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Über dieses Buch

Crypto 2003, the 23rd Annual Crypto Conference, was sponsored by the Int- national Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) in cooperation with the IEEE Computer Society Technical Committee on Security and Privacy and the Computer Science Department of the University of California at Santa Barbara. The conference received 169 submissions, of which the program committee selected 34 for presentation. These proceedings contain the revised versions of the 34 submissions that were presented at the conference. These revisions have not been checked for correctness, and the authors bear full responsibility for the contents of their papers. Submissions to the conference represent cutti- edge research in the cryptographic community worldwide and cover all areas of cryptography. Many high-quality works could not be accepted. These works will surely be published elsewhere. The conference program included two invited lectures. Moni Naor spoke on cryptographic assumptions and challenges. Hugo Krawczyk spoke on the ‘SI- and-MAc’approachtoauthenticatedDi?e-HellmananditsuseintheIKEpro- cols. The conference program also included the traditional rump session, chaired by Stuart Haber, featuring short, informal talks on late-breaking research news. Assembling the conference program requires the help of many many people. To all those who pitched in, I am forever in your debt. I would like to ?rst thank the many researchers from all over the world who submitted their work to this conference. Without them, Crypto could not exist. I thank Greg Rose, the general chair, for shielding me from innumerable logistical headaches, and showing great generosity in supporting my e?orts.

Inhaltsverzeichnis

Frontmatter

Public Key Cryptanalysis I

Factoring Large Numbers with the TWIRL Device

The security of the RSA cryptosystem depends on the difficulty of factoring large integers. The best current factoring algorithm is the Number Field Sieve (NFS), and its most difficult part is the sieving step. In 1999 a large distributed computation involving hundreds of workstations working for many months managed to factor a 512-bit RSA key, but 1024-bit keys were believed to be safe for the next 15-20 years. In this paper we describe a new hardware implementation of the NFS sieving step (based on standard 0.13μm, 1GHz silicon VLSI technology) which is 3-4 orders of magnitude more cost effective than the best previously published designs (such as the optoelectronic TWINKLE and the mesh-based sieving). Based on a detailed analysis of all the critical components (but without an actual implementation), we believe that the NFS sieving step for 512-bit RSA keys can be completed in less than ten minutes by a $10K device. For 1024-bit RSA keys, analysis of the NFS parameters (backed by experimental data where possible) suggests that sieving step can be completed in less than a year by a $10 M device. Coupled with recent results about the cost of the NFS matrix step, this raises some concerns about the security of this key size.

Adi Shamir, Eran Tromer

New Partial Key Exposure Attacks on RSA

In 1998, Boneh, Durfee and Frankel [4] presented several attacks on RSA when an adversary knows a fraction of the secret key bits. The motivation for these so-called partial key exposure attacks mainly arises from the study of side-channel attacks on RSA. With side channel attacks an adversary gets either most significant or least significant bits of the secret key. The polynomial time algorithms given in [4] only work provided that the public key e is smaller than $N^{\frac{1}{2}}$. It was raised as an open question whether there are polynomial time attacks beyond this bound. We answer this open question in the present work both in the case of most and least significant bits. Our algorithms make use of Coppersmith’s heuristic method for solving modular multivariate polynomial equations [8]. For known most significant bits, we provide an algorithm that works for public exponents e in the interval [$N^{\frac{1}{2}}$, N0.725]. Surprisingly, we get an even stronger result for known least significant bits: An algorithm that works for all $e < N^{\frac{7}{8}}$.We also provide partial key exposure attacks on fast RSA-variants that use Chinese Remaindering in the decryption process (e.g. [20,21]). These fast variants are interesting for time-critical applications like smart-cards which in turn are highly vulnerable to side-channel attacks. The new attacks are provable. We show that for small public exponent RSA half of the bits of d p = d mod p-1 suffice to find the factorization of N in polynomial time. This amount is only a quarter of the bits of N and therefore the method belongs to the strongest known partial key exposure attacks.

