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Über dieses Buch

The two-volume set LNCS 10031 and LNCS 10032 constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptology and Information Security, ASIACRYPT 2016, held in Hanoi, Vietnam, in December 2016.

The 67 revised full papers and 2 invited talks presented were carefully selected from 240 submissions. They are organized in topical sections on Mathematical Analysis; AES and White-Box; Hash Function; Randomness; Authenticated Encryption; Block Cipher; SCA and Leakage Resilience; Zero Knowledge; Post Quantum Cryptography; Provable Security; Digital Signature; Functional and Homomorphic Cryptography; ABE and IBE; Foundation; Cryptographic Protocol; Multi-Party Computation.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Asiacrypt 2016 Award Papers

Frontmatter

Nonlinear Invariant Attack

Practical Attack on Full SCREAM, iSCREAM, and Midori64

In this paper we introduce a new type of attack, called nonlinear invariant attack. As application examples, we present new attacks that are able to distinguish the full versions of the (tweakable) block ciphers Scream, iScream and Midori64 in a weak-key setting. Those attacks require only a handful of plaintext-ciphertext pairs and have minimal computational costs. Moreover, the nonlinear invariant attack on the underlying (tweakable) block cipher can be extended to a ciphertext-only attack in well-known modes of operation such as CBC or CTR. The plaintext of the authenticated encryption schemes SCREAM and iSCREAM can be practically recovered only from the ciphertexts in the nonce-respecting setting. This is the first result breaking a security claim of SCREAM. Moreover, the plaintext in Midori64 with well-known modes of operation can practically be recovered. All of our attacks are experimentally verified.

Yosuke Todo, Gregor Leander, Yu Sasaki

Cliptography: Clipping the Power of Kleptographic Attacks

Kleptography, introduced 20 years ago by Young and Yung [Crypto ’96], considers the (in)security of malicious implementations (or instantiations) of standard cryptographic primitives that may embed a “backdoor” into the system. Remarkably, crippling subliminal attacks are possible even if the subverted cryptosystem produces output indistinguishable from a truly secure “reference implementation.” Bellare, Paterson, and Rogaway [Crypto ’14] recently initiated a formal study of such attacks on symmetric key encryption algorithms, demonstrating that kleptographic attacks can be mounted in broad generality against randomized components of cryptographic systems.We enlarge the scope of current work on the problem by permitting adversarial subversion of (randomized) key generation; in particular, we initiate the study of cryptography in the complete subversion model, where all relevant cryptographic primitives are subject to kleptographic attacks. We construct secure one-way permutations and trapdoor one-way permutations in this “complete subversion” model, describing a general, rigorous immunization strategy to clip the power of kleptographic subversions. Our strategy can be viewed as a formal treatment of the folklore “nothing up my sleeve” wisdom in cryptographic practice. We also describe a related “split program” model that can directly inform practical deployment. We additionally apply our general immunization strategy to directly yield a backdoor-free PRG. This notably amplifies previous results of Dodis, Ganesh, Golovnev, Juels, and Ristenpart [Eurocrypt ’15], which require an honestly generated random key.We then examine two standard applications of (trapdoor) one-way permutations in this complete subversion model and construct “higher level” primitives via black-box reductions. We showcase a digital signature scheme that preserves existential unforgeability when all algorithms (including key generation, which was not considered to be under attack before) are subject to kleptographic attacks. Additionally, we demonstrate that the classic Blum–Micali pseudorandom generator (PRG), using an “immunized” one-way permutation, yields a backdoor-free PRG.Alongside development of these secure primitives, we set down a hierarchy of kleptographic attack models which we use to organize past results and our new contributions; this taxonomy may be valuable for future work.

Alexander Russell, Qiang Tang, Moti Yung, Hong-Sheng Zhou

Zero Knowledge

Frontmatter

Zero-Knowledge Accumulators and Set Algebra

Cryptographic accumulators allow to succinctly represent a set by an accumulation value with respect to which short (non-)membership proofs about the set can be efficiently constructed and verified. Traditionally, their security captures soundness but offers no privacy: Convincing proofs reliably encode set membership, but they may well leak information about the accumulated set.In this paper we put forward a strong privacy-preserving enhancement by introducing and devising zero-knowledge accumulators that additionally provide hiding guarantees: Accumulation values and proofs leak nothing about a dynamic set that evolves via element insertions/deletions. We formalize the new property using the standard real-ideal paradigm, namely demanding that an adaptive adversary with access to query/update oracles, cannot tell whether he interacts with honest protocol executions or a simulator fully ignorant of the set (even of the type of updates on it). We rigorously compare the new primitive to existing ones for privacy-preserving verification of set membership (or other relations) and derive interesting implications among related security definitions, showing that zero-knowledge accumulators offer stronger privacy than recent related works by Naor et al. [TCC 2015] and Derler et al. [CT-RSA 2015]. We construct the first dynamic universal zero-knowledge accumulator that we show to be perfect zero-knowledge and secure under the q-Strong Bilinear Diffie-Hellman assumption.Finally, we extend our new privacy notion and our new construction to provide privacy-preserving proofs also for an authenticated dynamic set collection—a primitive for efficiently verifying more elaborate set operations, beyond set-membership. We introduce a primitive that supports a zero-knowledge verifiable set algebra: Succinct proofs for union, intersection and set difference queries over a dynamically evolving collection of sets can be efficiently constructed and optimally verified, while—for the first time—they leak nothing about the collection beyond the query result.

