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Über dieses Buch

This book constitutes the thoroughly refereed proceedings of the Third International Conference on Advances in Communication, Network, and Computing, CNC 2012, held in Chennai, India, February 24-25, 2012. The 41 revised full papers presented together with 29 short papers and 14 poster papers were carefully selected and reviewed from 425 submissions. The papers cover a wide spectrum of issues in the field of Information Technology, Networks, Computational Engineering, Computer and Telecommunication Technology, ranging from theoretical and methodological issues to advanced applications.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Full Paper

High Speed ASIC Design of DCT for Image Compression

This paper gives the design and implementation of an image data compression method such as DCT(Discrete Cosine Transform) using vedic multiplier. This VLSI hardware can be used in practical coding systems to compress images[1]. Discrete cosine transform (DCT) is one of the most popular schemes because of its compression efficiency and small mean square error. DCT is used specially for the compression of images where tolerable degradation is accepted. In this paper, DCT modules are designed, implemented and verified using 90nm technology library using Tanner EDA. Here various individual cores are designed and connected to implement an ASIC for image compression. The Vedic multiplier in this case performs the multiplication much faster when compared to usual array multiplier approach. Due to this, the speed can be increased. Also since all the simulations and implementations are done in 90nm which is one among the deep submicron technologies, the power, area and length of interconnects taken will be less.

Deepa Yagain, Ashwini, A. Vijaya Krishna

Image De-noising and Enhancement for Salt and Pepper Noise Using Improved Median Filter-Morphological Operations

Image Enhancement is one of the most important concerns in Digital Image processing which is used to process the image so that we can view and assess the visual information it contains with greater clarity. In this Work a 2-step Image De-noising and Enhancement Algorithm is proposed i.e. the application of Improved Median Filter and Morphological Operations. In the First step Image is enhanced using a 3×3 neighborhood window processing and then using Morphological Operations to further enhance it. Our Method can remove salt-and-pepper-noise with noise level as high as 80%.

K. Ratna Babu, K. V. N. Sunitha

Block Based Image Segmentation

Image segmentation is an important research field due increasing Internet and computer based applications and also for video coding but it is very challenging. There exist a huge number of algorithms for image segmentation using split and merge having some limitations for which pattern based object segmentation using split and merge (PSM) was proposed to overcome the problems of basic split and merge (SM) algorithm being unable to segment properly all types of objects in an image due to huge variations among the objects. Addressing this issue, a new algorithm namely block based image segmentation (BIS) algorithm has been presented in this paper considering multi stage merging technique. The experimental analysis proves the superior performance over the existing algorithm.

Md. Mahmudul Hasan, Shaila Sharmeen, Md. Anisur Rahman, M. Ameer Ali, Md. Humayun Kabir

Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding with GSS Algorithm

This paper focuses on improving the secured geographic routing performance in Wireless Sensor Networks and proposes a Geographic routing oriented Sleep Scheduling algorithm (GSS) on secured TPGF. The length of the explored transmission path of the Secured Two Phase Geographic Forwarding (SecuTPGF) can be reduced compared with the Two Phase Geographic Forwarding connected-K neighborhood algorithm.

B. Prathusha Laxmi, A. Chilambuchelvan

On Demand Logical Resource Replication Scheme as a Service

Logical resource replication in cloud environment along with the issue of transparency and its impact on overall system performance has been rarely focused. This work proposes an On-demand Logical Resource Replication Scheme (OLRRS) for file replication. OLRRS approach provides migration, access and performance transparency to the system, thereby ensuring the migration decisions about the files. It is also responsible for replicating the file, from one peer server to the other peer server, when the total number of request, on a peer server, for transferring a file reaches the threshold value. The scheme is simulated on JAVA platform and tested on a private cloud. A comparative study of the pro- posed approach with the Request Reply Acknowledgement (RRA) and Request Reply (RR) protocol is presented, showing the significant reduction by 37.5% to 58%, in terms of total number of messages exchanged for replication.

Vardhan Manu, Goel Akhil, Verma Abhinav, Mishra Shakti, Kushwaha D.S.

Data Storage Security Model for Cloud Computing

Data security is one of the biggest concerns in adopting Cloud computing. In Cloud environment, users remotely store their data and relieve themselves from the hassle of local storage and maintenance. However, in this process, they lose control over their data. Existing approaches do not take all the facets into consideration viz. dynamic nature of Cloud, computation & communication overhead etc. In this paper, we propose a Data Storage Security Model to achieve storage correctness incorporating Cloud’s dynamic nature while maintaining low computation and communication cost.

Hiren B. Patel, Dhiren R. Patel, Bhavesh Borisaniya, Avi Patel

Testing of Reversible Combinational Circuits

Reversible logic is becoming one of the emerging technologies because of its applications in low power design, quantum computing, quantum dot cellular automata and optical computing. As a result, design of reversible logic computing has been gaining more and more attention from researchers, since, under ideal physical circumstances the power dissipation of reversible computing is zero. Conventional decoder and encoder circuits which found applications in memories, processors, communications etc., are power inefficient. In this work, a decoder, encoder and priority encoder are realized using reversible logic to reduce power dissipation. A reversible linear feedback shift register and multiple input signature register are designed to facilitate built – in self-test based on signature analysis. The proposed circuits are tested for single stuck-at, single missing gate and multiple missing gate faults.

Y. Syamala, A. V. N. Tilak, K. Srilakshmi

Classification of Medical Images Using Data Mining Techniques

Automated classification of medical images is an increasingly important tool for physicians in their daily activity. This paper proposes data mining classifiers for medical image classification. In this study, we have used J48 decision tree and Random Forest (RF) classifiers for classifying CT scan brain images into three categories namely inflammatory, tumor and stroke. The proposed classification system is based on the effective use of texture information of images. Three different methods implemented are: Haralick (H), Tamura (T) and Wold (W) texture features. All three texture features and the classification methods are compared based on Precision and Recall. The experimental result on pre-diagnosed database of brain images showed Haralick features combined with Random Forest classifier is found to give best results for classification of CT-scan brain images.

B. G. Prasad, Krishna A.N.

A Novel Solution for Grayhole Attack in AODV Based MANETs

Security plays a vital role to provide protected data transmission in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs). Mobile nodes communicate in multi-hop way via routing protocols that work in physically insecure environment. MANETs are susceptible to various Denial-of-Service (DoS) attacks on network layer due to their unique characteristics such as unclear line of defense, limited communication resources, lack of centralized monitoring, wireless radio communication and varying topology. Grayhole attack is a major DoS attack that disrupts data transmission in the network by sending false routing information. To keep the communication route free from such attacks, it is imperative to design a secure and efficient protocol. In this paper, we provide a modification of Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) protocol to prevent Grayhole attack in which a node sending bogus routing information is detected and recorded by the node receiving it. To avoid the use of extra control packets, default routing packets are given additional responsibility to pass information about malicious nodes. The simulation results in ns-2 show that the solution is reliable against multiple attackers and gives significant improvement in packet delivery ratio with negligible difference in end-to-end delay and routing overhead.