Johannes Blömer, Alexander May

Algebraic Cryptanalysis of Hidden Field Equation (HFE) Cryptosystems Using Gröbner Bases

In this paper, we review and explain the existing algebraic cryptanalysis of multivariate cryptosystems from the hidden field equation (HFE) family. These cryptanalysis break cryptosystems in the HFE family by solving multivariate systems of equations. In this paper we present a new and efficient attack of this cryptosystem based on fast algorithms for computing Gröbner basis. In particular it was was possible to break the first HFE challenge (80 bits) in only two days of CPU time by using the new algorithm F5 implemented in C.From a theoretical point of view we study the algebraic properties of the equations produced by instance of the HFE cryptosystems and show why they yield systems of equations easier to solve than random systems of quadratic equations of the same sizes. Moreover we are able to bound the maximal degree occuring in the Gröbner basis computation.As a consequence, we gain a deeper understanding of the algebraic cryptanalysis against these cryptosystems. We use this understanding to devise a specific algorithm based on sparse linear algebra. In general, we conclude that the cryptanalysis of HFE can be performed in polynomial time. We also revisit the security estimates for existing schemes in the HFE family.

Jean-Charles Faugère, Antoine Joux

Alternate Adversary Models

On Constructing Locally Computable Extractors and Cryptosystems in the Bounded Storage Model

We consider the problem of constructing randomness extractors that are locally computable; that is, read only a small number of bits from their input. As recently shown by Lu (CRYPTO ‘02), locally computable extractors directly yield secure private-key cryptosystems in Maurer’s bounded storage model (J. Cryptology, 1992).We suggest a general “sample-then-extract” approach to constructing locally computable extractors. Plugging in known sampler and extractor constructions, we obtain locally computable extractors, and hence cryptosystems in the bounded storage model, whose parameters improve upon previous constructions and come quite close to the lower bounds.The correctness of this approach follows from a fundamental lemma of Nisan and Zuckerman (J. Computer and System Sciences, 1996), which states that sampling bits from a weak random source roughly preserves the min-entropy rate. We also present a refinement of this lemma, showing that the min-entropy rate is preserved up to an arbitrarily small additive loss, whereas the original lemma loses a logarithmic factor.

Salil P. Vadhan

Unconditional Authenticity and Privacy from an Arbitrarily Weak Secret

Unconditional cryptographic security cannot be generated simply from scratch, but must be based on some given primitive to start with (such as, most typically, a private key). Whether or not this implies that such a high level of security is necessarily impractical depends on how weak these basic primitives can be, and how realistic it is therefore to realize or find them in|classical or quantum|reality. A natural way of minimizing the required resources for information-theoretic security is to reduce the length of the private key. In this paper, we focus on the level of its secrecy instead and show that even if the communication channel is completely insecure, a shared string of which an arbitrarily large fraction is known to the adversary can be used for achieving fundamental cryptographic goals such as message authentication and encryption. More precisely, we give protocols|using such a weakly secret key|allowing for both the exchange of authenticated messages and the extraction of the key’s entire amount of privacy into a shorter virtually secret key. Our schemes, which are highly interactive, show the power of two-way communication in this context: Under the given conditions, the same objectives cannot be achieved by one-way communication only.

Renato Renner, Stefan Wolf

Invited Talk I

On Cryptographic Assumptions and Challenges

We deal with computational assumptions needed in order to design secure cryptographic schemes. We suggest a classification of such assumptions based on the complexity of falsifying them (in case they happen not to be true) by creating a challenge (competition) to their validity. As an outcome of this classification we propose several open problems regarding cryptographic tasks that currently do not have a good challenge of that sort. The most outstanding one is the design of an efficient block ciphers.

Moni Naor

Protocols

Scalable Protocols for Authenticated Group Key Exchange

We consider the fundamental problem of authenticated group key exchange among n parties within a larger and insecure public network. A number of solutions to this problem have been proposed; however, all provably-secure solutions thus far are not scalable and, in particular, require n rounds. Our main contribution is the first scalable protocol for this problem along with a rigorous proof of security in the standard model under the DDH assumption; our protocol uses a constant number of rounds and requires only O(1) modular exponentiations per user (for key derivation). Toward this goal and of independent interest, we first present a scalable compiler that transforms any group key-exchange protocol secure against a passive eavesdropper to an authenticated protocol which is secure against an active adversary who controls all communication in the network. This compiler adds only one round and O(1) communication (per user) to the original scheme. We then prove secure — against a passive adversary — a variant of the two-round group key-exchange protocol of Burmester and Desmedt. Applying our compiler to this protocol results in a provably-secure three-round protocol for authenticated group key exchange which also achieves forward secrecy.

Jonathan Katz, Moti Yung

Practical Verifiable Encryption and Decryption of Discrete Logarithms

This paper addresses the problem of designing practical protocols for proving properties about encrypted data. To this end, it presents a variant of the new public key encryption of Cramer and Shoup based on Paillier’s decision composite residuosity assumption, along with efficient protocols for verifiable encryption and decryption of discrete logarithms (and more generally, of representations with respect to multiple bases). This is the first verifiable encryption system that provides chosen ciphertext security and avoids inefficient cut-and-choose proofs. The presented protocols have numerous applications, including key escrow, optimistic fair exchange, publicly verifiable secret and signature sharing, universally composable commitments, group signatures, and confirmer signatures.