Esha Ghosh, Olga Ohrimenko, Dimitrios Papadopoulos, Roberto Tamassia, Nikos Triandopoulos

Zero-Knowledge Arguments for Matrix-Vector Relations and Lattice-Based Group Encryption

Group encryption ($$\mathsf {GE}$$) is the natural encryption analogue of group signatures in that it allows verifiably encrypting messages for some anonymous member of a group while providing evidence that the receiver is a properly certified group member. Should the need arise, an opening authority is capable of identifying the receiver of any ciphertext. As introduced by Kiayias, Tsiounis and Yung (Asiacrypt’07), $$\mathsf {GE}$$ is motivated by applications in the context of oblivious retriever storage systems, anonymous third parties and hierarchical group signatures. This paper provides the first realization of group encryption under lattice assumptions. Our construction is proved secure in the standard model (assuming interaction in the proving phase) under the Learning-With-Errors ($$\mathsf {LWE}$$) and Short-Integer-Solution ($$\mathsf {SIS}$$) assumptions. As a crucial component of our system, we describe a new zero-knowledge argument system allowing to demonstrate that a given ciphertext is a valid encryption under some hidden but certified public key, which incurs to prove quadratic statements about $$\mathsf {LWE}$$ relations. Specifically, our protocol allows arguing knowledge of witnesses consisting of $$\mathbf {X} \in \mathbb {Z}_q^{m \times n}$$, $$\mathbf {s} \in \mathbb {Z}_q^n$$ and a small-norm $$\mathbf {e} \in \mathbb {Z}^m$$ which underlie a public vector $$\mathbf {b}=\mathbf {X} \cdot \mathbf {s} + \mathbf {e} \in \mathbb {Z}_q^m$$ while simultaneously proving that the matrix $$\mathbf {X} \in \mathbb {Z}_q^{m \times n}$$ has been correctly certified. We believe our proof system to be useful in other applications involving zero-knowledge proofs in the lattice setting.

Benoît Libert, San Ling, Fabrice Mouhartem, Khoa Nguyen, Huaxiong Wang

Post Quantum Cryptography

Frontmatter

From 5-Pass -Based Identification to -Based Signatures

This paper presents MQDSS, the first signature scheme with a security reduction based on the problem of solving a multivariate system of quadratic equations ($$\mathcal {MQ}$$ problem). In order to construct this scheme we give a new security reduction for the Fiat-Shamir transform from a large class of 5-pass identification schemes and show that a previous attempt from the literature to obtain such a proof does not achieve the desired goal. We give concrete parameters for MQDSS and provide a detailed security analysis showing that the resulting instantiation MQDSS-31-64 achieves 128 bits of post-quantum security. Finally, we describe an optimized implementation of MQDSS-31-64 for recent Intel processors with full protection against timing attacks and report benchmarks of this implementation.

Ming-Shing Chen, Andreas Hülsing, Joost Rijneveld, Simona Samardjiska, Peter Schwabe

Collapse-Binding Quantum Commitments Without Random Oracles

We construct collapse-binding commitments in the standard model. Collapse-binding commitments were introduced in (Unruh, Eurocrypt 2016) to model the computational-binding property of commitments against quantum adversaries, but only constructions in the random oracle model were known.Furthermore, we show that collapse-binding commitments imply selected other security definitions for quantum commitments, answering an open question from (Unruh, Eurocrypt 2016).

Dominique Unruh

Digital Signatures Based on the Hardness of Ideal Lattice Problems in All Rings

Many practical lattice-based schemes are built upon the Ring-SIS or Ring-LWE problems, which are problems that are based on the presumed difficulty of finding low-weight solutions to linear equations over polynomial rings $$\mathbb {Z}_q[\mathbf{x}]/\langle \mathbf{f}\rangle $$ . Our belief in the asymptotic computational hardness of these problems rests in part on the fact that there are reduction showing that solving them is as hard as finding short vectors in all lattices that correspond to ideals of the polynomial ring $$\mathbb {Z}[\mathbf{x}]/\langle \mathbf{f}\rangle $$ . These reductions, however, do not give us an indication as to the effect that the polynomial $$\mathbf{f}$$ , which defines the ring, has on the average-case or worst-case problems.As of today, there haven’t been any weaknesses found in Ring-SIS or Ring-LWE problems when one uses an $$\mathbf{f}$$ which leads to a meaningful worst-case to average-case reduction, but there have been some recent algorithms for related problems that heavily use the algebraic structures of the underlying rings. It is thus conceivable that some rings could give rise to more difficult instances of Ring-SIS and Ring-LWE than other rings. A more ideal scenario would therefore be if there would be an average-case problem, allowing for efficient cryptographic constructions, that is based on the hardness of finding short vectors in ideals of $$\mathbb {Z}[\mathbf{x}]/\langle \mathbf{f}\rangle $$ for every $$\mathbf{f}$$ .In this work, we show that the above may actually be possible. We construct a digital signature scheme based (in the random oracle model) on a simple adaptation of the Ring-SIS problem which is as hard to break as worst-case problems in every $$\mathbf{f}$$ whose degree is bounded by the parameters of the scheme. Up to constant factors, our scheme is as efficient as the highly practical schemes that work over the ring $$\mathbb {Z}[\mathbf{x}]/\langle \mathbf{x}^n+1\rangle $$ .

