shows a high concentration of PM10 which goes on decreasing towards off-peak then again increases in the evening peak.

Chintaman Santosh Bari, B. V. Khode

Rating and Condition Assessment of Flexible Pavements for Maintenance Decision

Pavement Management System (PMS) deals with the planning of maintenance, repair, and rehabilitation activities of road structure. Physical condition assessment is a critical step in pavement maintenance decisions. This decision made by identifying and measuring various distresses like cracking, potholes, raveling, depression, etc. In this work rating of flexible pavement in the Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC) area of Pune region has done by measuring distresses. Based on the condition of the road maintenance decision is taken. For condition assessment and rating of road guidelines given by the Indian Road Congress (IRC 82-2015) has followed. The decision for support can be taken based on the rating of the road. The rating is provided from 1 to 3 for the condition of the poor to good. As per this process, the evaluation of the considered road segment in the PCMC area is in the range of 1.82–2.26, and the condition of the road is fair to good.

Shruti S. Wadalkar, R. K. Lad, R. K. Jain

A Review on Improving Bearing Capacity of Soil by Effective Use of Geosynthetic Reinforcement

With rapid enhancement in infrastructure development, the availability of competent land goes on reducing. By developing techniques of ground improvement, the weak soil can be converted into competent acceptable soil condition. A geosynthetic in the form of planar or three-dimensional or combination of both has been used in the field. In this manuscript, an effort has been made to study an effect of inclusion of geogrid, geocell or geotextile on bearing capacity of soil. It is found that there is considerable enhancement in load-carrying capacity of soil and also observed reduction in displacement of footing. The results of grid and anchorage-reinforced soil have found more sustainable solution than soil with geogrid because of large vertical confined zones and substantial improvement in reinforcement factor. The use of geosynthetic reinforcement has also been observed in embankment construction, railway track application, etc.

Anand Shrigondekar, Prabhuling Ullagaddi

Effect of Geotextile-Reinforced Sand on Pore Water Pressure Using Shake Table

Pore water pressure is a key parameter that governs the strength of soil. The effect of geosynthetic reinforcement to investigate the dissipation of pore water pressure generated due to dynamic load was studied. In the present study, shake table was used for assessing the effect of geotextiles on pore water pressure in case of sand. The tests were conducted on sand with and without reinforcement at relative densities of 30 and 60%. The frequency of base shaking was 5 Hz and was subjected to sinusoidal excitation of 0.5 g. Tests were carried out on woven and nonwoven geotextiles. The effect of variation in the number of geotextile layers on pore water pressure was observed. It was observed that excess pore pressure reduced due to inclusion of more number of reinforcement layers. The time to build up maximum excess pore pressure increased with the number of woven and nonwoven geotextile layers. The excess pore water pressure generated was observed more in case of 30% relative density than 60% dense soil. The change in pore water pressure was more significant in case of nonwoven geotextile than woven geotextile. The percentage increase in reduction of excess pore water pressure in case of nonwoven geotextile for four layers was around 54% and 32% at a relative density of 60 and 30%.

Aarti Patil, S. M. Nawghare

Effect of Polypropylene Fiber Length on Geotechnical Properties of Fly Ash

In this study, an attempt has been made to improve the geotechnical properties and check the suitability of fly ash for civil engineering applications like slope stability, backfill material for retaining walls, and road construction. Fly ash was reinforced with different lengths (6, 12, 24, 36, and 40 mm) of polypropylene fibers. The fibers were added 0.6% by weight of the fly ash. The various effects of fiber lengths on dry density, moisture content, angle of internal friction, cohesion, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio value were studied. It was observed that different lengths have different effects on each property. Overall observation was that the 12 mm fiber length has shown good results for angle of internal friction, maximum dry density, and 24 mm fiber length was good for unconfined compressive strength value. The CBR value was increasing for higher length.