Jan Camenisch, Victor Shoup

Extending Oblivious Transfers Efficiently

We consider the problem of extending oblivious transfers: Given a small number of oblivious transfers “for free,” can one implement a large number of oblivious transfers? Beaver has shown how to extend oblivious transfers given a one-way function. However, this protocol is inefficient in practice, in part due to its non-black-box use of the underlying one-way function.We give efficient protocols for extending oblivious transfers in the random oracle model. We also put forward a new cryptographic primitive which can be used to instantiate the random oracle in our constructions. Our methods suggest particularly fast heuristics for oblivious transfer that may be useful in a wide range of applications.

Yuval Ishai, Joe Kilian, Kobbi Nissim, Erez Petrank

Symmetric Key Cryptanalysis I

Algebraic Attacks on Combiners with Memory

Recently, algebraic attacks were proposed to attack several cryptosystems, e.g. AES, LILI-128 and Toyocrypt. This paper extends the use of algebraic attacks to combiners with memory. A (k,l)-combiner consists of k parallel linear feedback shift registers (LFSRs), and the nonlinear filtering is done via a finite automaton with k input bits and l memory bits. It is shown that for (k,l)-combiners, nontrivial canceling relations of degree at most ⌈k(l+1)/2⌉ exist. This makes algebraic attacks possible. Also, a general method is presented to check for such relations with an even lower degree. This allows to show the invulnerability of certain (k,l)-combiners against this kind of algebraic attacks. On the other hand, this can also be used as a tool to find improved algebraic attacks.Inspired by this method, the E0 keystream generator from the Bluetooth standard is analyzed. As it turns out, a secret key can be recovered by solving a system of linear equations with 223.07 unknowns. To our knowledge, this is the best published attack on the E0 keystream generator yet.

Frederik Armknecht, Matthias Krause

Fast Algebraic Attacks on Stream Ciphers with Linear Feedback

Many popular stream ciphers apply a filter/combiner to the state of one or several LFSRs. Algebraic attacks on such ciphers [10,11] are possible, if there is a multivariate relation involving the key/state bits and the output bits. [1,2,10,11] show that such relations exist for several well known constructions of stream ciphers immune to all previously known attacks. In particular, they allow to break two ciphers using LFSRs and completely “well designed” Boolean functions: Toyocrypt and LILI-128, see [10,11]. similar algebraic attacks exist also for the stateful combiner construction used in Bluetooth keystream generator E0 [1]. More generally, in [2] it is proven that they can break in polynomial time, any combiner with a fixed number of inputs and a fixed number of memory bits.In this paper we present a method that allows to substantially reduce the complexity of all these attacks. We show that when the known keystream bits are consecutive, an important part of the equations will have a recursive structure, and this allows to partially replace the usual sub-cubic Gaussian algorithms for eliminating the monomials, by a much faster, essentially linear, version of the Berlekamp-Massey algorithm. The new method gives the fastest attack proposed so far for Toyocrypt, LILI-128 and the keystream generator that is used in E0 cipher. Moreover we present two new fast general algebraic attacks for stream ciphers using Boolean functions, applicable when the degree and/or the number of inputs is not too big.

Nicolas T. Courtois

Cryptanalysis of Safer++

This paper presents several multiset and boomerang attacks on Safer++ up to 5.5 out of its 7 rounds. These are the best known attacks for this cipher and significantly improve the previously known results. The attacks in the paper are practical up to 4 rounds. The methods developed to attack Safer++ can be applied to other substitution-permutation networks with incomplete diffusion.

Alex Biryukov, Christophe De Cannière, Gustaf Dellkrantz

Public Key Cryptanalysis II

A Polynomial Time Algorithm for the Braid Diffie-Hellman Conjugacy Problem

We propose the first polynomial time algorithm for the braid Diffie-Hellman conjugacy problem (DHCP) on which the braid key exchange scheme and the braid encryption scheme are based [9]. We show the proposed method solves the DHCP for the image of braids under the Lawrence-Krammer representation and the solutions play the equivalent role of the original key for the DHCP of braids. Given a braid index n and a canonical length l, the complexity is about O(n14.4l3.2) or O(n4τ + 2εl2ε) bit operations for τ = log2 7 ≈ 2.8 and ε> log2 3 ≈ 1.57.