Rutvij H. Jhaveri, Sankita J. Patel, Devesh C. Jinwala

Multilayer Feed-Forward Artificial Neural Network Integrated with Sensitivity Based Connection Pruning Method

The Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with small size may not solve the problem while the network with large size will suffer from poor generalization. The pruning methods are approaches for finding appropriate size of the network by eliminating few parameters from the network. The sensitivity based pruning will determine sensitivity of the network error for removal of a parameter and eliminate parameters with least sensitivity. In this research a sensitivity based pruning method is integrated with multilayer feed-forward ANN and applied on MNIST handwritten numeral recognition. An analysis of effect of pruning on the network is compared with performance of a network without pruning. It is observed that the network integrated with pruning method show better generalization ability than a network without pruning method being incorporated.

Siddhaling Urolagin, Prema K.V., JayaKrishna R., N. V. Subba Reddy

ACTM: Anonymity Cluster Based Trust Management in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks consists of sensor nodes that are capable of sensing the information and maintaining security. In this paper, an Anonymity Cluster based Trust Management algorithm(ACTM) is proposed which enhances the security level and provides a stable path for communication. It is observed that the performance of the network is better than existing schemes through simulation.

Shaila K., Sivasankari H., S. H. Manjula, Venugopal K.R., S. S. Iyengar, L. M. Patnaik

Texture Based Image Retrieval Using Correlation on Haar Wavelet Transform

Content Based Image Retrieval deals with the retrieval of most similar images corresponding to a query image from an image database. It involves feature extraction and similarity computation. This paper proposes a method named Correlation Texture Descriptor (CTD) which computes the correlation between the sub bands formed after applying Haar Discrete Wavelet Transform. Fuzzy Logic is used to compute the similarity of two feature vectors. Experiments determined that the proposed method, CTD, showed a significant improvement in retrieval performance when compared to other methods such as Weighted Standard Deviation (WSD), Gradient operation using Sobel operator and Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM).

D. N. Verma, Sahil Narang, Bhawna Juneja

Dynamic Cooperative Routing (DCR) in Wireless Sensor Networks

Wireless Sensor Networks(WSNs) have micro sensors connected in a network with processing capabilities for communications. It is subjected to a set of resource constraints such as battery power, bandwidth and lifetime. The existing cooperative routing is addressed to reduce the energy consumption. We propose Dynamic Cooperative Routing (DCR) to conserve energy and maximization of lifetime with a static and mobile sink. A mathematical model is developed for the best placement of the sink in the deployment to reduce the distance between sources and sink. A comparative study of DCR algorithm with the existing algorithm is obtained for a static and mobile sink. In case of mobile sink, Comparative analysis shows the improvement in lifetime and energy conservation by 70% and 65% respectively over the existing algorithms.

Sivasankari H., Leelavathi R., Shaila K., Venugopal K.R., S. S. Iyengar, L. M. Patnaik

Addressing Forwarder’s Dilemma: A Game-Theoretic Approach to Induce Cooperation in a Multi-hop Wireless Network

Nodes in a multi-hop wireless network often have limited or constrained resources. Therefore, to increase their lifetime, intermediate nodes are often unwilling to forward packets for other nodes, thereby decreasing network throughput. Thus, some mechanism has to be designed which prevents the nodes from adopting such selfish behavior. In this paper, we suggest a scheme using game theory to induce such cooperation. The nodes are the players and their strategies are their packet forwarding probabilities. We design novel utility functions to capture the characteristics of packet forwarding dilemma. We then set up simulations to analyze the Nash equilibrium points of the game. We show that cooperation in multi-hop communication is feasible at the operating point if the costs of packet forwarding are not too high.

Saswati Mukherjee, Sreya Dey, Rajdeep Mukherjee, Matangini Chattopadhyay, Samiran Chattopadhyay, Debarshi Kumar Sanyal

Improving Reliability in Cognitive Radio Networks Using Multiple Description Coding

This paper looks at the problem of multimedia traffic transmission over Cognitive Radio networks in a delay sensitive context and under lossy network conditions. Secondary Users are allowed to share the vacant subchannels using the Time Division Multiple Access method based on the Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing. Each Secondary User is assigned one time slot where it habitually transmits with a certain probability. The given model allows each Secondary User to transmit opportunistically in the remaining slots. Accordingly, the reasons for packets to be discarded are threefold: primary traffic interruptions, collisions between the competing secondary users and erasures due to subchannels fading. To mitigate the collision effects, an innovative idea is to exploit the Multiple Description Coding technique. More particularly, a specific packetization framework derived from the Priority Encoding Transmission is used to deal with the packet loss pattern. Numerical simulations, in view of Message Error Probability and Spectral Efficiency, show that the system still exhibit good secondary traffic robustness despite of the presence of primary reclaims, secondary collisions and subchannel errors.

Abdelaali Chaoub, Elhassane Ibn Elhaj

Design and Development of an Enhanced UDDI for Efficient Discovery of Web Services

Web Services paradigm has been widely acknowledged by industry and academic research with the progress of web technology and e-business. Increasing number of web applications have been bundled as web services that can be published, positioned and invoked across the web. The importance of the issues regarding their publication and innovation attains a maximum as web services multiply and become more advanced and mutually dependent. This paper proposes an Enhanced UDDI for discovering web services in an efficient manner within a short response time. Initially, the web services are published in the UDDI registry, which is a standard one for publishing and discovering web services. The published web services are indexed and maintained in an index database to enable the effective discovery of web services. For invoking of web services, the search query is matched with the index database and the matched web services are provided to the service customer. The way of accessing the web services is stored in a log file, which is then utilized to provide personalized web services to the user. The discovery of web service is improved considerably by means of an effective searching facility provided by the proposed system and it is capable of providing the most suitable web service.

K. Tamilarasi, M. Ramakrishnan

Identification, Authentication and Tracking Algorithm for Vehicles Using VIN in Centralized VANET

The VANET should allow only the authentic vehicles to participate in the system for efficient utilization of its available resources. The proposed system architecture contains multiple base stations in the coverage area of a certifying authority. The base station verifies the identification of the vehicle and the certifying authority verifies the authentication of the vehicle using its vehicle identification number. The certifying authority also generates a digital signature for each authentic vehicle and assigns it to the corresponding vehicle through base station. The base station allocates a channel to each authentic vehicle. The channel remains busy as long as the vehicle is within the coverage area of this base station. So the base station is able to track an authentic vehicle by sensing the allocated channel within its coverage area.

Atanu Mondal, Sulata Mitra

Performance Analysis of Fault Tolerant Node in Wireless Sensor Network

An important issue in wireless sensor networks is the limited availability of energy and hence optimizing energy is very important. We propose a new scheme to reduce the energy consumption of nodes during packet transmission based on queue threshold by considering node failures into account. We develop an analytical model of a sensor network and analyze the performance of the proposed scheme in terms of performance parameters such as average energy consumption and mean delay considering node failures. We also derive the expression for the optimal value of threshold. Results show that the average energy consumption savings is 68% for the optimal threshold value when compared to no threshold condition and mean delay increases as failure rate increases. We perform simulations and the results obtained show that the analytical results match with the simulation results thus validating the analytical model.