Vadim Lyubashevsky

Provable Security

Frontmatter

Adaptive Oblivious Transfer and Generalization

Oblivious Transfer ($$\mathsf {OT} $$) protocols were introduced in the seminal paper of Rabin, and allow a user to retrieve a given number of lines (usually one) in a database, without revealing which ones to the server. The server is ensured that only this given number of lines can be accessed per interaction, and so the others are protected; while the user is ensured that the server does not learn the numbers of the lines required. This primitive has a huge interest in practice, for example in secure multi-party computation, and directly echoes to Symmetrically Private Information Retrieval (SPIR).Recent Oblivious Transfer instantiations secure in the UC framework suffer from a drastic fallback. After the first query, there is no improvement on the global scheme complexity and so subsequent queries each have a global complexity of $$\mathcal {O}(|DB|)$$ meaning that there is no gain compared to running completely independent queries. In this paper, we propose a new protocol solving this issue, and allowing to have subsequent queries with a complexity of $$\mathcal {O}(\log (|DB|))$$ while keeping round optimality, and prove the protocol security in the UC framework with adaptive corruptions and reliable erasures.As a second contribution, we show that the techniques we use for Oblivious Transfer can be generalized to a new framework we call Oblivious Language-Based Envelope ($$\mathsf {OLBE}$$). It is of practical interest since it seems more and more unrealistic to consider a database with uncontrolled access in access control scenarios. Our approach generalizes Oblivious Signature-Based Envelope, to handle more expressive credentials and requests from the user. Naturally, $$\mathsf {OLBE}$$ encompasses both $$\mathsf {OT} $$ and $$\mathsf {OSBE}$$, but it also allows to achieve Oblivious Transfer with fine grain access over each line. For example, a user can access a line if and only if he possesses a certificate granting him access to such line.We show how to generically and efficiently instantiate such primitive, and prove them secure in the Universal Composability framework, with adaptive corruptions assuming reliable erasures. We provide the new UC ideal functionalities when needed, or we show that the existing ones fit in our new framework.The security of such designs allows to preserve both the secrecy of the database values and the user credentials. This symmetry allows to view our new approach as a generalization of the notion of Symmetrically PIR.

Olivier Blazy, Céline Chevalier, Paul Germouty

Selective Opening Security from Simulatable Data Encapsulation

In the realm of public-key encryption, the confidentiality notion of security against selective opening (SO) attacks considers adversaries that obtain challenge ciphertexts and are allowed to adaptively open them, meaning have the corresponding message and randomness revealed. SO security is stronger than IND-CCA and often required when formally arguing towards the security of multi-user applications. While different ways of achieving SO secure schemes are known, as they generally employ expensive asymmetric building blocks like lossy trapdoor functions or lossy encryption, such constructions are routinely left aside by practitioners and standardization bodies. So far, formal arguments towards the SO security of schemes used in practice (e.g., for email encryption) are not known.In this work we shift the focus from the asymmetric to the symmetric building blocks of PKE and prove the following statement: If a PKE scheme is composed of a key encapsulation mechanism (KEM) and a blockcipher-based data encapsulation mechanism (DEM), and the DEM has specific combinatorial properties, then the PKE scheme offers SO security in the ideal cipher model. Fortunately, as we show, the required properties hold for popular modes of operation like CTR, CBC and CCM. This paper not only establishes the corresponding theoretical framework of analysis, but also contributes very concretely to practical cryptography by concluding that selective opening security is given for many real-world schemes.

Felix Heuer, Bertram Poettering

Selective-Opening Security in the Presence of Randomness Failures

We initiate the study of public-key encryption (PKE) secure against selective-opening attacks (SOA) in the presence of randomness failures, i.e., when the sender may (inadvertently) use low-quality randomness. In the SOA setting, an adversary can adaptively corrupt senders; this notion is natural to consider in tandem with randomness failures since an adversary may target senders by multiple means.Concretely, we first treat SOA security of nonce-based PKE. After formulating an appropriate definition of SOA-secure nonce-based PKE, we provide efficient constructions in the non-programmable random-oracle model, based on lossy trapdoor functions.We then lift our notion of security to the setting of “hedged” PKE, which ensures security as long as the sender’s seed, message, and nonce jointly have high entropy. This unifies the notions and strengthens the protection that nonce-based PKE provides against randomness failures even in the non-SOA setting. We lift our definitions and constructions of SOA-secure nonce-based PKE to the hedged setting as well.

Viet Tung Hoang, Jonathan Katz, Adam O’Neill, Mohammad Zaheri

Efficient KDM-CCA Secure Public-Key Encryption for Polynomial Functions

KDM $$[\mathcal {F}]$$ -CCA secure public-key encryption (PKE) protects the security of message f(sk), with $$f\in \mathcal {F}$$ , that is computed directly from the secret key, even if the adversary has access to a decryption oracle. An efficient KDM $$[\mathcal {F}_{\text {aff}}]$$ -CCA secure PKE scheme for affine functions was proposed by Lu, Li and Jia (LLJ, EuroCrypt2015). We point out that their security proof cannot go through based on the DDH assumption.In this paper, we introduce a new concept Authenticated Encryption with Auxiliary-Input $$\mathsf {AIAE}$$ and define for it new security notions dealing with related-key attacks, namely IND-RKA security and weak INT-RKA security. We also construct such an $$\mathsf {AIAE}$$ w.r.t. a set of restricted affine functions from the DDH assumption. With our $$\mathsf {AIAE}$$ ,we construct the first efficient KDM $$[\mathcal {F}_{\text {aff}}]$$ -CCA secure PKE w.r.t. affine functions with compact ciphertexts, which consist only of a constant number of group elements;we construct the first efficient KDM $$[\mathcal {F}_{\text {poly}}^d]$$ -CCA secure PKE w.r.t. polynomial functions of bounded degree d with almost compact ciphertexts, and the number of group elements in a ciphertext is polynomial in d, independent of the security parameter.Our PKEs are both based on the DDH & DCR assumptions, free of NIZK and free of pairing.

Shuai Han, Shengli Liu, Lin Lyu

Structure-Preserving Smooth Projective Hashing

Smooth projective hashing has proven to be an extremely useful primitive, in particular when used in conjunction with commitments to provide implicit decommitment. This has lead to applications proven secure in the UC framework, even in presence of an adversary which can do adaptive corruptions, like for example Password Authenticated Key Exchange ($$\mathsf {PAKE}$$), and 1-out-of-m Oblivious Transfer ($$\textsf {OT} $$). However such solutions still lack in efficiency, since they heavily scale on the underlying message length.Structure-preserving cryptography aims at providing elegant and efficient schemes based on classical assumptions and standard group operations on group elements. Recent trend focuses on constructions of structure-preserving signatures, which require message, signature and verification keys to lie in the base group, while the verification equations only consist of pairing-product equations. Classical constructions of Smooth Projective Hash Function suffer from the same limitation as classical signatures: at least one part of the computation (messages for signature, witnesses for SPHF) is a scalar.In this work, we introduce and instantiate the concept of Structure-Preserving Smooth Projective Hash Function, and give as applications more efficient instantiations for one-round $$\mathsf {PAKE}$$ and three-round $$\textsf {OT} $$, and information retrieval thanks to Anonymous Credentials, all UC-secure against adaptive adversaries.