Jung Hee Cheon, Byungheup Jun

The Impact of Decryption Failures on the Security of NTRU Encryption

NTRUEncrypt is unusual among public-key cryptosystems in that, with standard parameters, validly generated ciphertexts can fail to decrypt. This affects the provable security properties of a cryptosystem, as it limits the ability to build a simulator in the random oracle model without knowledge of the private key. We demonstrate attacks which use decryption failures to recover the private key. Such attacks work for all standard parameter sets, and one of them applies to any padding. The appropriate countermeasure is to change the parameter sets and possibly the decryption process so that decryption failures are vanishingly unlikely, and to adopt a padding scheme that prevents an attacker from directly controlling any part of the input to the encryption primitive. We outline one such candidate padding scheme.

Nick Howgrave-Graham, Phong Q. Nguyen, David Pointcheval, John Proos, Joseph H. Silverman, Ari Singer, William Whyte

Universal Composability

Universally Composable Efficient Multiparty Computation from Threshold Homomorphic Encryption

We present a new general multiparty computation protocol for the cryptographic scenario which is universally composable — in particular, it is secure against an active and adaptive adversary, corrupting any minority of the parties. The protocol is as efficient as the best known statically secure solutions, in particular the number of bits broadcast (which dominates the complexity) is Ω (nk |C|), where n is the number of parties, k is a security parameter, and |C| is the size of a circuit doing the desired computation. Unlike previous adaptively secure protocols for the cryptographic model, our protocol does not use non-committing encryption, instead it is based on homomorphic threshold encryption, in particular the Paillier cryptosystem.

Ivan Damgård, Jesper Buus Nielsen

Universal Composition with Joint State

Cryptographic systems often involve running multiple concurrent instances of some protocol, where the instances have some amount of joint state and randomness. (Examples include systems where multiple protocol instances use the same public-key infrastructure, or the same common reference string.) Rather than attempting to analyze the entire system as a single unit, we would like to be able to analyze each such protocol instance as stand-alone, and then use a general composition theorem to deduce the security of the entire system. However, no known composition theorem applies in this setting, since they all assume that the composed protocol instances have disjoint internal states, and that the internal random choices in the various executions are independent. We propose a new composition operation that can handle the case where different components have some amount of joint state and randomness, and demonstrate sufficient conditions for when the new operation preserves security. The new operation, which is called universal composition with joint state (and is based on the recently proposed universal composition operation), turns out to be very useful in a number of quite different scenarios such as those mentioned above.

Ran Canetti, Tal Rabin

Zero-Knowledge

Statistical Zero-Knowledge Proofs with Efficient Provers: Lattice Problems and More

We construct several new statistical zero-knowledge proofs with efficient provers, i.e. ones where the prover strategy runs in probabilistic polynomial time given an NP witness for the input string.Our first proof systems are for approximate versions of the Shorttest Vector Problem (SVP) and Closest Vector Problem (CVP), where the witness is simply a short vector in the lattice or a lattice vector close to the target, respectively. Our proof systems are in fact proofs of knowledge, and as a result, we immediately obtain efficient lattice-based identification schemes which can be implemented with arbitrary families of lattices in which the approximate SVP or CVP are hard.We then turn to the general question of whether all problems in SZK∩NP admit statistical zero-knowledge proofs with efficient provers. Towards this end, we give a statistical zero-knowledge proof system with an efficient prover for a natural restriction of Statistical Difference, a complete problem for SZK. We also suggest a plausible approach to resolving the general question in the positive.

Daniele Micciancio, Salil P. Vadhan

Derandomization in Cryptography

We give two applications of Nisan–Wigderson-type (“non-cryptographic”) pseudorandom generators in cryptography. Specifically, assuming the existence of an appropriate NW-type generator, we construct:1) A one-message witness-indistinguishable proof system for every language in NP, based on any trapdoor permutation. This proof system does not assume a shared random string or any setup assumption, so it is actually an “NP proof system.”2) A noninteractive bit commitment scheme based on any one-way function.The specific NW-type generator we need is a hitting set generator fooling nondeterministic circuits. It is known how to construct such a generator if E = TIME(2O(n)) has a function of nondeterministic circuit complexity 2Ω(n) (Miltersen and Vinodchandran, FOCS ‘99). Our witness-indistinguishable proofs are obtained by using the NW-type generator to derandomize the ZAPs of Dwork and Naor (FOCS ‘00). To our knowledge, this is the first construction of an NP proof system achieving a secrecy property.Our commitment scheme is obtained by derandomizing the interactive commitment scheme of Naor (J. Cryptology, 1991). Previous constructions of noninteractive commitment schemes were only known under incomparable assumptions.