R. Maheswar, R. Jayaparvathy

Diameter Restricted Fault Tolerant Network Design

Low transmission delay, high fault tolerance and low design cost are the three main properties of any network which are best described by its topology. Transmission delay can be decreased by restricting the diameter of the network. Very few methods in literature have considered the importance of the diameter of the network to decrease the transmission delay. Fault tolerance in the network depends on the number of disjoint paths between a node pair. Designing a k-connected fault tolerant network subject to connectivity and diameter constraint at minimal cost is a NP hard problem. In this paper, an efficient constructive heuristic algorithm is proposed for designing a k-connected network while optimizing the cost of the network subject to the connectivity and diameter constraints. Diameter of resultant network would be of two links regardless of network size to get the speed comparable to complete connected network at low cost. Effectiveness of the proposed approach is also evaluated using different examples.

P. C. Saxena, Sangeeta Sabharwal, Maneesha

Investigation on the Effects of ACO Parameters for Feature Selection and Classification

Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) is the most familiar meta-heuristic search algorithm and has been used in optimization of a number of feature selection (FS) problems. As a meta-heuristic search algorithm, ACO requires a set of parameters to solve the problem of feature selection. Pheromone Evaporation Rate (PER) is the most important among all these parameters. Setting up the values of these parameters is a big deal. Usually, these parameters are set up by experimenting through a number of values and finally selecting a set of values that seems to work well for feature selection. The change in optimal feature selection in accordance to different values of PER and other ACO parameters is discussed in this paper. ACO is applied for feature selection and classification of 10 datasets. From the experimental results, it can be seen that, the optimal value for the evaporation rate (

ρ

) lies around 0.7 leading to selection of best features and increase in classification accuracy.

Shunmugapriya P., Kanmani S., Devipriya S., Archana J., Pushpa J.

Hop Count Based Energy Saving Dynamic Source Routing Protocol for Ad Hoc Network

Energy conservation has become one of the challenging issues for increasing the life time of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Several energy saving protocols have been proposed to maximize the life span and one such protocol is Energy Saving Dynamic Source Routing (ESDSR) protocol. ESDSR focuses only on energy and does not consider delay caused due to increase in hop count. This paper Hop Count based ESDSR (HCESDSR) protocol proposes a novel approach to maximize the life span of MANET and to reduce the energy consumption. This reduces the delay caused in ESDSR by considering energy as well as hop count. The number of dead node formation is less in proposed work and hence increases the life of network. The route selection is based on number of hops and energy level of that route. The protocol is simulated using network simulator NS2. The simulation results show that this approach attains energy efficiency of ESDSR and overcomes the limitations of ESDSR.

Geetha N., Sankar A.

Alternate Data Clustering for Fast Pattern Matching in Stream Time Series Data

Stream time series retrieval has been a major area of study due to its vast application in various fields like weather forecasting, multimedia data retrieval and huge data analysis. Presently, there is a demand for stream data processing, high speed searching and quick response. In this paper, we use a alternate data cluster or segment mean method for stream time series data, where the data is pruned with a computational cost of O(log

w

). This approach can be used for both static and dynamic stream data processing. The results obtained are the better than the existing algorithms.

Vishwanath R.H., Thanagamani M., Venugopal K.R., Iyengar S.S., L. M. Patnaik

Representation of Smart Environments Using Distributed P Systems

The representation of a system for effective reasoning in smart environments is the focus of this research work. The motivation here is to enable assisted living in a smart home. The smart environment is represented here using a variant of an existing membrane computing model the Distributed

P

System. Evolution rules that govern the mechanism and functionality of the system are required for effective modeling. The algorithms proposed and presented here generate these evolution rules automatically and also integrates all generated

P

Systems to form the Distributed

P

System.

Susan Elias, Rajalakshmi V., Sivaranjani S.

Low Leakage-Power SRAM Cell Design Using CNTFETs at 32nm Technology

Leakage power accounts for an increasingly larger portion of total power consumption in nanometer technologies. Battery powered devices remains idle for most of the time except when in use. However, since the phone remains on, it drains power from the battery. This in-turn reduces battery life. In such a situation, battery power can be saved by shutting downthe power supply to the circuit when not in operation. This paper proposes ultra-low power Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistor (CNTFET) based SRAM cell to minimize static power dissipation due to leakage. A Sleep Transistor technique is applied to CNTFET based SRAM cell to reduce leakage power. This method reduces leakage power by dynamically disconnecting supply during inactive state. The 6T SRAM cell circuit using CNTFETs was simulated in HSPICE using Stanford CNFET model at 32nm technology node. The results shows that this method reduces leakage power by 31.5% compared with conventional 6T CNTFET SRAM Cell with minimal area overhead.

Rajendra Prasad S., B. K. Madhavi, K. Lal Kishore

Modified Low-Power Multiplier Architecture

In this paper, we have implemented a modified version of the Bypass Zero Feed A Directly (MODBZ-FAD) multiplier architecture based on shift- and add- method. This architecture has considerably low power than the other multiplier architectures. In this architecture we have reduced the power consumption and propagation delay of the circuit. This has been done by removing Bypass register,dflipflop & multiplexers. The synthesis results shows that the switching activity had been lowered up to 78% and power consumption up to 22% when compared up to BZ-FAD architecture.

Deepthy G.R., Arathy Iyer, Nishi G.N.

Clustering Methodologies and Their Implications in Sensor Networks

Currently many algorithms like LEACH, HEED, EECH are applied to sensors networks to achieve better lifetime of a network. But each of these algorithms has some drawback in achieving a effective lifetime of a sensor network. This paper deals with existing algorithm and comparing the simulated results to know the effective solution to increase lifetime of the sensor network.

Mohan Aradhya, K. A. Sumithradevi, Andhe Dharani, Vijay Singh

CCCDBA Based Implementation of Voltage Mode ThirdOrder Filters

In the present paper implementation of third order low pass, high pass filters have been proposed by using current-controlled current differencing buffered amplifier (CCCDBA). In the present work, an effort has been made to simulate the third order doubly-terminated LC ladder low pass filter, third order doubly-terminated LC ladder high pass filters using CCCDBA. Here, in each circuit more than one CCCDBA and few grounded capacitor without have been utilized. The designed circuits are very suitable for integrated circuit and very easy in implementation. The circuits’ performance is simulated through PSPICE and its simulated results obtained so is comparable to the theoretical one.

Ramola Vishal, Mishra Saurabh, Singh R.K., Chauhan D.S.

An Effective Approach to Build Optimal T-way Interaction Test Suites over Cloud Using Particle Swarm Optimization

Software testing is an expensive and time consuming activity that is often restricted by limited project budgets. There is a need for advanced software testing techniques that offer a solid cost-benefit ratio in identifying defects. Interaction testing is one such method that may offer a benefit. Combinatorial or Interaction Testing is a practical test generation technique that offers a benefit when used to complement current test generation techniques such as equivalence partitioning, boundary value analysis. There are many existing issues which have not been fully addressed. One of the key issues of Combinatorial Testing is Combinatorial Explosion problem which can be addressed through Parallelization. In this paper, we propose an effective approach to build optimal t-way interaction test suites over the cloud environment which could further reduce time and cost.