Olivier Blazy, Céline Chevalier

Digital Signature

Frontmatter

Signature Schemes with Efficient Protocols and Dynamic Group Signatures from Lattice Assumptions

A recent line of works – initiated by Gordon, Katz and Vaikuntanathan (Asiacrypt 2010) – gave lattice-based constructions allowing users to authenticate while remaining hidden in a crowd. Despite five years of efforts, known constructions are still limited to static sets of users, which cannot be dynamically updated. This work provides new tools enabling the design of anonymous authentication systems whereby new users can join the system at any time.Our first contribution is a signature scheme with efficient protocols, which allows users to obtain a signature on a committed value and subsequently prove knowledge of a signature on a committed message. This construction is well-suited to the design of anonymous credentials and group signatures. It indeed provides the first lattice-based group signature supporting dynamically growing populations of users.As a critical component of our group signature, we provide a simple joining mechanism of introducing new group members using our signature scheme. This technique is combined with zero-knowledge arguments allowing registered group members to prove knowledge of a secret short vector of which the corresponding public syndrome was certified by the group manager. These tools provide similar advantages to those of structure-preserving signatures in the realm of bilinear groups. Namely, they allow group members to generate their own public key without having to prove knowledge of the underlying secret key. This results in a two-message joining protocol supporting concurrent enrollments, which can be used in other settings such as group encryption.Our zero-knowledge arguments are presented in a unified framework where: (i) The involved statements reduce to arguing possession of a $$\{-1,0,1\}$$-vector $$\mathbf {x}$$ with a particular structure and satisfying $$\mathbf {P}\cdot \mathbf {x} = \mathbf {v} \bmod q$$ for some public matrix $$\mathbf {P}$$ and vector $$\mathbf {v}$$; (ii) The reduced statements can be handled using permuting techniques for Stern-like protocols. Our framework can serve as a blueprint for proving many other relations in lattice-based cryptography.

Benoît Libert, San Ling, Fabrice Mouhartem, Khoa Nguyen, Huaxiong Wang

Towards Tightly Secure Lattice Short Signature and Id-Based Encryption

Constructing short signatures with tight security from standard assumptions is a long-standing open problem. We present an adaptively secure, short (and stateless) signature scheme, featuring a constant security loss relative to a conservative hardness assumption, Short Integer Solution (SIS), and the security of a concretely instantiated pseudorandom function (PRF). This gives a class of tightly secure short lattice signature schemes whose security is based on SIS and the underlying assumption of the instantiated PRF.Our signature construction further extends to give a class of tightly and adaptively secure “compact” Identity-Based Encryption (IBE) schemes, reducible with constant security loss from Regev’s vanilla Learning With Errors (LWE) hardness assumption and the security of a concretely instantiated PRF. Our approach is a novel combination of a number of techniques, including Katz and Wang signature, Agrawal et al. lattice-based secure IBE, and Boneh et al. key-homomorphic encryption.Our results, at the first time, eliminate the dependency between the number of adversary’s queries and the security of short signature/IBE schemes in the context of lattice-based cryptography. They also indicate that tightly secure PRFs (with constant security loss) would imply tightly, adaptively secure short signature and IBE schemes (with constant security loss).

Xavier Boyen, Qinyi Li

From Identification to Signatures, Tightly: A Framework and Generic Transforms

This paper provides a framework to treat the problem of building signature schemes from identification schemes in a unified and systematic way. The outcomes are (1) Alternatives to the Fiat-Shamir transform that, applied to trapdoor identification schemes, yield signature schemes with tight security reductions to standard assumptions (2) An understanding and characterization of existing transforms in the literature. One of our transforms has the added advantage of producing signatures shorter than produced by the Fiat-Shamir transform. Reduction tightness is important because it allows the implemented scheme to use small parameters (thereby being as efficient as possible) while retaining provable security.

Mihir Bellare, Bertram Poettering, Douglas Stebila

How to Obtain Fully Structure-Preserving (Automorphic) Signatures from Structure-Preserving Ones

In this paper, we bridge the gap between structure-preserving signatures (SPSs) and fully structure-preserving signatures (FSPSs). In SPSs, all the messages, signatures, and verification keys consist only of group elements, while in FSPSs, even signing keys are required to be a collection of group elements. To achieve our goal, we introduce two new primitives called trapdoor signature and signature with auxiliary key, both of which can be derived from SPSs. By carefully combining both primitives, we obtain generic constructions of FSPSs from SPSs. Upon instantiating the above two primitives, we get many instantiations of FSPS with unilateral and bilateral message spaces. Different from previously proposed FSPSs, many of our instantiations also have the automorphic property, i.e., a signer can sign his own verification key. As by-product results, one of our instantiations has the shortest verification key size, signature size, and lowest verification cost among all previous constructions based on standard assumptions, and one of them is the first FSPS scheme in the type I bilinear groups.