Boaz Barak, Shien Jin Ong, Salil Vadhan

On Deniability in the Common Reference String and Random Oracle Model

We revisit the definitions of zero-knowledge in the Common Reference String (CRS) model and the Random Oracle (RO) model. We argue that even though these definitions syntactically mimic the standard zero-knowledge definition, they loose some of its spirit. In particular, we show that there exist a specific natural security property that is not captured by these definitions. This is the property of deniability. We formally define the notion of deniable zero-knowledge in these models and investigate the possibility of achieving it. Our results are different for the two models:Concerning the CRS model, we rule out the possibility of achieving deniable zero-knowledge protocols in “natural” settings where such protocols cannot already be achieved in plain model.In the RO model, on the other hand, we construct an efficient 2-round deniable zero-knowledge argument of knowledge, that preserves both the zero-knowledge property and the proof of knowledge property under concurrent executions (concurrent zero-knowledge and concurrent proof-of knowledge).

Rafael Pass

Algebraic Geometry

Primality Proving via One Round in ECPP and One Iteration in AKS

On August 2002, Agrawal, Kayal and Saxena announced the first deterministic and polynomial time primality testing algorithm. For an input n, the AKS algorithm runs in heuristic time Õ(log6 n). Verification takes roughly the same amount of time. On the other hand, the Elliptic Curve Primality Proving algorithm (ECPP), runs in random heuristic time Õ(log6 n) ( Õ(log5 n) if the fast multiplication is used), and generates certificates which can be easily verified. More recently, Berrizbeitia gave a variant of the AKS algorithm, in which some primes cost much less time to prove than a general prime does. Building on these celebrated results, this paper explores the possibility of designing a more efficient algorithm. A random primality proving algorithm with heuristic time complexity Õ(log4 n) is presented. It generates a certificate of primality which is Õ(log n) bits long and can be verified in deterministic time Õ(log4 n). The reduction in time complexity is achieved by first generalizing Berrizbeitia’s algorithm to one which has higher density of easily-proved primes. For a general prime, one round of ECPP is deployed to reduce its primality proof to the proof of a random easily-proved prime.

Qi Cheng

Torus-Based Cryptography

We introduce the concept of torus-based cryptography, give a new public key system called CEILIDH, and compare it to other discrete log based systems including Lucas-based systems and XTR. Like those systems, we obtain small key sizes. While Lucas-based systems and XTR are essentially restricted to exponentiation, we are able to perform multiplication as well. We also disprove the open conjectures from [2], and give a new algebro-geometric interpretation of the approach in that paper and of LUC and XTR.

Karl Rubin, Alice Silverberg

Public Key Constructions

Efficient Universal Padding Techniques for Multiplicative Trapdoor One-Way Permutation

Coron et al. proposed the ES-based scheme PSS-ES which realizes an encryption scheme and a signature scheme with a unique padding technique and key pair. The security of PSS-ES as an encryption scheme is based on the partial-domain one-wayness of the encryption permutation. In this paper, we propose new ES schemes OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES, and prove their security under the assumption of only the one-wayness of encryption permutation. OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES suit practical implementation because they use the same padding technique for encryption and for signature, and their security proof guarantees that we can prepare one key pair to realize encryption and signature in the same way as PSS-ES. Since one-wayness is a weaker assumption than partial-domain one-wayness, the proposed schemes offer tighter security than PSS-ES. Hence, we conclude that OAEP-ES, OAEP++-ES, and REACT-ES are more effective than PSS-ES. REACT-ES is the most practical approach in terms of the tightness of security and communication efficiency.

Yuichi Komano, Kazuo Ohta

Multipurpose Identity-Based Signcryption

A Swiss Army Knife for Identity-Based Cryptography

Identity-Based (IB) cryptography is a rapidly emerging approach to public-key cryptography that does not require principals to pre-compute key pairs and obtain certificates for their public keys—instead, public keys can be arbitrary identifiers such as email addresses, while private keys are derived at any time by a trusted private key generator upon request by the designated principals. Despite the flurry of recent results on IB encryption and signature, some questions regarding the security and efficiency of practicing IB encryption (IBE) and signature (IBS) as a joint IB signature/encryption (IBSE) scheme with a common set of parameters and keys, remain unanswered.We first propose a stringent security model for IBSE schemes. We require the usual strong security properties of: (for confidentiality) indistinguishability against adaptive chosen-ciphertext attacks, and (for non-repudiation) existential unforgeability against chosen-message insider attacks. In addition, to ensure as strong as possible ciphertext armoring, we also ask (for anonymity) that authorship not be transmitted in the clear, and (for unlinkability) that it remain unverifiable by anyone except (for authentication) by the legitimate recipient alone.We then present an efficient IBSE construction, based on bilinear pairings, that satisfies all these security requirements, and yet is as compact as pairing-based IBE and IBS in isolation. Our scheme is secure, compact, fast and practical, offers detachable signatures, and supports multi-recipient encryption with signature sharing for maximum scalability.