S. M. Nawghare, J. N. Mandal

Review of Experimental Techniques for Evaluating Unsaturated Shear Strength of Soil

Shear strength is the noteworthy engineering property of soil governing various geotechnical terminologies. Conventional shear strength apparatus and procedures are merely suitable for testing saturated or dry soil. Researchers and practitioners brought the usage of unsaturated shear strength in the respective arenas. Numerous experimental procedures are developed in last few decades to evaluate the shear strength parameters including suction of an unsaturated soil. Most of these methods are complicated, time consuming and expensive. In this concern, the present paper reviews various equipment and experimental procedures incorporating different combinations for measuring shear strength and suction. This study is emphasized on the combination of shear test apparatuses and suction measuring techniques. Moreover, soil used and drainage conditions for testing of unsaturated soil are reviewed and summarized. The combination of conventional triaxial shear test and filter paper method is not trialed in Indian context. This combination of measuring shear strength unsaturated soil would be easy and cost-effective.

P. B. Pande, S. R. Khandeshwar, S. P. Bajad

The Role of Artificial Intelligence in Industry 4.0 and Smart City Development

Transition is the reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals which changes the field’s common elementary theoretical concepts along with methods and applications. During transition, there will be the partial overlap between existing and new paradigms due to decisive differences. Artificial intelligence and Internet of things are unlocking the huge opportunities due to its advancements, especially in relation to smart city and its development. Artificial intelligence signifies the era of evolution in science and technology. Nowadays, the tasks which were once performed manually by human beings have been overtaken by artificial intelligence. Sixty-two percentage of enterprises will be using AI by 2018 as conformed by Narrative Science. Many researchers have quoted the opinion that artificial intelligence may have the impact more than Industrial Revolution on overall world. In this paper, it is tried to focus on industrial and economic development trend due to advancements in the urban scenario. It is tried to consolidate the fact knowledge related to technological advancements across the world. The fundamental concepts of artificial intelligence and Internet of things as a game changer are tried to extract in order to understand their suitability for proper implementation of smart city concept.

Sujesh D. Ghodmare, B. V. Khode, Sachin M. Ladekar

Analysis and Design of a Flyover Over a Railway Cross

Heavy traffic congestion is observed in Guruvayur town. The main reason for this is the closure of railway gate for the passage of trains at Guruvayur–Choondal road. In order to solve this problem, planning and constructing a flyover bridge over railway crossing may be a viable option. A traffic flow survey is done in order to determine the traffic volume in the area, and a questionnaire survey is carried out to check the necessity of the flyover. Analysis of the flyover is performed in SAP 2000 software. In addition, a comparative analysis of the deflections produced in a pier when reinforced with steel and shape memory alloy (SMA) is done.

Sonu Johny, Grace Mary Abraham

Smart Materials and Construction Management

Frontmatter

Experimental Study on Pervious Concrete Using Coconut Shell Aggregate

Nowadays, pervious concrete is one of the best materials used in the construction industry to control the ground water table in the pavement system at their sources. In addition, to increase in the production of the waste materials increased the interest in utilizing of waste material for environmental and technical benefits. This paper presents the strength characteristics of pervious concrete with coconut shell-based concrete specimen of M20 grade with ordinary Portland cement of 53 grade. To study the experimental study of this work is to contribute sufficient data the characteristic strength of the pervious concrete by using the coconut shell aggregate with replacement of the conventional coarse aggregate in the proportion of 5, 10, and 15%. The result of this study states that the partial replacement of coconut shell gives good strength at up to extent but after that it will decreases.

Vilobh Vijayrao Ingale

Experiments on the Workability of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Despite various advantages and increased demand for steel fiber reinforced concrete in the construction industry, its drawback about low workability remains the same. This causes time-consuming construction and higher labour efforts. This study aims to perform experiments on the workability of SFRC by adding various admixtures. Fly Ash, Alkaline solution (NaOH solution), and viscosity-enhancing agent (poly-carboxylate ether) are the additives used to study their effect on the workability of SFRC. Different methods and contents were used for the study of these additives. The workability of fresh concrete was examined by a slump cone test. The effect of additives on the 7 days compressive strength was also studied.