Priyanka, Inderveer Chana, Ajay Rana

Construct Fuzzy Decision Trees Based on Roughness Measures

Data mining is a process of extracting useful patterns and regularities from large bodies of data. Decision trees (DT) is one of data mining techniques used to deal with classical data. Fuzzy Decision Trees (FDT) is generalization of crisp decision trees, which aims to combine symbolic decision trees with approximate reasoning offered by fuzzy representation. Given a fuzzy information system (FIS), fuzzy expanded attributes play a crucial role in fuzzy decision trees. In this paper the problem is slowness and complexities of the fuzzy decision trees, but its rules are more accurate. Our target is to simplify computational procedures and increase the accuracy rules or to keep the high grade of accuracy and to select an efficient criterion to select fuzzy expanded attributes based on rough set theory.

Mohamed A. Elashiri, Hesham A. Hefny, Ashraf H. Abd Elwhab

Design of Low Power Enhanced Fully Differential Recyclic Folded Cascode OTA

In the literature, Recyclic Folded Cascode (RFC) and Improved RFC (IRFC) Operational Transconductance Amplifiers (OTAs) are proposed for enhancing the DC gain and the Unity Gain Bandwidth (UGB) of the Folded Cascode (FC) OTA. In this paper, an enhanced RFC (ERFC) OTA which uses positive feedback at the cascode node is proposed for increasing the DC gain and CMRR without changing the unity gain bandwidth (UGB) . For the purpose of comparison, RFC, IRFC and ERFC OTAs are implemented using UMC90nm technology in moderate inversion and studied through simulation. From the simulation, it is found that the DC gain of ERFC OTA is higher by 6dB, 1dB compared to that of RFC and IRFC OTAs respectively. The CM gain of ERFC OTA is lower by 31dB, 34dB compared to that of RFC and IRFC OTAs respectively for the same power and area.

Pravanjan Patra, S. Kumaravel, B. Venkatramani

CCCDBA Based Implementation of Sixth Order Band Pass Filter

In the present paper implementation of sixth order band pass filters have been proposed by using current-controlled current differencing buffered amplifier (CCCDBA). In the present work, an effort has been made to simulate the sixth order doubly-terminated LC ladder band pass filter, using CCCDBA. Here, in each circuit more than one CCCDBA and few grounded capacitor without have been utilized. The designed circuits are very suitable for integrated circuit and very easy in implementation. The circuits’ performance is simulated through PSPICE and its simulated results obtained so is comparable to the theoretical one.

Ramola Vishal, Mishra Saurabh, Singh R.K., Chauhan D.S.

Short Paper

Discovery of Cluster Patterns and Its Associated Data Simultaneously

Discovering automatic patterns from the databases are most useful information and great demand in science and engineering fields. The effective pattern mining methods such as pattern discovery and association rule mining have been developed and used in various applications. The existing methods are unable to uncover the useful information from the raw data. Discovering large volume of patterns is easy .But finding the relationship between the patterns and associated data are very difficult and further analyzing the patterns are also complex task. In this Paper, we presented a new algorithm which generates closed frequent patterns and its associated data simultaneously. Here the relationship between the patterns and its associated data are made explicit. The experiment result has been included.

N. Kavitha, S. Karthikeyan

A Method to Improve the Performance of endairA for MANETs

Mobile Ad-hoc Networks (MANETs) are self-configurable and self-reliance networks. Due to this these networks are vulnerable to routing attacks.

endairA

[6] is one of the secure on demand routing protocol for MANETs. In

endairA

[6], an intermediate node verifies all the signatures carried by the route reply which is a big computational overhead and expensive in terms of power consumption, end-to-end delay. We propose a new approach Impro_endiarA, which will verify at most two signatures at every intermediate node. Proposed approach is efficient in terms of power consumption, end-to-end delay and mitigating some attacks which are possible on some variants of

endairA

[6].

Vijender Busi Reddy, M. Ranjith Kumar, Atul Negi, S. Venkataraman

Identification of Reliable Peer Groups in Peer-to-Peer Computing Systems

The Peer-to-Peer (P2P) computing systems are based on desktop computers (PCs) exists at the edge of Internet. This type of frameworks contains several thousands of computing nodes which spread all over the world and need to be organized. To achieve decentralization the P2P computing architectures classify the peers into different groups based on different peer properties. In order to improve the reliability, scalability, and performance of decentralized P2P computing systems efficient peer grouping strategy is required. Here we proposed an algorithm to identify the reliable peer groups in P2P computing systems by using the peer properties like peer availability, credibility and computation time.

Jigyasu Dubey, Vrinda Tokekar

Improving the Efficiency of Data Retrieval in Secure Cloud

Cloud computing allows much more efficient computing by centralizing storage, memory, procession and bandwidth. The data is stored in off-premises and accessing this data through keyword search. Traditional keyword search was based on plaintext keyword search. But for protecting data privacy the sensitive data should be encrypted before outsourcing. One of the most popular ways is selectively retrieve files through keyword-based search instead of retrieving all the encrypted files back. Present methods are focusing on the fuzzy keyword search and which efficiently search and retrieve the data in most secure and privacy preserved manner. The existing system uses single fuzzy keyword searching mechanism. A conjunctive/sequence of keyword search mechanism will retrieve most efficient and relevant data files. The conjunctive/sequence of keyword search automatically generates ranked results so that the searching flexibility and efficiency will be improved.

Nisha T.M., Lijo V.P.

VLSI Implementation of Burrows Wheeler Transform for Memory Reduced Distributed Arithmetic Architectures

Multiply and accumulate function is the important part of digital signal processing algorithms. This can be implemented more effectively with distributed arithmetic (DA) architecture [1]. These architectures make extensive use of look-up tables, which make them ideal for implementing digital signal processing functions on Xilinx FPGAs. An emerging arithmetic-intensive digital signal processing algorithm is the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) which have proven to be extremely useful for image and video coding applications like MPEG-4 and JPEG 2000[2]. But the limitation of this architecture is that the size of look-up tables get increased exponentially as the constant coefficients of wavelet used for these applications increases. In this paper, we proposed a novel methodology to implement the Burrows wheeler transform (BWT) [3] block in FPGA for achieving memory reduced DA.

Remya Ajai A.S., Lintu Rajan, Shiny C.

Multi-objective Optimization for Object-oriented Testing Using Stage-Based Genetic Algorithm

A multi-objective optimization involves optimizing a number of objectives simultaneously. The Multi-Objective Optimization Problem has a set of solutions, each of which satisfies the objectives at an acceptable level. An optimization algorithm named SBGA (stage-based genetic algorithm), with new GA operators is attempted. The multiple objectives considered for optimization are maximum path coverage with minimum execution time and test-suite minimization. The coverage and the no. of test cases generated using SBGA are experimented with simple object-oriented programs. The data flow testing of OOPs in terms of path coverage are resulted with almost 88%. Thus, the efficiency of generated testcases has been improved in terms of path coverage with minimum execution time.