Xavier Boyen

Invited Talk II

SIGMA: The ‘SIGn-and-MAc’ Approach to Authenticated Diffie-Hellman and Its Use in the IKE Protocols

We present the SIGMA family of key-exchange protocols and the “SIGn-and-MAc” approach to authenticated Diffie-Hellman underlying its design. The SIGMA protocols provide perfect forward secrecy via a Diffie-Hellman exchange authenticated with digital signatures, and are specifically designed to ensure sound cryptographic key exchange while providing a variety of features and trade-offs required in practical scenarios (such as optional identity protection and reduced number of protocol rounds). As a consequence, the SIGMA protocols are very well suited for use in actual applications and for standardized key exchange. In particular, SIGMA serves as the cryptographic basis for the signature-based modes of the standardized Internet Key Exchange (IKE) protocol (versions 1 and 2).This paper describes the design rationale behind the SIGMA approach and protocols, and points out to many subtleties surrounding the design of secure key-exchange protocols in general, and identity-protecting protocols in particular. We motivate the design of SIGMA by comparing it to other protocols, most notable the STS protocol and its variants. In particular, it is shown how SIGMA solves some of the security shortcomings found in previous protocols.

Hugo Krawczyk

New Problems

On Memory-Bound Functions for Fighting Spam

In 1992, Dwork and Naor proposed that e-mail messages be accompanied by easy-to-check proofs of computational effort in order to discourage junk e-mail, now known as spam. They proposed specific CPU-bound functions for this purpose. Burrows suggested that, since memory access speeds vary across machines much less than do CPU speeds, memory-bound functions may behave more equitably than CPU-bound functions; this approach was first explored by Abadi, Burrows, Manasse, and Wobber [3].We further investigate this intriguing proposal. Specifically, we1) Provide a formal model of computation and a statement of the problem;2) Provide an abstract function and prove an asymptotically tight amortized lower bound on the number of memory accesses required to compute an acceptable proof of effort; specifically, we prove that, on average, the sender of a message must perform many unrelated accesses to memory, while the receiver, in order to verify the work, has to perform significantly fewer accesses;3) Propose a concrete instantiation of our abstract function, inspired by the RC4 stream cipher;4) Describe techniques to permit the receiver to verify the computation with no memory accesses;5) Give experimental results showing that our concrete memory-bound function is only about four times slower on a 233 MHz settop box than on a 3.06 GHz workstation, and that speedup of the function is limited even if an adversary knows the access sequence and uses optimal off-line cache replacement.

Cynthia Dwork, Andrew Goldberg, Moni Naor

Lower and Upper Bounds on Obtaining History Independence

History independent data structures, presented by Micciancio, are data structures that possess a strong security property: even if an intruder manages to get a copy of the data structure, the memory layout of the structure yields no additional information on the data structure beyond its content. In particular, the history of operations applied on the structure is not visible in its memory layout. Naor and Teague proposed a stronger notion of history independence in which the intruder may break into the system several times without being noticed and still obtain no additional information from reading the memory layout of the data structure.An open question posed by Naor and Teague is whether these two notions are equally hard to obtain. In this paper we provide a separation between the two requirements for comparison based algorithms. We show very strong lower bounds for obtaining the stronger notion of history independence for a large class of data structures, including, for example, the heap and the queue abstract data structures. We also provide complementary upper bounds showing that the heap abstract data structure may be made weakly history independent in the comparison based model without incurring any additional (asymptotic) cost on any of its operations. (A similar result is easy for the queue.) Thus, we obtain the first separation between the two notions of history independence. The gap we obtain is exponential: some operations may be executed in logarithmic time (or even in constant time) with the weaker definition, but require linear time with the stronger definition.