Swapnil Kore, Shardul G. Joshi

Development of Concrete Canvas for Structural Applications

Concrete canvas being an innovative technique is adopting a better stand in recent trends in civil engineering field. Being a thin membrane and flexible fundamental behaviour, application of concrete canvas is raising. The material is being transported in batch rolls which makes installation easier and faster for applications such as slope stabilization, canal lining, weed suppression and dust suppression, pipe protection, emergency shelters, waterproofing agent over warehouses and protection over sand bunkers in military works. This study aims the manufacturability, properties and the performance of laboratory processed concrete canvas and to compare the results with authentic concrete canvas record. The tests include flexural test, compression test and tensile test for the four variations in cast of test specimens. Equivalent sets of casts were produced by introducing steel wire mesh to examine improvement in performance of laboratory manufactured specimens which can benefit the increase the use of concrete canvas in additional applications which can parallelly used as structural elements.

Kaustubh A. Kadam

Experimental Study of Fresh and Harden Properties of Concrete Infused with Carbon Dioxide

Concrete is a key material in the construction industry but the cement major ingredient of concrete is alone responsible for 5% of the world’s annual carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Carbon dioxide has been found as a beneficial admixture to freshly hydrating cement concrete. One recent technology infuses CO2 during concrete production itself. The carbonation reaction between CO2 and the hydrating cement forms nanosize calcium carbonate partials. The CO2 can be infused into conventional concrete production through a simple gas cylinder and pressure control system. The feasibility of using CO2 at the time of concrete production was investigated. A detailed experimentation evaluation of CO2-infused concrete was conducted. The effect of the CO2 on fresh properties of concrete was assessed in terms of workability, and effect on harden properties was assessed through compressive strength and split tensile strength. The comparison between the conventional concrete batch and batch infused with CO2 (by weight of cement) was made to understand the behaviour of CO2-infused concrete. The CO2-infused concrete technology delivers valuable input to the concrete production while reducing the concrete’s environmental impact.

Puja Patil

Experimental Study of Use of Flyash as Retarding Agent in Black Cotton Soil

Black cotton soil is found in various parts of our country. It considerably swells and shrinks due to variation in moisture content. Therefore, such soil is very treacherous for undertaking any construction work. Flyash is known to have pozzolanic action which can possibly have some beneficial effect in countering welling in expansive soils. It is proposed to use flyash as retarding agent and to overcome the problems of swelling in black cotton soil (Mishra in Int J Sci Res (IJSR), 2015 [1]). It has been concluded that flyash reduces the swelling pressure. The mode of application is more important aspect in controlling the swelling.

Vishal Gajghate, Prakash Patil

Performance of Concrete with Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate with Tyre Chipped Rubber

Transfer of tyre rubber suits a tremendous difficulty in India step by step. Analysts are attempting to utilize waste rubber in structural building venture from numerous days back. Crumb rubber replaced fine aggregate is a typical practice nowadays. Up to 20% chipped rubber with coarse aggregate had been replaced earlier and found that 5% replacement is optimum but that lacks some strength from conventional concrete. In this research programme to minimize this gap, extra 5% microsilica of the weight of cement had been added and also 40% of cement had been replaced by GGBS. Here, cubes, cylinders and prisms were cast to test compressive strength, tensile strength, flexural strength and durability against heat and were observed after 28 days and 56 days.

Sulagno Banerjee, Aritra Mandal, Jessy Rooby

Estimation of Design Shear Strength of Concrete Using Genetic Programming

Many codes provide empirical formulation for design shear strength of concrete which greatly vary from code to code. Moreover, many investigations into the shear problem that have been carried out have led to numerous empirical or semi-empirical formulae. These formulae usually agree quite well with the corresponding test result but not applicable for general use. The researchers have made use of experimental data set or analytical data set obtained from nonlinear finite element analysis. The equations are derived using nonlinear regression technique in which the form of the equation is required to be initially assumed. The present study investigates the application genetic programming (GP) in predicting the design shear strength of concrete. It is concluded that the values obtained by the equations derived from GP models estimate the design shear strength of concrete fairly close to the actual values.