Yuyu Wang, Zongyang Zhang, Takahiro Matsuda, Goichiro Hanaoka, Keisuke Tanaka

Functional and Homomorphic Cryptography

Frontmatter

Multi-key Homomorphic Authenticators

Homomorphic authenticators (HAs) enable a client to authenticate a large collection of data elements $$m_1, \ldots , m_t$$ and outsource them, along with the corresponding authenticators, to an untrusted server. At any later point, the server can generate a short authenticator vouching for the correctness of the output y of a function f computed on the outsourced data, i.e., $$y=f(m_1, \ldots , m_t)$$. Recently researchers have focused on HAs as a solution, with minimal communication and interaction, to the problem of delegating computation on outsourced data. The notion of HAs studied so far, however, only supports executions (and proofs of correctness) of computations over data authenticated by a single user. Motivated by realistic scenarios (ubiquitous computing, sensor networks, etc.) in which large datasets include data provided by multiple users, we study the concept of multi-key homomorphic authenticators. In a nutshell, multi-key HAs are like HAs with the extra feature of allowing the holder of public evaluation keys to compute on data authenticated under different secret keys. In this paper, we introduce and formally define multi-key HAs. Secondly, we propose a construction of a multi-key homomorphic signature based on standard lattices and supporting the evaluation of circuits of bounded polynomial depth. Thirdly, we provide a construction of multi-key homomorphic MACs based only on pseudorandom functions and supporting the evaluation of low-degree arithmetic circuits. Albeit being less expressive and only secretly verifiable, the latter construction presents interesting efficiency properties.

Dario Fiore, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, Luca Nizzardo, Elena Pagnin

Multi-input Functional Encryption with Unbounded-Message Security

Multi-input functional encryption (MIFE) was introduced by Goldwasser et al. (EUROCRYPT 2014) as a compelling extension of functional encryption. In MIFE, a receiver is able to compute a joint function of multiple, independently encrypted plaintexts. Goldwasser et al. (EUROCRYPT 2014) show various applications of MIFE to running SQL queries over encrypted databases, computing over encrypted data streams, etc.The previous constructions of MIFE due to Goldwasser et al. (EUROCRYPT 2014) based on indistinguishability obfuscation had a major shortcoming: it could only support encrypting an a priori bounded number of message. Once that bound is exceeded, security is no longer guaranteed to hold. In addition, it could only support selective-security, meaning that the challenge messages and the set of “corrupted” encryption keys had to be declared by the adversary up-front.In this work, we show how to remove these restrictions by relying instead on sub-exponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation. This is done by carefully adapting an alternative MIFE scheme of Goldwasser et al. that previously overcame these shortcomings (except for selective security wrt. the set of “corrupted” encryption keys) by relying instead on differing-inputs obfuscation, which is now seen as an implausible assumption. Our techniques are rather generic, and we hope they are useful in converting other constructions using differing-inputs obfuscation to ones using sub-exponentially secure indistinguishability obfuscation instead.

Vipul Goyal, Aayush Jain, Adam O’Neill

Verifiable Functional Encryption

In light of security challenges that have emerged in a world with complex networks and cloud computing, the notion of functional encryption has recently emerged. In this work, we show that in several applications of functional encryption (even those cited in the earliest works on functional encryption), the formal notion of functional encryption is actually not sufficient to guarantee security. This is essentially because the case of a malicious authority and/or encryptor is not considered. To address this concern, we put forth the concept of verifiable functional encryption, which captures the basic requirement of output correctness: even if the ciphertext is maliciously generated (and even if the setup and key generation is malicious), the decryptor is still guaranteed a meaningful notion of correctness which we show is crucial in several applications.We formalize the notion of verifiable function encryption and, following prior work in the area, put forth a simulation-based and an indistinguishability-based notion of security. We show that simulation-based verifiable functional encryption is unconditionally impossible even in the most basic setting where there may only be a single key and a single ciphertext. We then give general positive results for the indistinguishability setting: a general compiler from any functional encryption scheme into a verifiable functional encryption scheme with the only additional assumption being the Decision Linear Assumption over Bilinear Groups (DLIN). We also give a generic compiler in the secret-key setting for functional encryption which maintains both message privacy and function privacy. Our positive results are general and also apply to other simpler settings such as Identity-Based Encryption, Attribute-Based Encryption and Predicate Encryption. We also give an application of verifiable functional encryption to the recently introduced primitive of functional commitments. Finally, in the context of indistinguishability obfuscation, there is a fundamental question of whether the correct program was obfuscated. In particular, the recipient of the obfuscated program needs a guarantee that the program indeed does what it was intended to do. This question turns out to be closely related to verifiable functional encryption. We initiate the study of verifiable obfuscation with a formal definition and construction of verifiable indistinguishability obfuscation.

Saikrishna Badrinarayanan, Vipul Goyal, Aayush Jain, Amit Sahai

ABE and IBE

Frontmatter

Dual System Encryption Framework in Prime-Order Groups via Computational Pair Encodings

We propose a new generic framework for achieving fully secure attribute based encryption (ABE) in prime-order bilinear groups. Previous generic frameworks by Wee (TCC’14) and Attrapadung (Eurocrypt’14) were given in composite-order bilinear groups. Both provide abstractions of dual-system encryption techniques introduced by Waters (Crypto’09). Our framework can be considered as a prime-order version of Attrapadung’s framework and works in a similar manner: it relies on a main component called pair encodings, and it generically compiles any secure pair encoding scheme for a predicate in consideration to a fully secure ABE scheme for that predicate. One feature of our new compiler is that although the resulting ABE schemes will be newly defined in prime-order groups, we require essentially the same security notions of pair encodings as before. Beside the security of pair encodings, our framework assumes only the Matrix Diffie-Hellman assumption (Escala et al., Crypto’13), which includes the Decisional Linear assumption as a special case.Recently and independently, prime-order frameworks are proposed also by Chen et al. (Eurocrypt’15), and Agrawal and Chase (TCC’16-A). The main difference is that their frameworks can deal only with information-theoretic encodings, while ours can also deal with computational ones, which admit wider applications. We demonstrate our applications by obtaining the first fully secure prime-order realizations of ABE for regular languages, ABE for monotone span programs with short-ciphertext, short-key, or completely unbounded property, and ABE for branching programs with short-ciphertext, short-key, or unbounded property.