P. Maragathavalli, S. Kanmani

Cluster Pattern Matching Using ACO Based Feature Selection for Efficient Data Classification

Cluster Pattern Matching based Classification (CPMC) is a classification technique based on a similarity measure between the training instances and the unknown sample. An Ant Colony Optimization based feature selection is proposed to select the features. According to this approach, the training data set is clustered. The cluster to which the unknown sample belongs is found and each of the selected features of the unknown sample is compared with the corresponding feature of the training instances in the cluster and the class of the unknown sample is predicted based on majority voting of class labels having highest number of matching patterns. A probabilistic approach is used to predict the class label when more than one class label has the same majority. Experimental results demonstrating the efficiency of classification accuracy of CPMC are shown to prove that the proposed approach is better when compared to existing classification techniques.

Sreeja N.K., A. Sankar

Population Based Search Methods in Mining Association Rules

Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle swarm optimization (PSO) are both population based search methods and move from set of points (population) to another set of points in a single iteration with likely improvement using set of control operators. GA has become popular because of its many versions, ease of implementation, ability to solve difficult problems and so on. PSO is relatively recent heuristic search mechanism inspired by bird flocking or fish schooling. Association Rule (AR) mining is one of the most studied tasks in data mining. The objective of this paper is to compare the effectiveness and computational capability of GA and PSO in mining association rules. Though both are heuristic based search methods, the control parameters involved in GA and PSO differ. The Genetic algorithm parameters are based on reproduction techniques evolved from biology and the control parameters of PSO are based on particle ‘best’ values in each generation. From the experimental study PSO is found to be as effective as GA with marginally better computational efficiency over GA.

K. Indira, S. Kanmani, P. Prashanth, V. Harish Sivasankar, Konda Ramcharan Teja, R. Jeeva Rajasekar

Efficient Public Key Generation for Homomorphic Encryption over the Integers

The ‘Holy Grail’ of cryptography called Fully Homomorphic Encryption (FHE), which allows encrypted data processing and delegation of computational tasks to the remote untrusted server, has become a hot research topic in light of the privacy concerns related to cloud computing. Several FHE schemes were found after the first construction of such scheme by Craig Gentry in 2009. One of the several reasons making these theoretically feasible schemes unpractical is their high computational costs. In this paper, a simplest possible key generation method is proposed for the somewhat homomorphic scheme of Van Dijk et al., which leads to an efficient integer based FHE scheme. Also, the security and practicality of the proposed scheme is thoroughly analyzed with respect to the new key generation method suggested.

Y. Govinda Ramaiah, G. Vijaya Kumari

Similarity Based Web Data Extraction and Integration System for Web Content Mining

The Internet is a major source of all information that we essentially need. The information on the web cannot be analyzed and queried as per the user requests. Here, we propose and develop a similarity based web data extraction and integration system (WDES and WDICS) to extract search result pages from the web and integrate its contents to enable the user to perform intended analysis. The system provides for local replication of search result pages, in a manner convenient for offline browsing. The system organizes itself into two possible phases that are involved in performing the above task. We develop and implement algorithms for extracting and integrating the content from the web. Experiment is performed on the contents of Bluetooth product listings and it gives us a better Precision and Recall than DEPTA [1].

Srikantaiah K.C., Suraj M., Venugopal K.R., Iyengar S.S., L. M. Patnaik

Join Query Processing in MapReduce Environment

MapReduce is a framework for processing large data sets, where straightforward computations are performed by hundreds of machines on large input data. Data could be stored and retrieved using structured queries. Join queries are most frequently used and importatnt. So its crucial to find out efficient join processing techniques. This paper provides overview of join query processing techniques & proposes a strategy to find out best suitable join processing algorithm.

Anwar Shaikh, Rajni Jindal

Applications of Hidden Markov Model to Recognize Handwritten Tamil Characters

Optical Character Recognition (OCR) refers to the process of converting printed, hand printed and handwritten Tamil text documents into software translated Tamil Text. As part of the preprocessing phase the image file is checked for skewing. If the image is skewed, it is corrected by a simple rotation technique. Then the image is passed through a noise elimination phase and is binarized. The preprocessed image is segmented. Thus a database of character image glyphs is created out of the segmentation phase. Then all the image glyphs are considered for recognition. Each image glyph is passed through various routines which extract the features of the glyph. The glyphs are now set ready for classification and recognition based on the above said features. The extracted features are considered for recognition using Hidden Markov Model (HMM). The recognition rate achieved is 89%.

R. Jagadeesh Kannan, R. M. Suresh, A. Selvakumar

Architectural Design and Issues for Ad-Hoc Clouds

Effectively using, managing and harnessing the data is the key to the success of organizations in the time to come. We propose a cloud architecture that uses donation based resources in a network & helps multiple organizations to collaborate and yet compete with each other. The resources are utilized non intrusively. Organizations collaborate to create a Data-centre, that doesn’t harm their existence or profitability. At the same time, these organizations can compete by spreading to those locations where they carry certain edge over others. This is where an ad-hoc cloud in heterogeneous environment helps to venture into remote areas with. To achieve this, ad-hoc cloud architecture is proposed along with issues and strategies.

Sanjeev Kumar Pippal, Shakti Mishra, Dharmender Singh Kushwaha

Periocular Region Classifiers

Biometrics is the science of establishing human identity based on the physical or behavioral traits of an individual such as face, iris, ear, hand geometry, finger print, gait, knuckle joints and conjunctival vasculature among others. The enormous attention drawn towards the ocular biometrics during the recent years has led to the exploration of newer traits such as the periocular region. With the preliminary exploration of the feasibility of periocular region to be used as an independent biometric trait or in combination of face/iris, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Over the last few years many researchers have investigated various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. This paper attempts to review a few of these classifier techniques useful for developing robust classification algorithms.

D. R. Ambika, K. R. Radhika, D. Seshachalam

Error Analysis and Improving the Speech Recognition Accuracy on Telugu Language

Speech is the one of the most important communication channel among the humans. Speech recognition occupies prominent place in communication between the humans and machine. Several factors are affecting the accuracy of the speech recognition system. Much effort has been done to increase the accuracy of the speech recognition system. Still erroneous output is generated in current speech recognition system. Static pronunciation dictionary plays key role in the speech recognition accuracy. The required phoneme of the word changes to the phoneme of the some other word. Modification in the dictionary in the decoder of the speech recognition system reduces the number of the confusion pairs which automatically increase the accuracy. Hit rate is considerably increased and false alarms have been changed during the modification of the pronunciation dictionary. Also this proposed method observed the variations on different error measures such as F-measures, Error-Rate and WER by applying this proposed method.