Preeti Namjoshi, Shardul Joshi

Advance Technique of Precast Concrete Production

The rate of infrastructure development growth and the necessity of producing better quality construction material demand shifting from conventional method of the production to certain advanced techniques. Water–cement ratio plays an important role in the quality of concrete product. High water–cement ratio produces lower strength concrete and vice versa. Normally, water–cement ratio required for hydration of cement is as low as 0.23 as compared to what is being practised during actual mixing considering the workability factor. Concept of extracting water after mixing and filling the mould can yield a higher strength. One such technique of precast concrete production is the “wet pressing”, in which wet concrete is pressed within the moulds using hydraulic pressure to expel out the excess water present in the concrete. Pressing time generally varies from 10 to 30 s based on the quality of materials used and quantity of water added. Pressed products are then immediately lifted and stacked in the shade for overnight curing. These products are then cured only for 3 days by sprinkling water. The study focuses on wet pressing technique of precast concrete production and comparison of products produced by this technique and old conventional methods. Wet pressed products provide better compressive strength, hardness, surface finish, durability and also reduce permeability and curing time. Method also proves to be faster and economical.

Uddesh U. Gaude, K. G. Guptha

Performance of High Density Concrete with Mill Scale Waste

Concrete is being used on a very large scale throughout the world in an indiscriminate way thereby calls for an environmental friendly solution to produce sustainable concrete by judicious use of resources. Studies are carried out to find alternatives for the natural aggregates which are being depleted. Steel industry during its production is known to generate different types of solid waste, one of which is mill scale waste. This waste was used to develop a concrete mix by completely replacing natural aggregates. A high density mix was achieved with a density of 3.1 t/m3 (intended to be used in the production of ballasts for washing machines). Early strength requirements of 35 MPa are met within 7 days of curing. This paper emphasizes on the resistance of the mix to acid attack. The performance of concrete was studied by immersing the cubes in sulphuric acid of 1 and 2% concentration. Investigations carried out have showed that the loss of compressive strength was minimum by the introduction of corrosion inhibiting admixture. Loss of mass was also considerably low.

Vishnu Gavandi, K. G. Guptha

Performance Evaluation of Rubberized Concrete with the Use of Steel Fibers

The worldwide use of concrete is second only to the water, as the demand of concrete increases; the requirement of its constituents also increases. Most of the developing countries like India are facing acute shortage of coarse and fine aggregates as they are natural resources to be used in concrete. To fulfill the demand of these materials, there is need to invent an alternative for coarse and fine aggregates but while inventing the alternative, it should be kept in mind that the alternatives must be from industrial or agricultural waste available at a very cheaper rate or available for free. Due to the evolution in automobile industries, there is remarkable increase in the production of waste tires which are made up of rubbers. The waste problem associated with used tires is one of the major problems facing the world today as a source of environmental pollution and health hazards. Currently, these waste tires are being utilized for recycling for rubber goods, pyrolysis, and in road construction. In the present study, sand is partially replaced from 0 to 20% by crumb rubber. Concrete specimen with M-25 grade is checked and compared with control mix for compressive strength, split tensile strength, flexural tensile strength and for acidic action. After using crumb rubber, it is found that the strengths mentioned above are achieved up to 10%. For further enhancement in the strengths, 0.2% steel fibers are used.