Nuttapong Attrapadung

Efficient IBE with Tight Reduction to Standard Assumption in the Multi-challenge Setting

In 2015, Hofheinz et al. [PKC, 2015] extended Chen and Wee’s almost-tight reduction technique for identity based encryptions (IBE) [CRYPTO, 2013] to the multi-instance, multi-ciphertext (MIMC, or multi-challenge) setting, where the adversary is allowed to obtain multiple challenge ciphertexts from multiple IBE instances, and gave the first almost-tightly secure IBE in this setting using composite-order bilinear groups. Several prime-order realizations were proposed lately. However there seems to be a dilemma of high system performance (involving ciphertext/key size and encryption/decryption cost) or weak/standard security assumptions. A natural question is: can we achieve high performance without relying on stronger/non-standard assumptions?In this paper, we answer the question in the affirmative by describing a prime-order IBE scheme with the same performance as the most efficient solutions so far but whose security still relies on the standardk-linear (k-Lin) assumption. Our technical start point is Blazy et al.’s almost-tightly secure IBE [CRYPTO, 2014]. We revisit their concrete IBE scheme and associate it with the framework of nested dual system group. This allows us to extend Blazy et al.’s almost-tightly secure IBE to the MIMC setting using Gong et al.’s method [PKC, 2016]. We emphasize that, when instantiating our construction by the Symmetric eXternal Diffie-Hellman assumption (SXDH = 1-Lin), we obtain the most efficient concrete IBE scheme with almost-tight reduction in the MIMC setting, whose performance is even comparable to the most efficient IBE in the classical model (i.e., the single-instance, single-ciphertext setting). Besides pursuing high performance, our IBE scheme also achieves a weaker form of anonymity pointed out by Attrapadung et al. [AsiaCrypt, 2015].

Junqing Gong, Xiaolei Dong, Jie Chen, Zhenfu Cao

Déjà Q All Over Again: Tighter and Broader Reductions of q-Type Assumptions

In this paper, we demonstrate that various cryptographic constructions—including ones for broadcast, attribute-based, and hierarchical identity-based encryption—can rely for security on only the static subgroup hiding assumption when instantiated in composite-order bilinear groups, as opposed to the dynamic q-type assumptions on which their security previously was based. This specific goal is accomplished by more generally extending the recent Déjà Q framework (Chase and Meiklejohn, Eurocrypt 2014) in two main directions. First, by teasing out common properties of existing reductions, we expand the q-type assumptions that can be covered by the framework; i.e., we demonstrate broader classes of assumptions that can be reduced to subgroup hiding. Second, while the original framework applied only to asymmetric composite-order bilinear groups, we provide a reduction to subgroup hiding that works in symmetric (as well as asymmetric) composite-order groups. As a bonus, our new reduction achieves a tightness of $$\log (q)$$ rather than q.

Melissa Chase, Mary Maller, Sarah Meiklejohn

Partitioning via Non-linear Polynomial Functions: More Compact IBEs from Ideal Lattices and Bilinear Maps

In this paper, we present new adaptively secure identity-based encryption (IBE) schemes. One of the distinguishing properties of the schemes is that it achieves shorter public parameters than previous schemes. Both of our schemes follow the general framework presented in the recent IBE scheme of Yamada (Eurocrypt 2016), employed with novel techniques tailored to meet the underlying algebraic structure to overcome the difficulties arising in our specific setting. Specifically, we obtain the following:- Our first scheme is proven secure under the ring learning with errors (RLWE) assumption and achieves the best asymptotic space efficiency among existing schemes from the same assumption. The main technical contribution is in our new security proof that exploits the ring structure in a crucial way. Our technique allows us to greatly weaken the underlying hardness assumption (e.g., we assume the hardness of RLWE with a fixed polynomial approximation factor whereas Yamada’s scheme requires a super-polynomial approximation factor) while improving the overall efficiency.- Our second IBE scheme is constructed on bilinear maps and is secure under the 3-computational bilinear Diffie-Hellman exponent assumption. This is the first IBE scheme based on the hardness of a computational/search problem, rather than a decisional problem such as DDH and DLIN on bilinear maps with sub-linear public parameter size.

Shuichi Katsumata, Shota Yamada

Foundation

Frontmatter

How to Generate and Use Universal Samplers

A random oracle is an idealization that allows us to model a hash function as an oracle that will output a uniformly random string given any input. We introduce the notion of a universal sampler scheme that extends the notion of a random oracle, to a method of sampling securely from arbitrary distributions.We describe several applications that provide a natural motivation for this notion; these include generating the trusted parameters for many schemes from just a single trusted setup. We further demonstrate the versatility of universal samplers by showing how they give rise to simple constructions of identity-based encryption and multiparty key exchange. In particular, we construct adaptively secure non-interactive multiparty key exchange in the random oracle model based on indistinguishability obfuscation; obtaining the first known construction of adaptively secure NIKE without complexity leveraging.We give a solution that shows how to transform any random oracle into a universal sampler scheme, based on indistinguishability obfuscation. At the heart of our construction and proof is a new technique we call “delayed backdoor programming” that we believe will have other applications.