Niv Buchbinder, Erez Petrank

Private Circuits: Securing Hardware against Probing Attacks

Can you guarantee secrecy even if an adversary can eavesdrop on your brain? We consider the problem of protecting privacy in circuits, when faced with an adversary that can access a bounded number of wires in the circuit. This question is motivated by side channel attacks, which allow an adversary to gain partial access to the inner workings of hardware. Recent work has shown that side channel attacks pose a serious threat to cryptosystems implemented in embedded devices. In this paper, we develop theoretical foundations for security against side channels. In particular, we propose several efficient techniques for building private circuits resisting this type of attacks. We initiate a systematic study of the complexity of such private circuits, and in contrast to most prior work in this area provide a formal threat model and give proofs of security for our constructions.

Yuval Ishai, Amit Sahai, David Wagner

Symmetric Key Constructions

A Tweakable Enciphering Mode

We describe a block-cipher mode of operation, CMC, that turns an n-bit block cipher into a tweakable enciphering scheme that acts on strings of mn bits, where m ≥ 2. When the underlying block cipher is secure in the sense of a strong pseudorandom permutation (PRP), our scheme is secure in the sense of tweakable, strong PRP. Such an object can be used to encipher the sectors of a disk, in-place, offering security as good as can be obtained in this setting. CMC makes a pass of CBC encryption, xors in a mask, and then makes a pass of CBC decryption; no universal hashing, nor any other non-trivial operation beyond the block-cipher calls, is employed. Besides proving the security of CMC we initiate a more general investigation of tweakable enciphering schemes, considering issues like the non-malleability of these objects.

Shai Halevi, Phillip Rogaway

A Message Authentication Code Based on Unimodular Matrix Groups

We present a new construction based on modular groups. A novel element of our construction is to embed each input into a sequence of matrices with determinant ±1, the product of which yields the desired mac. We analyze using the invertibility and the arithmetic properties of the determinants of certain types of matrices; this may be of interest in other applications. Performance results on our preliminary implementations show the speed of our mac is competitive with recent fast mac algorithms, achieving 0.5 Gigabytes per second on a 1.06 GHz Celeron.

Matthew Cary, Ramarathnam Venkatesan

Luby-Rackoff: 7 Rounds Are Enough for 2 n(1 − ε) Security

In [3] M. Luby and C. Rackoff have proved that 3-round random Feistel schemes are secure against all adaptative chosen plaintext attacks when the number of queries is m ≪ 2n/2. Moreover, 4-round random Feistel schemes are also secure against all adaptative chosen plaintext and chosen ciphertext attacks when m ≪ 2n/2. It was shown later that these bounds are tight for 3 and 4 rounds (see [9] or [1]).In this paper our main results are that for every ε> 0, when m ≪ 2n(1 − ε):for 4 rounds or more, a random Feistel scheme is secure against known plaintext attacks (KPA).for 7 rounds or more it is secure against all adaptative chosen plaintext attacks (CPA).for 10 rounds or more it is secure against all adaptative chosen plaintext and chosen ciphertext attacks (CPCA).These results achieve the optimal value of m, since it is always possible to distinguish a random Feistel cipher from a truly random permutation with $\mathcal{O}(2^n)$ queries, given sufficient computing power.This paper solves an open problem of [1, 9] and [17]. It significantly improves the results of [13] that proves the security against only 2$^{\frac{3n}{4}}$ queries for 6 rounds, and the results of [6] in which the 2n(1 − ε) security is only obtained when the number of rounds tends to infinity. The proof technique used in this paper is also of independent interest and can be applied to other schemes.

Jacques Patarin

New Models

Weak Key Authenticity and the Computational Completeness of Formal Encryption

A significant effort has recently been made to rigorously relate the formal treatment of cryptography with the computational one. A first substantial step in this direction was taken by Abadi and Rogaway [AR02]. Considering a formal language that treats symmetric encryption, [AR02] show that an associated formal semantics is sound with respect to an associated computational semantics, under a particular, sufficient, condition on the computational encryption scheme. In this paper, we give a necessary and sufficient condition for completeness, tightly characterizing this aspect of the exposition. Our condition involves the ability to distinguish a ciphertext and the key it was encrypted with, from a ciphertext and a random key. It is shown to be strictly weaker than a previously suggested condition for completeness (confusion-freedom of Micciancio and Warinschi [MW02]), and should be of independent interest.

Omer Horvitz, Virgil Gligor

Plaintext Awareness via Key Registration

In this paper, we reconsider the notion of plaintext awareness. We present a new model for plaintext-aware encryption that is both natural and useful. We achieve plaintext-aware encryption without random oracles by using a third party. However, we do not need to trust the third party: even when the third party is dishonest, we still guarantee security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks. We show a construction that achieves this definition under general assumptions. We further motivate this achievement by showing an important and natural application: giving additional real-world meaningfulness to the Dolev-Yao model.