N. Usha Rani, P. N. Girija

Performance Evaluation of Evolutionary and Decision Tree Based Classifiers in Diversity of Datasets

The large databases of digital information are ubiquitous. Data from the neighborhood store’s checkout register, your bank’s credit card authorization device, records in your doctor’s office, patterns in your telephone calls and many more applications generate streams of digital records archived in huge databases, sometimes in so-called data warehouses A new generation of computational techniques and tools is required to support the extraction of useful knowledge from the rapidly growing volumes of data. These techniques and tools are the subject of the emerging field of knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) and data mining. Data mining plays an important role to discover important information to help in decision making of a decision support system. It has been the active area of research in the last decade. The classification is one of the important tasks of data mining. Different kind of classifiers have been suggested and tested to predict the future events based on unseen data. This paper compares the performance evaluation of evolutionary based genetic algorithm and decision tree based classifiers in diversity of datasets. The performance evaluation metrics are predictive accuracy, training time and comprehensibility. Evolutionary based classifier shows better comprehensibility over decision tree based classifiers. These classifiers show almost same predictive accuracy. Experimental results demonstrate that evolutionary approach based classifiers are slower than decision tree based classifiers. This research is helpful for organizations to select the classifiers as information generator for their decision support systems to make future policies.

Pardeep Kumar, Vivek Kumar Sehgal, Nitin, Durg Singh Chauhan

An Insight into Requirements Engineering Processes

Requirements Engineering (RE) determines the requirements of software according to the needs of customers. Requirements engineering process includes requirements elicitation, requirements modeling, requirements analysis, requirements verification & validation, and requirements management. Among these sub-processes, requirements elicitation plays an important role in extracting the needs of stakeholders, since it is the first requirements engineering sub-process and has cascading effect. It means errors occurring during requirements elicitation will affect the remaining RE processes. Improper understanding of requirements engineering processes may lead to failure of software projects. This article presents an insight into requirements engineering processes.

Mohd Sadiq, S. K. Jain

Design Challenges in Power Handling Techniques in Nano Scale Cmos Devices

VLSI design currently enables us to build million transistor chips. In the current and coming decades VLSI design will become highly complex. Minimization of power consumption is essential for high performance VLSI systems. In digital CMOS circuits there are three sources of power dissipation, the first is due to signal transition, the second source of power dissipation comes from short circuit current which flows directly from supply to ground terminal and the last is due to leakage currents. As technology scales down the short circuit power will be comparable to dynamic power dissipation. Furthermore, the leakage power shall also become highly significant. High leakage current in nano-scale regime is becoming a significant contributor to power dissipation of CMOS circuits as threshold voltage, channel length, and gate oxide thickness are reduced. Consequently, the identification and modelling of different leakage components is very important for estimation and reduction of leakage power especially for low-power applications. 40% or even higher percentage of the total power consumption is due to the leakage in transistors [2]. This percentage will increase with technology scaling unless effective techniques are introduced to bring leakage under control. This paper focuses on different techniques such as run time and design time techniques are introduced to accomplish power. Handling in nano-scale CMOS devices and provides a detailed overview of these. SPICE results are given for two nano-regime technology nodes.

Veeranna D., Surya Naik V., Amit Degada

CMR – Clustered Multipath Routing to Increase the Lifetime of Sensor Networks

Routing in wireless sensor network is an important task. This has led to number of routing protocol which utilizes the limited resources. Since wireless sensors are powered by batteries, it is very essential to utilize their energy. Under these constraints many methods for conserving the power have been proposed to increase battery life. In this paper we propose a novel way by using clustered multipath routing (CMR) to increase the lifetime of sensor nodes. It uses multiple paths between source and the destination which is intended to provide a consistent transmission with low energy. The proposed system saves about 23% percentage of energy.

S. Manju Priya, S. Karthikeyan

Multiregion Image Segmentation by Graph Cuts for Brain Tumour Segmentation

Multiregion graph cut image partitioning via kernel mapping is used to segment any type of the image data.The piecewise constant model of the graph cut formulation becomes applicable when the image data is transformed by a kernel function. The objective function contains an original data term to evaluate the deviation of the transformed data within each segmentation region, from the piecewise constant model, and a smoothness boundary preserving regularization term. Using a common kernel function, energy minimization typically consists of iterating image partitioning by graph cut iterations and evaluations of region parameters via fixed point computation.The method results in good segmentations and runs faster the graph cut methods. The segmentation from MRI data is an important but time consuming task performed manually by medical ex- perts. The segmentation of MRI image is challenging due to the high diversity in appearance of tissue among thepatient.A semi-automatic interactive brain segmentation system with the ability to adjust operator control is achieved in this method.

R. Ramya, K. B. Jayanthi

Performance Parameters for Load Balancing Algorithm in Grid Computing

Grid computing is a new parallel and distributed computing paradigm that provides resources for large scientific computing applications. This paper describe the new analysis of parameters for load balancing in Grid that is responsible for performance of load balancing in Grid Computing. At end of paper we show a table of comparison of various load balancing algorithms based on different parameters.

Pardeep Kumar, Ravi Rastogi, Shiv Kumar Gupta, Krishna Kumar Verma

Contourlet Based Image Watermarking Scheme Using Schur Factorization and SVD

In this paper, a novel image watermarking scheme is proposed, based on Contourlet Transform (CT) and Matrix Factorization methods namely, Schur Factorization and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD). The original image and watermark are both decomposed by CT. The lowest frequency coefficients of original image after CT are factorized using SVD and that of watermark after CT are decomposed by Schur Factorization. The schur form of watermark is further factorized using SVD. The modified coefficients of singular values of watermark are embedded in the singular values of original image followed by inverse SVD and inverse CT computation that results in the watermarked image. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is resistant against signal processing attacks such as median filter, salt and pepper noise, Gaussian noise, compression and geometric attacks.

Reena Gunjan, Priyanka Mitra, Manoj S. Gaur

Patch-Based Categorization and Retrieval of Medical Images

Utilization of the mining techniques in aiding the medical diagnosis by processing the medical images, Chest X-Rays in particular. The process involves - categorization of the images using patch-based visual words, collection into clusters using K-means clustering, and Image retrieval, involving comparison of the input image with the images in the dataset and retrieving the matched images along with the appropriate diagnosis associated with that particular medical case. If there is no data matching then this would be added to the existing database thus aiding the diagnosis of other such cases that might come up in the future. The retrieval may also be done based on Region-of-Interest (ROI).

Zarina Sulthana, Supreethi K.P.

Automatic Music Transcription of Indian Classical Music into MIDI Data

Musical transcription of sampled audio data is the process of taking a sequence of digital data corresponding to the sound waveform and extracting from it the symbolic information i.e. MIDI scores. In this work, two different approaches for transcription of Indian Classical Music are discussed, one with prior knowledge of Raga and another without it. For this purpose, pitch detection is done using Fourier of Fourier Transform with Parabolic Interpolation to spectral peaks. This method for pitch detection is very accurate and suitable for shrutis in Indian Classical Music. For polyphonic music, we performed source separation by classifying frames as monophonic/polyphonic one. These separated monophonic frames are handled by a monophonic transcription system. Finally results are shown with conversion of Raga audio sample into MIDI format.