Dhiraj Agrawal, U. P. Waghe, S. P. Raut

Feasibility of Fly Ash for Manufacturing of Self Compacting Concrete

Self-compacting concrete is able to flow and consolidate under its own weight and is deaerated almost completely while flowing in the formwork. It is cohesive enough to fill the formwork of any size and shape without segregation or bleeding. SCC is found useful for heavily-reinforced concrete members or in complicated work forms. The objective of this work is to study the different test adopted on self-compacting concrete-like slump flow test, U-tube, L box, J ring and compare the same with conventional concrete. And also to compare the Compressive Strength values of self-compacting and normal concrete specimens at different ages and to study the effect of superplasticizer, VMA and fly ash on concrete. All SCC mixtures exhibited greater values in compressive strength after being tested, compared to normal concrete. The compressive strength of SCC is found to be higher than that of normal concrete. Use of mineral and chemical admixtures, which usually improve the bonding between aggregate and cement paste, thus increasing the strength of concrete.

Swapneel Satone, Dhananjay Parbat, Devendra Pratap Singh, Dipali P. Jasudkar, Manmohandas Goel

Investigate the Temperature Effects on Curing of Reactive Powder Concrete Containing Silica

There is a burgeoning use of reactive powder concrete unsettled to the outstanding mechanical properties and resilience. Reactive powder concrete structural elements can resist chemical paroxysm, impact loading from vehicles and vessels, and sudden kinetic loading due to earthquakes. In addition, the lower maintenance requirements result in significant economic detriment. Moreover, in the composition of reactive powder concrete, a fractional substitution of cement by silica fume (which is a waste by-product of silicon alloy) results in less cement consumption (and hence less greenhouse gas emission). In this experimental investigation study, the material performance of reactive powder concrete (RPC) with two different curing techniques, normal water curing of 25 °C and accelerated steam curing at 60 °C, and 60% relative humidity, was studied experimentally. This paper also remits the investigation, application, and different preparation of silica fume in reactive powder concrete at transformed temperature. The silica fume was substituted with the cement and the dosage which bequeathed the maximum strength was used for further addition of silica sand and steel fibers. Steam curing is effective process to achieve high early strength, and in this narrative, the compressive strength at the age of 3, 7, and 28 days was determined for further compared with normal cured water. Also find split tensile test to see the performance of concrete cylinder under tension. To reduce the water content, super plasticizer may be used as an admixture. Thus, results are interpreted for different combination to achieve maximum compressive stress as well as tensile stress.

Hemantkumar G. Sonkusare, Prashant Y. Pawade

New Green Building Rating System for Residential Buildings in Tropical Countries

Green building is a sustainable system which promotes optimum use of natural resources and eco-friendly construction practices. Despite the benefits associated with green buildings, they are implemented only for 5% of the Indian construction industries. A number of researchers have investigated and found barriers which are hindering GBTs and practices in construction. Green building rating tools act as a yardstick to measure the greenness of buildings. Most of the GBRTs are country specific and energy specific. Even though many green building rating systems have been developed in past years by various countries, a system that is suitable for evaluating the residential buildings in the tropical countries has not been developed. So, it is essential to develop a rating system that is best for the context in the tropical countries. This paper reviews three prevailing GBRTSs across the world to study their differences and properties. The comparative study was conducted through case studies, and a new rating system was proposed.

Taniya Thomas, Grace Mary Abraham

Utilization of Industrial By-Products in Geopolymer Prefabricated Blocks

This paper presents an experimental study on laboratory evaluation of industrial by-products that is copper slag and fly ash as a construction material for the production of prefabricated block used in construction. In order to determine the feasibility and optimum quantities of these industrial by-products for the formation of prefabricated blocks, concrete sample with different percentage of industrial by-products has been prepared. Different concentrations of NaOH and KOH also have been used in order to obtain the strength by inducing chemical reaction between the ingredients. All the specimens were cured for seven days at elevated temperature of 60 °C, and their unconfined compressive strength was determined. Test results indicated that mix with 30% fly ash and 70% copper slag with 8 M solution of alkali material is best suited for its commercial utilization and formation of prefabricated blocks. The utilization of copper slag and fly ash mix in construction will not only save the scarcity of conventional materials but also solve the problem related to its disposal.

Pallavi Sirohi, Abhishek Singh, Chirag Varshney
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