Jonathan Herzog, Moses Liskov, Silvio Micali

Relaxing Chosen-Ciphertext Security

Security against adaptive chosen ciphertext attacks (or, CCA security) has been accepted as the standard requirement from encryption schemes that need to withstand active attacks. In particular, it is regarded as the appropriate security notion for encryption schemes used as components within general protocols and applications. Indeed, CCA security was shown to suffice in a large variety of contexts. However, CCA security often appears to be somewhat too strong: there exist encryption schemes (some of which come up naturally in practice) that are not CCA secure, but seem sufficiently secure “for most practical purposes.”We propose a relaxed variant of CCA security, called Replayable CCA (RCCA) security. RCCA security accepts as secure the non-CCA (yet arguably secure) schemes mentioned above; furthermore, it suffices for most existing applications of CCA security. We provide three formulations of RCCA security. The first one follows the spirit of semantic security and is formulated via an ideal functionality in the universally composable security framework. The other two are formulated following the indistinguishability and non-malleability approaches, respectively. We show that the three formulations are equivalent in most interesting cases.

Ran Canetti, Hugo Krawczyk, Jesper B. Nielsen

Symmetric Key Cryptanalysis II

Password Interception in a SSL/TLS Channel

Simple password authentication is often used e.g. from an email software application to a remote IMAP server. This is frequently done in a protected peer-to-peer tunnel, e.g. by SSL/TLS.At Eurocrypt’02, Vaudenay presented vulnerabilities in padding schemes used for block ciphers in CBC mode. He used a side channel, namely error information in the padding verification. This attack was not possible against SSL/TLS due to both unavailability of the side channel (errors are encrypted) and premature abortion of the session in case of errors. In this paper we extend the attack and optimize it. We show it is actually applicable against latest and most popular implementations of SSL/TLS (at the time this paper was written) for password interception.We demonstrate that a password for an IMAP account can be intercepted when the attacker is not too far from the server in less than an hour in a typical setting.We conclude that these versions of the SSL/TLS implementations are not secure when used with block ciphers in CBC mode and propose ways to strengthen them. We also propose to update the standard protocol.

Brice Canvel, Alain Hiltgen, Serge Vaudenay, Martin Vuagnoux

Instant Ciphertext-Only Cryptanalysis of GSM Encrypted Communication

In this paper we present a very practical ciphertext-only cryptanalysis of GSM encrypted communication, and various active attacks on the GSM protocols. These attacks can even break into GSM networks that use “unbreakable” ciphers. We describe a ciphertext-only attack on A5/2 that requires a few dozen milliseconds of encrypted off-the-air cellular conversation and finds the correct key in less than a second on a personal computer. We then extend this attack to a (more complex) ciphertext-only attack on A5/1. We describe new attacks on the protocols of networks that use A5/1, A5/3, or even GPRS. These attacks are based on security flaws of the GSM protocols, and work whenever the mobile phone supports A5/2. We emphasize that these attacks are on the protocols, and are thus applicable whenever the cellular phone supports a weak cipher, for instance they are also applicable using the cryptanalysis of A5/1. Unlike previous attacks on GSM that require unrealistic information, like long known plaintext periods, our attacks are very practical and do not require any knowledge of the content of the conversation. These attacks allow attackers to tap conversations and decrypt them either in real-time, or at any later time. We also show active attacks, such as call hijacking, altering of data messages and call theft.

Elad Barkan, Eli Biham, Nathan Keller

Making a Faster Cryptanalytic Time-Memory Trade-Off

In 1980 Martin Hellman described a cryptanalytic time-memory trade-off which reduces the time of cryptanalysis by using precalculated data stored in memory. This technique was improved by Rivest before 1982 with the introduction of distinguished points which drastically reduces the number of memory lookups during cryptanalysis. This improved technique has been studied extensively but no new optimisations have been published ever since. We propose a new way of precalculating the data which reduces by two the number of calculations needed during cryptanalysis. Moreover, since the method does not make use of distinguished points, it reduces the overhead due to the variable chain length, which again significantly reduces the number of calculations. As an example we have implemented an attack on MS-Windows password hashes. Using 1.4GB of data (two CD-ROMs) we can crack 99.9% of all alphanumerical passwords hashes (237) in 13.6 seconds whereas it takes 101 seconds with the current approach using distinguished points. We show that the gain could be even much higher depending on the parameters used.

Philippe Oechslin

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