Kalyani Akant, Rajesh Pande, Shyamkant Limaye

Enhanced Video Indexing and Retrieval Based on Face Recognition through Combined Detection and Fast LDA

The content based indexing and retrieval of videos plays a key role in helping the Internet today to move towards semantic web. The exponential growth of multimedia data has increased the demand for video search based on the query image rather than the traditional text annotation. The best possible method to index most videos is by the people featured in the video. The paper proposes combined face detection approach with high detection efficiency and low computational complexity. The fast LDA method proposed performs wavelet decomposition as a pre-processing stage over the face image. The preprocessing stage introduced reduces the retrieval time by a factor of 1/4

n

where n is the level of decomposition as well as improving the face recognition rate. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method reducing the retrieval time by 64 times over the direct LDA implementation.

Loganathan D., Jamal J., Nijanthan P., Kalichy Balamurugan V.

An Efficient Approach for Neural Network Based Fingerprint Recognition by Using Core, Delta, Ridge Bifurcation and Minutia

Fingerprint recognition refers to the automated method of verifying a match between two human fingerprints. Fingerprints are one of many forms of biometrics used to identify individuals and verify their identity. In this paper we create a neural network algorithm for fingerprint recognition that is using the three basic patterns of fingerprint ridges are the arch, loop, and whorl. We know that an arch is a pattern where the ridges enter from one side of the finger, rise in the center forming an arc, and then exit the other side of the finger. The loop is a pattern where the ridges enter from one side of a finger to exit from the same side they enter. In the whorl pattern, ridges form circularly around a central point on the finger. First we design a supervised neural network for any fingerprint images by using three basic pattern then algorithm outputs show the recognition result. By this method, we improve the recognition result and comparison with other fingerprint image and also it is very useful to overcome the problem of finding number of criminals in the crime.

Jitendra Singh Sengar, Jasvinder Pal Singh, Niresh Sharma

Specification – Based Approach for Implementing Atomic Read/ Write Shared Memory in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Fuzzy Logic

In this paper we propose an efficient fuzzy logic based solution for the specification and performance evaluation depending on generation of fuzzy rules. A new property matching mechanism is defined. The requirement with attributes is chandelled in the following manner: the basic functionality is ensured, matching properties names according to the classical reading/writing strategy. The preliminary solutions are selected and hierarchies according to the degree of attribute matching. Consequently, we describe the basic principles of the proposed solutions and illustrate them for implementing atomic read write shared memory in mobile ad hoc network. This is done by fuzzy logic, which is considered a clear solution to illustrate the results of this application in distributed systems. The results are approximate but also, they are very good and consistent with the nature of this application.

Sherif El-etriby, Reham Shihata

An Enhanced Scheme for Using Error Correction Codes in ARQ Protocol

In previous work, MPC(Modified Packet Combining) and PRPC(Packet Reverse Packet Combining) schemes are understood to offer higher throughput and better error correction capability at high bit error rate (BER) and large packet size only. An analysis was performed to corroborate this claim of higher throughput and better error correction capability in high as well as in low bit error rate (BER) for large and medium packet size. To pacification high bit error rate some researchers proposed to use Error Correction Code (ECC) in place of Error Detection Code (EDC) in ARQ scheme. But no incontrovertible result is found to justify the idea in terms of throughput. The recent investigation is an attempt to analyze the throughput. In this paper, we investigate the analysis of both PRPC and MPC in a Modified way over Conventional PRPC, and report the findings available. We propose a combined protocol of Modified PRPC and MPC, and find that it will offer higher throughput and better error correction capability at high and low BER with medium and large packet size as we have used MPC (Modified Packet Combining) scheme with PRPC (Packet Reverse Packet Combining) scheme in a Modified way by combining BEC (Backward Error Correction) with FEC (Forward Error Correction) Codes especially Space-Time Ring-Trellis Coded Modulation (ST-RTCM) code for Communication and Networks by using MATLAB

TM

software.

Prajit Paul, Asok Kumar, Mrinmoy Sarkar, Anup Kumar Bhattacharjee

An Adaptive Earley Algorithm for LTAG Based Parsing

In traditional parsing methods Earley parsing is one of the best par ser implemented for both NLP and programming language requirements. Tree Adjoining Grammar is powerful than traditional CFG and suitable to represent complex structure of natural languages. An improved version LTAG has appropriate generative capacity and a strong linguistic foundation. Here we introduce a new algorithm that simply adopts Earley method in LTAG which results combined advantages of TAG and Earley Parsing.

Sharafudheen K.A., Rahul C.

Poster Paper

A Survey on Single Channel Speech Separation

Single channel speech separation is a branch of speech separation process, which is an ongoing interesting research topic for the past 40 years and continues till now, but still there is a lack in separating the required signal from the mixture of signals with 100% accuracy and be used by the common people. Many researches have been done in various ways using the parameters like pitch, phase, magnitude, amplitude, frequency and energy, spectrogram of the speech signal. Various issues in single channel speech separation process are surveyed in this paper and the major challenges faced by the speech research community in realizing the system are pointed out as conclusion.

G. Logeshwari, G. S. Anandha Mala

Wavelet Based Compression Techniques: A Survey

The main purpose of image compression is to reduce the memory space or transmission time and that of cryptography is to keep the security of the data. These two technologies are separate. But in some cases an image can be compressed if necessary, and then encrypted. To encrypt the compressed data and for transformation function many techniques are used in several areas. In this work, some of the Discrete Wavelet Transform based methods are discussed and a comparative study is performed between these methods. Then states the advantages of Discrete Wavelet Transform. Out of these methods Resolution Progressive Compression provides the best features.

Remya S., Dilshad Rasheed V.A.

Practical Approaches for Image Encryption/Scrambling Using 3D Arnolds Cat Map

This paper is exploratory study of the 3D Arnolds Cat Map. The paper discusses the Arnold’s cat map and its 3D extension that is 3D Arnolds Cat Map in detail. This paper extends idea of encryption/scrambling to the encrypting/scrambling colour image using encryption/scrambling of R, G, and B components. Experimental implementation of two different 3D Arnolds Cat Maps proposed by different authors are provided along with their results. Paper also discusses inverse ACM transformation to recover the scrambled image.

Pawan N. Khade, Manish Narnaware

Communication Efficient Distributed Decentralized Key Management Framework for Message Authentication in Vanet

To provide authentication in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET), a cost effective and communication efficient distributed key management framework based on dynamic decentralized group key agreement is proposed. In VANET, the critical issue is exchanging the safety related information such as warning about curves, sharp turns, speed limit and other related information between the vehicles. The proposed Group Secret Key Protocol (GSKP) is a promising security scheme to provide privacy by offering authentication between vehicles in VANET. In this framework, each Road Side Unit (RSU) dynamically generates the GSK and securely distributes the key to the OBUs of Vehicle. By using this GSK, the vehicles can interactively exchanging the safety related information without doing authentication for each communication. GSK is generated dynamically based on the share taken from each vehicle, so the GSK is distributed to only the valid set of vehicles. This technology ensures the dynamic nature in the way that whenever new vehicle comes in to the group or existing member goes out of the group the new GSK is generated. In addition, cooperative verifiers are intelligently selected to significantly reduce the computation and communication overhead.