Dennis Hofheinz, Tibor Jager, Dakshita Khurana, Amit Sahai, Brent Waters, Mark Zhandry

Iterated Random Oracle: A Universal Approach for Finding Loss in Security Reduction

The indistinguishability security of a public-key cryptosystem can be reduced to a computational hard assumption in the random oracle model, where the solution to a computational hard problem is hidden in one of the adversary’s queries to the random oracle. Usually, there is a finding loss in finding the correct solution from the query set, especially when the decisional variant of the computational problem is also hard. The problem of finding loss must be addressed towards tight(er) reductions under this type. In EUROCRYPT 2008, Cash, Kiltz and Shoup proposed a novel approach using a trapdoor test that can solve the finding loss problem. The simulator can find the correct solution with overwhelming probability 1, if there exists a trapdoor test for the adopted hard problem. The proposed approach is efficient and can be used for many Diffie-Hellman computational assumptions. The only limitation is the requirement of a trapdoor test that must be found for the adopted computational assumptions.In this paper, we introduce a universal approach for finding loss, namely Iterated Random Oracle, which can be applied to all computational assumptions. The finding loss in our proposed approach is very small. For $$2^{60}$$ queries to the random oracle, the success probability of finding the correct solution from the query set will be as large as 1 / 64 compared to $$1/{2^{60}}$$ by a random pick. We show how to apply the iterated random oracle for security transformation from key encapsulation mechanism with one-way security to normal encryption with indistinguishability security. The security reduction is very tight due to a small finding loss. The transformation does not expand the ciphertext size. We also give the application of the iterated random oracle in the key exchange.

Fuchun Guo, Willy Susilo, Yi Mu, Rongmao Chen, Jianchang Lai, Guomin Yang

NIZKs with an Untrusted CRS: Security in the Face of Parameter Subversion

Motivated by the subversion of “trusted” public parameters in mass-surveillance activities, this paper studies the security of NIZKs in the presence of a maliciously chosen common reference string. We provide definitions for subversion soundness, subversion witness indistinguishability and subversion zero knowledge. We then provide both negative and positive results, showing that certain combinations of goals are unachievable but giving protocols to achieve other combinations.

Mihir Bellare, Georg Fuchsbauer, Alessandra Scafuro

Cryptographic Protocol

Frontmatter

Universal Composition with Responsive Environments

In universal composability frameworks, adversaries (or environments) and protocols/ideal functionalities often have to exchange meta-information on the network interface, such as algorithms, keys, signatures, ciphertexts, signaling information, and corruption-related messages. For these purely modeling-related messages, which do not reflect actual network communication, it would often be very reasonable and natural for adversaries/environments to provide the requested information immediately or give control back to the protocol/functionality immediately after having received some information. However, in none of the existing models for universal composability is this guaranteed. We call this the non-responsiveness problem. As we will discuss in the paper, while formally non-responsiveness does not invalidate any of the universal composability models, it has many disadvantages, such as unnecessarily complex specifications and less expressivity. Also, this problem has often been ignored in the literature, leading to ill-defined and flawed specifications. Protocol designers really should not have to care about this problem at all, but currently they have to: giving the adversary/environment the option to not respond immediately to modeling-related requests does not translate to any real attack scenario.This paper solves the non-responsiveness problem and its negative consequences completely, by avoiding this artificial modeling problem altogether. We propose the new concepts of responsive environments and adversaries. Such environments and adversaries must provide a valid response to modeling-related requests before any other protocol/functionality is activated. Hence, protocol designers do no longer have to worry about artifacts resulting from such requests not being answered promptly. Our concepts apply to all existing models for universal composability, as exemplified for the UC, GNUC, and IITM models, with full definitions and proofs (simulation relations, transitivity, equivalence of various simulation notions, and composition theorems) provided for the IITM model.

Jan Camenisch, Robert R. Enderlein, Stephan Krenn, Ralf Küsters, Daniel Rausch

A Shuffle Argument Secure in the Generic Model

We propose a new random oracle-less NIZK shuffle argument. It has a simple structure, where the first verification equation ascertains that the prover has committed to a permutation matrix, the second verification equation ascertains that the same permutation was used to permute the ciphertexts, and the third verification equation ascertains that input ciphertexts were “correctly” formed. The new argument has 3.5 times more efficient verification than the up-to-now most efficient shuffle argument by Fauzi and Lipmaa (CT-RSA 2016). Compared to the Fauzi-Lipmaa shuffle argument, we (i) remove the use of knowledge assumptions and prove our scheme is sound in the generic bilinear group model, and (ii) prove standard soundness, instead of culpable soundness.

Prastudy Fauzi, Helger Lipmaa, Michał Zając

Efficient Public-Key Distance Bounding Protocol

Distance bounding protocols become more and more important because they are the most accurate solution to defeat relay attacks. They consist of two parties: a verifier and a prover. The prover shows that (s)he is close enough to the verifier. In some applications such as payment systems, using public-key distance bounding protocols is practical as no pre-shared secret is necessary between the payer and the payee. However, public-key cryptography requires much more computations than symmetric key cryptography. In this work, we focus on the efficiency problem in public-key distance bounding protocols and the formal security proofs of them. We construct two protocols (one without privacy, one with) which require fewer computations on the prover side compared to the existing protocols, while keeping the highest security level. Our construction is generic based on a key agreement model. It can be instantiated with only one resp. three elliptic curve computations for the prover side in the two protocols, respectively. We proved the security of our constructions formally and in detail.

Handan Kılınç, Serge Vaudenay

Indistinguishable Proofs of Work or Knowledge

We introduce a new class of protocols called Proofs of Work or Knowledge (PoWorKs). In a PoWorK, a prover can convince a verifier that she has either performed work or that she possesses knowledge of a witness to a public statement without the verifier being able to distinguish which of the two has taken place. We formalize PoWorK in terms of three properties, completeness, f-soundness and indistinguishability (where f is a function that determines the tightness of the proof of work aspect) and present a construction that transforms 3-move HVZK protocols into 3-move public-coin PoWorKs. To formalize the work aspect in a PoWorK protocol we define cryptographic puzzles that adhere to certain uniformity conditions, which may also be of independent interest. We instantiate our puzzles in the random oracle (RO) model as well as via constructing “dense” versions of suitably hard one-way functions.We then showcase PoWorK protocols by presenting a number of applications. We first show how non-interactive PoWorKs can be used to reduce spam email by forcing users sending an e-mail to either prove to the mail server they are approved contacts of the recipient or to perform computational work. As opposed to previous approaches that applied proofs of work to this problem, our proposal of using PoWorKs is privacy-preserving as it hides the list of the receiver’s approved contacts from the mail server. Our second application, shows how PoWorK can be used to compose cryptocurrencies that are based on proofs of work (“Bitcoin-like”) with cryptocurrencies that are based on knowledge relations (these include cryptocurrencies that are based on “proof of stake”, and others). The resulting PoWorK-based cryptocurrency inherits the robustness properties of the underlying two systems while PoWorK-indistinguishability ensures a uniform population of miners. Finally, we show that PoWorK protocols imply straight-line quasi-polynomial simulatable arguments of knowledge and based on our construction we obtain an efficient straight-line concurrent 3-move statistically quasi-polynomial simulatable argument of knowledge.