G. VinothChakkaravarthy, Raja Lavanya, P. Alli

Graph Learning System for Automatic Image Annotation

Automating the process of annotation of images is a crucial step towards efficient and effective management of increasingly high volume of content. A graph-based approach for automatic image annotation is proposed which models both feature similarities and semantic relations in a single graph. The proposed approach models the relationship between the images and words by an undirected graph. Semantic information is extracted from paired nodes. The quality of annotation is enhanced by introducing graph link weighting techniques. The proposed method achieves fast solution by using incremental fast random walk with restart (IFRWR) algorithm, without apparently affecting the accuracy of image annotation.

K. Aishwaryameenakshi, S. Halima Banu, A. T. R. Krishna Priya, S. Chitrakala

Usage of FPGA in Network Security

This paper approaches to develop the RSA algorithm using FPGA that can be used as a standard device in the secured communication system. This RSA algorithm is implemented in the FPGA with the help of VHDL and works with radio frequency range to make the information safer. A simple nested loop addition and subtraction have been used in order to implement the RSA operation. This results in less processing time and less space in the FPGA. The information to encryption is in the form of statement or file and the same will appear in the decryption. The hardware design is targeted on Xilinx Spartan 3E device. The RSA algorithm design has made use of approximately 1000 total equivalent gate counts and achieved a clock frequency of 50.00MHz

Senthil Kumar M., S. Rajalakshmi

Novel Relevance Model for Sentiment Classification Based on Collision Theory

The performance of an Information Retrieval system is very much dependent on the effectiveness of the relevance model being used. Motivated by the concepts in Collision Theory in Physics, this paper proposes a novel approach of identifying relevance between two text objects. The role of positive and negative features is considered in designing the relevance measure based on the transitions in Collision Theory. For evaluating the measure, we have applied our relevance model on sentiment classification.

Meenakshi Sundaram Murugeshan, Saswati Mukherjee

Comparative Study of Crosstalk Reduction Techniques for Parallel Microstriplines

Reduction of crosstalk among interconnects and PCB traces to a tolerable level are an important goal in circuit design. This paper present the comparative study of crosstalk reduction techniques for parallel microstriplines. Parallel microstrip line is treated as a symmetrical network with four ports Here the affection of the guard trace with vias and serpentine trace with vias to the function of the parallel microstriplines. are analyzed and simulated in terms of S parameters From the S parameters the effect of guard trace is analyzed. Simulation results are presented in terms of coupling strength.

P. Rajeswari, S. Raju

An Adaptive Call Admission Control in WiMAX Networks with Fair Trade off Analysis

In wireless cellular network with heterogeneous services, providing guaranteed Quality of Service (QoS) poses a great challenge due to the scarce radio bandwidth. Often researchers in this field have tried to reduce the handoff call dropping probabilities (HCDP) in a cell at the sacrifice of increasing the new call blocking probabilities (NCBP). In this paper we propose a call admission control (CAC) scheme for WiMAX networks to achieve a fair trade-off between NCBP and HCDP. Numerical results showed that the proposed CAC scheme shows improvement in NCBP without affecting HCDP.

Romesh Laishram, Rusni Kima Mangang, Pradipta Kumar Das, Suka Deba Singh

Analysis and Performance of Photonic Microwave Filters Based on Multiple Optical Carriers

In this paper a Photonic microwave filters are photonics sub system design with aim of carrying equivalent tasks to those an supplementary advantage inherent to photonics such as low lass, high band width, immunity to electromagnetic inference (EMI), tunability, reconfigurability, reduced size and weight, and low and constant electrical loss. Many photonic microwave filter architectures have been proposed over the last years using a variety of fiber-optic devices. Some of them are based on using multiple optical carriers wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM)] and dispersive media to obtain a set of time-delayed samples of the RF input signal. In this paper, the statistical analysis of the performance of photonic microwave filter is based on multiple optical carriers (WDM) and a dispersive medium, with random errors in amplitude and wavelength spacing between optical carriers is presented.

Harish Kumar, Abhijeet Kumar, Abhishek Kumar, Ashwini Mathur, Venkat Babu G., D. K. P. Singh

A Genetic Algorithm for Alignment of Multiple DNA Sequences

This paper presents a new genetic algorithm based solution to obtain alignment of multiple DNA molecular sequences. Multiple Sequence alignment is one of the most active ongoing research problems in the field of computational molecular biology. Sequence alignment is important because it allows scientists to analyze protein strands (such as DNA and RNA) and determine where there are overlaps. These overlaps can show commonalities in evolution and they also allow scientists to better prepare vaccines against viruses, which are made of protein strands. We have proposed new genetic operations for crossover, mutation, fitness calculation, population initialization. Proposed scheme generates new populations with better fitness value. We have also reviewed the some of the popular works by different researchers towards solving the MSA problem w.r.t various phases involved in general GA procedure. A working example is presented to validate the proposed scheme. Improvement in the overall population fitness is also calculated.

Pankaj Agarwal, Ruchi Gupta, Taru Maheswari, Princy Agarwal, Shubhanjali Yadav, Vishnu Bali

Food Distribution and Management System Using Biometric Technique (Fdms)

Food Distribution & Management System (FDMS) mainly developed for enabling government for better implementation of Public Distribution System (PDS) using Biometric Techniques. Corruption has become an inseparable component of our society. It deeply related in functioning of governing bodies and system. Illiteracy lack of awarnace, BPL (below Poverty Line) & APL (Above Poverty Line) has deteriorated the standard of our society and has occurred whelming contribution in the multi functioning of the system. This project (the idea) that we were proposing will not only fight to eliminate the malfunction in current system and monopoly but also encourage direct communication between governing bodies & public. The interface is fully transparent & not only eliminate the inter mediators but also encourage people to fully utilize the resources provided by the government. The project involved interface between government & benefiters using web technology & cryptography the technology driven method is useful to maintain transparency & account facility in food grain distribution system.

Gyan Prakash, P. T. Sivasankar

Improving Intelligent IR Effectiveness in Forensic Analysis

In the era of Information technology textual evidence is important to the vast majority of digital investigations. Important text-based evidence include Email, Internet browsing history instant messaging, system logs and so on. The investigator is flooded with data and has to spend valuable investigative time scanning through noisy search results and reviewing irrelevant search results. Current digital forensic text string search tools use match and/or indexing algorithms to search digital evidence at the physical level to locate specific text strings. The text string search tools fail to group and/or order search hits. This research uses text data mining principles and technologies for design and implementation which improves IIR (Intelligent Information Retrieval) effectiveness in digital forensics. The proposed system can analyze the corpus of mail data or SMS data with domain specific keywords. The searching and ranking of the mails in the proposed system is based on the weight of keywords of forensic interest.

S. Gowri, G. S. Anandha Mala

Energy Efficient Cluster Routing Protocol for Heterogeneous Wireless Sensor Networks

In this paper, a new routing protocol for heterogeneous networks with improved clustering strategies has been developed. Energy Efficient Stable Election Protocol(EE-SEP) is proposed which has the impact on network lifetime, network stability and cluster heads formation in every round. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm outperformed SEP and Low Energy Adaptive Clustering Hierarchy (LEACH) in all the factors considered when two different topologies with advanced nodes and their energies taken into consideration.

T. Venu Madhav, N. V. S. N. Sarma

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