Foteini Baldimtsi, Aggelos Kiayias, Thomas Zacharias, Bingsheng Zhang

Multi-party Computation

Frontmatter

Size-Hiding Computation for Multiple Parties

Lindell, Nissim, and Orlandi (ASIACRYPT 2013) studied feasibility and infeasibility of general two-party protocols that hide not only the contents of the inputs of parties, but also some sizes of the inputs and/or the output. In this paper, we extend their results to n-party protocols for $$n \ge 2$$ , and prove that it is infeasible to securely compute every function while hiding two or more (input or output) sizes. Then, to circumvent the infeasibility, we naturally extend the communication model in a way that any adversary can learn neither the contents of the messages nor the numbers of bits exchanged among honest parties. We note that such “size-hiding”computation is never a trivial problem even by using our “size-hiding”channel, since size-hiding computation of some function remains infeasible as we show in the text. Then, as our main result, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for feasibility of size-hiding computation of an arbitrary function, in terms of which of the input and output sizes must be hidden from which of the n parties. In particular, it is now possible to let each input/output size be hidden from some parties, while the previous model only allows the size of at most one input to be hidden. Our results are based on a security model slightly stronger than the honest-but-curious model.

Kazumasa Shinagawa, Koji Nuida, Takashi Nishide, Goichiro Hanaoka, Eiji Okamoto

How to Circumvent the Two-Ciphertext Lower Bound for Linear Garbling Schemes

At EUROCRYPT 2015, Zahur et al. argued that all linear, and thus, efficient, garbling schemes need at least two k-bit elements to garble an AND gate with security parameter k. We show how to circumvent this lower bound, and propose an efficient garbling scheme which requires less than two k-bit elements per AND gate for most circuit layouts. Our construction slightly deviates from the linear garbling model, and constitutes no contradiction to any claims in the lower-bound proof. With our proof of concept construction, we hope to spur new ideas for more practical garbling schemes.Our construction can directly be applied to semi-private function evaluation by garbling XOR, XNOR, NAND, OR, NOR and AND gates in the same way, and keeping the evaluator oblivious of the gate function.

Carmen Kempka, Ryo Kikuchi, Koutarou Suzuki

Constant-Round Asynchronous Multi-Party Computation Based on One-Way Functions

Secure multi-party computation (MPC) allows several mutually distrustful parties to securely compute a joint function of their inputs and exists in two main variants: In synchronous MPC parties are connected by a synchronous network with a global clock, and protocols proceed in rounds with strong delivery guarantees, whereas asynchronous MPC protocols can be deployed even in networks that deliver messages in an arbitrary order and impose arbitrary delays on them.The two models—synchronous and asynchronous—have to a large extent developed in parallel with results on both feasibility and asymptotic efficiency improvements in either track. The most notable gap in this parallel development is with respect to round complexity. In particular, although under standard assumptions on a synchronous communication network (availability of secure channels and broadcast), synchronous MPC protocols with (exact) constant rounds have been constructed, to the best of our knowledge, thus far no constant-round asynchronous MPC protocols based on standard assumptions are known, with the best protocols requiring a number of rounds that is linear in the multiplicative depth of the arithmetic circuit computing the desired function.In this work we close this gap by providing the first constant-round asynchronous MPC protocol that is optimally resilient (i.e., it tolerates up to $$t<n/3$$ corrupted parties), adaptively secure, and makes black-box use of a pseudo-random function. It works under the standard network assumptions for protocols in the asynchronous MPC setting, namely, a complete network of point-to-point (secure) asynchronous channels with eventual delivery and asynchronous Byzantine agreement (aka consensus). We provide formal definitions of these primitives and a proof of security in the Universal Composability framework.

Sandro Coretti, Juan Garay, Martin Hirt, Vassilis Zikas

Reactive Garbling: Foundation, Instantiation, Application

Garbled circuits is a cryptographic technique, which has been used among other things for the construction of two and three-party secure computation, private function evaluation and secure outsourcing. Garbling schemes is a primitive which formalizes the syntax and security properties of garbled circuits. We define a generalization of garbling schemes called reactive garbling schemes. We consider functions and garbled functions taking multiple inputs and giving multiple outputs. Two garbled functions can be linked together: an encoded output of one garbled function can be transformed into an encoded input of the other garbled function without communication between the parties. Reactive garbling schemes also allow partial evaluation of garbled functions even when only some of the encoded inputs are provided. It is possible to further evaluate the linked garbled functions when more garbled inputs become available. It is also possible to later garble more functions and link them to the ongoing garbled evaluation. We provide rigorous definitions for reactive garbling schemes. We define a new notion of security for reactive garbling schemes called confidentiality. We provide both simulation based and indistinguishability based notions of security. We also show that the simulation based notion of security implies the indistinguishability based notion of security. We present an instantiation of reactive garbling schemes. We finally present an application of reactive garbling schemes to reactive two-party computation secure against a malicious, static adversary.

Jesper Buus Nielsen, Samuel Ranellucci

Backmatter

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